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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218906/differential-cytokine-contributions-of-perivascular-haematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#1
Noboru Asada, Yuya Kunisaki, Halley Pierce, Zichen Wang, Nicolas F Fernandez, Alexander Birbrair, Avi Ma'ayan, Paul S Frenette
Arterioles and sinusoids of the bone marrow (BM) are accompanied by stromal cells that express nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) and leptin receptor (LepR), and constitute specialized niches that regulate quiescence and proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, how niche cells differentially regulate HSC functions remains unknown. Here, we show that the effects of cytokines regulating HSC functions are dependent on the producing cell sources. Deletion of chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12) or stem cell factor (Scf) from all perivascular cells marked by nestin-GFP dramatically depleted BM HSCs...
February 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214986/astrocyte-sodium-signalling-and-panglial-spread-of-sodium-signals-in-brain-white-matter
#2
Behrouz Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Evelyn L Hammel, Karl W Kafitz, Christine R Rose
In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195192/ng2-glial-cells-regulate-neuroimmunological-responses-to-maintain-neuronal-function-and-survival
#3
Masayuki Nakano, Yasuhisa Tamura, Masanori Yamato, Satoshi Kume, Asami Eguchi, Kumi Takata, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Yosky Kataoka
NG2-expressing neural progenitor cells (i.e., NG2 glial cells) maintain their proliferative and migratory activities even in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and produce myelinating oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Although NG2 glial cells have been observed in close proximity to neuronal cell bodies in order to receive synaptic inputs, substantive non-proliferative roles of NG2 glial cells in the adult CNS remain unclear. In the present study, we generated NG2-HSVtk transgenic rats and selectively ablated NG2 glial cells in the adult CNS...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191776/clinical-grade-isolated-human-kidney-perivascular-stromal-cells-as-an-organotypic-cell-source-for-kidney-regenerative-medicine
#4
Daniëlle G Leuning, Marlies E J Reinders, Joan Li, Anna J Peired, Ellen Lievers, Hetty C de Boer, Willem E Fibbe, Paola Romagnani, Cees van Kooten, Melissa H Little, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are immunomodulatory and tissue homeostatic cells that have shown beneficial effects in kidney diseases and transplantation. Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) identified within several different organs share characteristics of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). These PSCs may also possess tissue-specific properties and play a role in local tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that human kidney-derived PSCs (hkPSCs) would elicit improved kidney repair in comparison with BM-MSCs...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191774/novel-peripherally-derived-neural-like-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-carriers-for-treating-glioblastomas
#5
Alexander Birbrair, Anirudh Sattiraju, Dongqin Zhu, Gilberto Zulato, Izadora Batista, Van T Nguyen, Maria Laura Messi, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Frank C Marini, Osvaldo Delbono, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor characterized by extensive invasiveness, heterogeneity, and angiogenesis. Standard treatment options such as radiation and chemotherapy have proven to be only marginally effective in treating GBM because of its invasive nature. Therefore, extensive efforts have been put forth to develop tumor-tropic stem cells as viable therapeutic vehicles with potential to treat even the most invasive tumor cells that are harbored within areas of normal brain...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170170/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-as-a-source-of-perivascular-stem-cells-with-increased-chondrogenic-potential-for-regenerative-medicine
#6
Paul Hindle, Nusrat Khan, Leela Biant, Bruno Péault
Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131704/notch3-deficiency-impairs-coronary-microvascular-maturation-and-reduces-cardiac-recovery-after-myocardial-ischemia
#7
Yong-Kang Tao, Heng Zeng, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Sean T Chen, Xue-Jiao Xie, Xiaochen He, Shuo Wang, Hongyan Wen, Jian-Xiong Chen
RATIONALE: Vascular maturation plays an important role in wound repair post-myocardial infarction (MI). The Notch3 is critical for pericyte recruitment and vascular maturation during embryonic development. OBJECTIVE: This study is to test whether Notch3 deficiency impairs vascular maturation and blunts cardiac functional recovery post-MI. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wild type (WT) and Notch3 knockout (Notch3KO) mice were subjected to MI by the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD)...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092084/iron-availability-compromises-not-only-oligodendrocytes-but-also-astrocytes-and-microglial-cells
#8
Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Leandro Marziali, María Eugenia Guitart, Maria Elvira Badaracco, Mariana Puntel, Fernando Pitossi, Jorge Correale, Juana Maria Pasquini
When disrupted, iron homeostasis negatively impacts oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and impairs myelination. To better understand myelin formation and OLG maturation, in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) not only on OLG maturation but also on astrocytes (AST) and microglial cells (MG). In vivo experiments in an ID model were carried out to describe maturational events during OLG and AST development and the reactive profile of MG during myelination when iron availability is lower than normal...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071826/gat-1-mediated-gaba-uptake-in-rat-oligodendrocytes
#9
Giorgia Fattorini, Marcello Melone, María Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Rogelio O Arellano, Silvia Bassi, Carlos Matute, Fiorenzo Conti
Stimulated by the results of a recent paper on the effects of tiagabine, a selective inhibitor of the main GABA transporter GAT-1, on oligodendrogenesis, we verified the possibility that GAT-1 may be expressed in oligodendrocytes using immunocytochemical methods and functional assays. Light microscopic analysis of the subcortical white matter of all animals revealed the presence of numerous GAT-1+ cells of different size (from 3 to 29 µm) and morphology. An electron microscope analysis revealed that, besides fibrous astrocytes and interstitial neurons, GAT-1 immunoreactivity was present in immature and mature oligodendrocytes...
March 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908803/pericytes-integral-components-of-adult-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#10
REVIEW
D Sá da Bandeira, J Casamitjana, M Crisan
The interest in perivascular cells as a niche for adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is significantly growing. In the adult bone marrow (BM), perivascular cells and HSCs cohabit. Among perivascular cells, pericytes are precursors of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. In situ, pericytes are recognised by their localisation to the abluminal side of the blood vessel wall and closely associated with endothelial cells, in combination with the expression of markers such as CD146, neural glial 2 (NG2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), nestin (Nes) and/or leptin receptor (LepR)...
November 28, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905041/new-xymedon-analogues-for-stimulation-of-posttraumatic-regeneration-of-the-spinal-cord-in-rats
#11
T V Povysheva, V E Semenov, I V Galyametdinova, V S Reznik, K S Knni, P E Kolesnikov, Yu A Chelyshev
Effect of systemic administration of synthetic pyrimidine derivatives, xymedon and compounds 29D and 34D, was studied in rats with experimental dosed contusion spinal cord injury. Xymedon promoted recovery of motor function after injury. Compounds 29D and 34D more effectively restored the parameters of open-field and Rotarod tests in comparison with xymedon. Compound 29D more effectively than xymedon maintained the number of Olig2(+) oligodendrocytes in the corticospinal tract and NG2 cells in all investigated areas of the white matter...
December 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871176/in-vivo-angiogenic-capacity-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-with-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#13
Ji-Hye Kim, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Hee Jang Pyeon, Jae Cheoun Lee, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring adequate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and CD146 as pericyte markers...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812322/tamoxifen-in-the-mouse-brain-implications-for-fate-mapping-studies-using-the-tamoxifen-inducible-cre-loxp-system
#14
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Denisa Kirdajova, Zdenek Kamenik, Miroslava Anderova
The tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP system is widely used to overcome gene targeting pre-adult lethality, to modify a specific cell population at desired time-points, and to visualize and trace cells in fate-mapping studies. In this study we focused on tamoxifen degradation kinetics, because for all genetic fate-mapping studies, the period during which tamoxifen or its metabolites remain active in the CNS, is essential. Additionally, we aimed to define the tamoxifen administration scheme, enabling the maximal recombination rate together with minimal animal mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807896/transient-cnp-expression-by-early-progenitors-causes-cre-lox-based-reporter-lines-to-map-profoundly-different-fates
#15
Reshmi Tognatta, Wenjing Sun, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Akiko Nishiyama, Susanne Schoch, Leda Dimou, Dirk Dietrich
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex...
February 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798140/conditional-deletion-of-the-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-affects-postnatal-myelination-in-mice
#16
Veronica T Cheli, Diara A Santiago González, Tenzing Namgyal Lama, Vilma Spreuer, Vance Handley, Geoffrey G Murphy, Pablo M Paez
: To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2(KO)) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778377/dynamics-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-expression-in-different-cell-types-after-brain-injury
#17
Jenni Kyyriäinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated after brain injury and its depletion results in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We investigated the time-window and localization of PDGFRβ expression in mice with intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) and in rats with lateral fluid-percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tissue immunohistochemistry was evaluated at several time-points after SE and TBI. The distribution of PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double/triple-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), NG2 cells, and endothelial cells (RECA-1)...
February 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768001/diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-induces-a-transient-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-injured-white-matter-tracts
#18
Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765579/antisera-against-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-cross-react-with-specific-brain-proteins-of-the-common-marmoset-monkey-and-other-nonhuman-primate-species
#19
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744291/refilins-are-short-lived-actin-bundling-proteins-that-regulate-lamellipodium-protrusion-dynamics
#20
Olivia Gay, Benoît Gilquin, Nicole Assard, Pascal Stuelsatz, Christian Delphin, Joël Lachuer, Xavier Gidrol, Jacques Baudier
Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are members of a novel family of Filamin binding proteins that function as molecular switches to conformationally alter the Actin filament network into bundles. We show here that Refilins are extremely labile proteins. An N-terminal PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif mediates ubiquitin-independent rapid degradation. A second degradation signal is localized within the C-terminus. Only RefilinB is protected from rapid degradation by an auto-inhibitory domain that masks the PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
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