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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#1
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715802/nerve-glial-antigen-2-a-novel-target-for-anti-tumor-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Cem Cengiz, Safak Bulut, A Sedat Boyacioglu, M Ayhan Kuzu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To identify cell surface markers selectively expressed by tumor cells and tumor vasculature is the current goal for tumor therapy. One such marker is nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2), which is a transmembrane glycoprotein. We aimed to investigate the expression of NG2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its association with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of NG2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CD34 in 65 patients diagnosed with CRC over a 5-year period was performed...
July 18, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701175/isolation-and-characterization-of-equine-endometrial-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#3
B Elisabeth Rink, Karin R Amilon, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
BACKGROUND: Equine mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are most commonly harvested from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue, requiring the use of surgical procedures. By contrast, the uterus can be accessed nonsurgically, and may provide a more readily available cell source. While human endometrium is known to harbor mesenchymal precursor cells, MSCs have not been identified in equine endometrium. This study reports the isolation, culture, and characterization of MSCs from equine endometrium...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694334/loss-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex1-in-adult-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-enhances-axon-remyelination-and-increases-myelin-thickness-after-a-focal-demyelination
#4
Lauren E McLane, Jennifer N Bourne, Angelina V Evangelou, Luipa Khandker, Wendy B Macklin, Teresa L Wood
While the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an essential regulator of developmental oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, oligodendrocyte-specific deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a major upstream inhibitor of mTOR, surprisingly also leads to hypomyelination during CNS development. However, the function of TSC has not been studied in the context of remyelination. Here, we utilized the inducible Cre-lox system to study the function of TSC in the remyelination of a focal, lysolecithin demyelinated lesion in adult male mice...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684344/inhibition-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-reduces-reactive-glia-and-scar-formation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#5
Dan Pei, Nan Liu, Dan Li, Hongjing Yan, Qiu-Bo Wang, Yan Fang, Ling Xie, Hong-Peng Li
Brain injury leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system. As the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Here we investigated the roles of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating astrocyte reactivity and scar formation in mice following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The expression and distribution of phosphorylated PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (IBA1), oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) (NG2) and leukocytes (CD45)...
July 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657129/acetyl-coa-production-from-pyruvate-is-not-necessary-for-preservation-of-myelin
#6
Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Lauren Mueller, Nicholas Silvestri, Mulchand S Patel, Lawrence Wrabetz, M Laura Feltri, Yannick Poitelon
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells not only form myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also provide metabolic and trophic support to the axons they ensheathe. Acetyl-CoA is potentially a key molecule in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes because it is at the crossroads of cellular lipid biosynthesis and energy generation. The main route for acetyl-CoA production is the oxidation of pyruvate by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC deficiency in humans results in neurodegeneration and developmental impairments in both white and gray matter structures...
June 28, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647856/glial-and-neuronal-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-alpha-ptp%C3%AE-regulate-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#7
Yuda Shih, Philip T T Ly, Jing Wang, Catherine J Pallen
CNS myelination defects occur in mice deficient in receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTPα). Here, we investigated the role of PTPα in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination using cells and tissues from wild-type (WT) and PTPα knockout (KO) mice. PTPα promoted the timely differentiation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Compared to WT OPCs, KO OPC cultures had more NG2+ progenitors, fewer myelin basic protein (MBP)+ oligodendrocytes, and reduced morphological complexity...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643756/is-neuroglial-antigen-2-a-potential-contributor-to-cilengitide-response-in-glioblastoma
#8
Hatice Sevim Nalkiran, Kerrie Leanne McDonald
BACKGROUND: Determining the expression levels of neuroglial antigen 2 (NG2) in glioma cell lines and to evaluate the potential contribution of NG2 to cilengitide response were aimed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endogenous expression level of NG2 was determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Cilengitide responses of the cells were monitored to determine half maximal inhibitory concentration values. Whether the suppression of NG2 expression alters the response of A172 cells to cilengitide was examined...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634469/alexander-disease-mutations-produce-cells-with-coexpression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-ng2-in-neurosphere-cultures-and-inhibit-differentiation-into-mature-oligodendrocytes
#9
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Maria Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, María Durán-Moreno, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#10
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627746/hepatic-perivascular-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-myogenic-properties
#11
Sudheer Shenoy P, Bipasha Bose
Pericytes are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located on the walls of blood vessels in various organs and are characterized as CD146(+) cells.. In this study, we have first immunohistochemically detected such pericytes in the perivascular regions of liver from two mouse genotypes namely wild-type (WT) and myostatin null (Mstn(-/-) ). We further isolated such pericytes using sorting as CD146(+) CD34(-) CD56(-) CD45(-) cells. The main finding of this study involve the contrasting -fibrogenic versus myogenic behavior of liver pericytes from WTMstn(-/-) ) mouse respectively...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621170/therapeutic-efficacy-of-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-versus-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Saurabh Pratap Singh, Sachin Hanumantrao Jadhav, Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi, Soniya Nityanand
AIM: In this study, we have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of mouse multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPCs) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and compared it with mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs). MATERIALS & METHODS: We administered PKH26-labeled mMAPC and mMSC into EAE mice and evaluated their therapeutic efficacy. RESULTS: The mMAPC-treated mice in comparison with the mMSC group exhibited a higher suppression of EAE (p < 0...
June 16, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614918/the-significance-of-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-axis-in-in-vivo-angiogenic-ability-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#13
Yoon-Kyung Bae, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae Cheoun Lee, Byoung-Moo Seo, Kyeung-Min Joo, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from periodontium and have mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics. Recently, the perivascular region was recognized as the developmental origin of MSCs, which suggests the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. In this study, we investigated whether PDLSCs could be a potential source of perivascular cells, which could contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. PDLSCs exhibited typical MSC-like characteristics such as the expression pattern of surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105) and differentiation potentials (osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation)...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608561/angiogenic-and-restorative-abilities-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-were-reduced-following-treatment-with-serum-from-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-patients
#14
Jafar Rezaie, Malek S Mehranjani, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad A Shariatzadeh
This experiment investigated the impact of serum from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on the angiogenic behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Changes in the level of Ang-1, Ang-2, cell migration, and trans-differentiation into pericytes and endothelial lineage were monitored after 7 days. The interaction of mesenchymal stem cells with endothelial cells were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance technique. Paracrine restorative effect of diabetic stem cells was tested on pancreatic β cells...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605361/isolation-of-type-i-and-type-ii-pericytes-from-mouse-skeletal-muscles
#15
Abhijit Nirwane, Jyoti Gautam, Yao Yao
Pericytes are perivascular multipotent cells that show heterogeneity in different organs or even within the same tissue. In skeletal muscles, there are at least two pericyte subpopulations (called type I and type II), which express different molecular markers and have distinct differentiation capabilities. Using NG2-DsRed and Nestin-GFP double-transgenic mice, type I (NG2-DsRed(+)Nestin-GFP(-)) and type II (NG2-DsRed(+)Nestin-GFP(+)) pericytes have been successfully isolated. However, the availability of these double-transgenic mice prevents the widespread use of this purification method...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596976/endogenous-brain-repair-overriding-intrinsic-lineage-determinates-through-injury-induced-micro-environmental-signals
#16
Kathryn S Jones, Bronwen Connor
Adult human neurogenesis has generated excitement over the last 2 decades with the idea that endogenous adult stem cells could act as a potential cell source for brain repair after injury. Indeed, many forms of experimentally induced brain injury including stroke and excitotoxic lesioning can promote proliferation from the subventricular zone and mobilise neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to migrate through brain parenchyma to damaged regions. However the failure of neuroblasts to mature into appropriate neuronal subtypes for cell replacement has been an issue...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594400/the-role-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-expressing-the-gpr17-receptor-in-brain-remodeling-after-stroke
#17
Elisabetta Bonfanti, Paolo Gelosa, Marta Fumagalli, Leda Dimou, Francesca Viganò, Elena Tremoli, Mauro Cimino, Luigi Sironi, Maria P Abbracchio
Following stroke-induced neuronal damage, quiescent oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are activated to proliferate and later to differentiate to myelin-producing cells. GPR17, a receptor transiently expressed on early OPCs, has emerged as a target to implement stroke repair through stimulation of OPC maturation. However, being GPR17 completely downregulated in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, its actual role in determining the final fate of OPCs after cerebral ischemia is still uncertain. Here, to univocally define the spatiotemporal changes and final fate of GPR17-expressing OPCs, we induced ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in reporter GPR17iCreER(T2):CAG-eGreen florescent protein (GFP) mice, in which, upon tamoxifen treatment, cells expressing GPR17 become green and traceable for their entire life...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589165/effects-of-fumarates-on-inflammatory-human-astrocyte-responses-and-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#18
Dylan A Galloway, John B Williams, Craig S Moore
OBJECTIVE: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a fumaric acid ester approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In both the brain and periphery, DMF and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to compare the effects of DMF and MMF on inflammatory and antioxidant pathways within astrocytes, a critical supporting glial cell in the central nervous system (CNS). Direct effects of fumarates on neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation toward the oligodendrocyte lineage were also assessed...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588623/angiogenic-capacity-of-dental-pulp-stem-cell-regulated-by-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-axis
#19
Hyun Nam, Gee-Hye Kim, Yoon-Kyung Bae, Da-Eun Jeong, Kyeung-Min Joo, Kyunghoon Lee, Sun-Ho Lee
Previously, the perivascular characteristics of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were reported, which suggested the potential application of DPSCs as perivascular cell source. In this study, we investigated whether DPSCs had angiogenic capacity by coinjection with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vivo; in addition, we determined the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF-1α) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in the mutual interaction between DPSCs and HUVECs. Primarily isolated DPSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) like characteristics...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567522/ng2-plays-a-role-in-neuroinflammation-but-is-not-expressed-by-immune-cells
#20
Maja Kitic, Khalad Karram, Nicole Israel, Nir Yogev, Sonja M Lacher, Yilang Tang, Hatice Yigit, Jan Bauer, Florian Wanke, Anela Knezovic, Jacqueline Trotter, Florian C Kurschus, Ari Waisman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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