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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899915/conditional-deletion-of-the-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2-in-ng2-positive-cells-impairs-remyelination-in-mice
#1
Diara A Santiago González, Veronica T Cheli, Norma N Zamora, Tenzing N Lama, Vilma Spreuer, Geoffrey G Murphy, Pablo M Paez
Exploring the molecular mechanisms that drive the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) during the remyelination process is essential to develop new therapeutic tools to intervene in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis. To determine whether L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are required for OPC development during remyelination, we have generated an inducible conditional knockout mouse in which the L-VGCC isoform Cav1.2 was deleted in NG2 positive OPCs (Cav1.2(KO))...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844658/direct-reprogramming-of-resident-ng2-glia-into-neurons-with-properties-of-fast-spiking-parvalbumin-containing-interneurons
#2
Maria Pereira, Marcella Birtele, Shelby Shrigley, Julio Aguila Benitez, Eva Hedlund, Malin Parmar, Daniella Rylander Ottosson
Converting resident glia into functional and subtype-specific neurons in vivo by delivering reprogramming genes directly to the brain provides a step forward toward the possibility of treating brain injuries or diseases. To date, it has been possible to obtain GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons via in vivo conversion, but the precise phenotype of these cells has not yet been analyzed in detail. Here, we show that neurons reprogrammed using Ascl1, Lmx1a, and Nurr1 functionally mature and integrate into existing brain circuitry and that the majority of the reprogrammed neurons have properties of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing interneurons...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836295/microglia-may-compensate-for-dopaminergic-neuron-loss-in-experimental-parkinsonism-through-selective-elimination-of-glutamatergic-synapses-from-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#3
Hitomi Aono, Mohammed Emamussalehin Choudhury, Hiromi Higaki, Kazuya Miyanishi, Yuka Kigami, Kohdai Fujita, Jun-Ichi Akiyama, Hisaaki Takahashi, Hajime Yano, Madoka Kubo, Noriko Nishikawa, Masahiro Nomoto, Junya Tanaka
Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms do not become apparent until most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) degenerate, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms play a role. Here, we investigated the compensatory involvement of activated microglia in the SN pars reticulata (SNr) and the globus pallidus (GP) in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced rat hemiparkinsonism model. Activated microglia accumulated more markedly in the SNr than in the SNc in the model. The cells had enlarged somata and expressed phagocytic markers CD68 and NG2 proteoglycan in a limited region of the SNr, where synapsin I- and postsynaptic density 95-immunoreactivities were reduced...
August 24, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827179/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-are-paired-with-gaba-neurons-in-the-mouse-dorsal-cortex-unbiased-stereological-analysis
#4
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during early stages of post-natal life. However, OPCs persist beyond developmental myelination and represent an important population of cycling cells in the gray and white matter of the adult brain. While adult OPCs form unique territories that are maintained through self-avoidance, some cortical OPCs appear to position their cell body very close to that of a neuron, forming what are known as OPC-neuron pairs...
August 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809840/a-novel-clinical-grade-isolation-method-for-human-kidney-perivascular-stromal-cells
#5
Daniëlle G Leuning, Ellen Lievers, Marlies E J Reinders, Cees van Kooten, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are tissue homeostatic and immune modulatory cells that have shown beneficial effects in kidney diseases and transplantation. Perivascular Stromal Cells (PSCs) share characteristics with bone marrow MSCs (bmMSCs). However, they also possess, most likely due to local imprinting, tissue-specific properties and play a role in local tissue homeostasis. This tissue specificity may result in tissue specific repair, also within the human kidney. We previously showed that human kidney PSCs (kPSCs) have enhanced kidney epithelial wound healing whereas bmMSCs did not have this potential...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#6
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791751/the-gene-network-underlying-the-glial-regenerative-response-to-central-nervous-system-injury
#7
REVIEW
Kentaro Kato, Maria Losada-Perez, Alicia Hidalgo
Although the central nervous system does not regenerate, injury induces repair and regenerative responses in glial cells. In mammals, activated microglia clear up apoptotic cells and debris resulting from the injury, astrocytes form a scar that contains the lesion, and NG2-glia elicit a prominent regenerative response. NG2-glia regenerate themselves and differentiate into oligodendrocytes, which remyelinate axons leading to some recovery of locomotion. The regenerative response of glial cells is evolutionarily conserved across the animals and Drosophila genetics revealed an underlying gene network...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752390/pdgfr%C3%AE-p2a-creer-t2-mice-a-genetic-tool-to-target-pericytes-in-angiogenesis
#8
Henar Cuervo, Brianna Pereira, Taliha Nadeem, Mika Lin, Frances Lee, Jan Kitajewski, Chyuan-Sheng Lin
Pericytes are essential mural cells distinguished by their association with small caliber blood vessels and the presence of a basement membrane shared with endothelial cells. Pericyte interaction with the endothelium plays an important role in angiogenesis; however, very few tools are currently available that allow for the targeting of pericytes in mouse models, limiting our ability to understand their biology. We have generated a novel mouse line expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase under the control of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β promoter: PDGFRβ-P2A-CreER (T2) ...
July 27, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751784/rapid-generation-of-opc-like-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Dae-Sung Kim, Se Jung Jung, Jae Souk Lee, Bo Young Lim, Hyun Ah Kim, Jeong-Eun Yoo, Dong-Wook Kim, Joong Woo Leem
Remyelination via the transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been considered as a strategy to improve the locomotor deficits caused by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, enormous efforts have been made to derive OPCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), and significant progress in the transplantation of such cells in SCI animal models has been reported. The current methods generally require a long period of time (>2 months) to obtain transplantable OPCs, which hampers their clinical utility for patients with SCI...
July 28, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#10
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715802/nerve-glial-antigen-2-a-novel-target-for-anti-tumor-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Cem Cengiz, Safak Bulut, A Sedat Boyacioglu, M Ayhan Kuzu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To identify cell surface markers selectively expressed by tumor cells and tumor vasculature is the current goal for tumor therapy. One such marker is nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2), which is a transmembrane glycoprotein. We aimed to investigate the expression of NG2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its association with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of NG2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CD34 in 65 patients diagnosed with CRC over a 5-year period was performed...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701175/isolation-and-characterization-of-equine-endometrial-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#12
B Elisabeth Rink, Karin R Amilon, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
BACKGROUND: Equine mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are most commonly harvested from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue, requiring the use of surgical procedures. By contrast, the uterus can be accessed nonsurgically, and may provide a more readily available cell source. While human endometrium is known to harbor mesenchymal precursor cells, MSCs have not been identified in equine endometrium. This study reports the isolation, culture, and characterization of MSCs from equine endometrium...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694334/loss-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex1-in-adult-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-enhances-axon-remyelination-and-increases-myelin-thickness-after-a-focal-demyelination
#13
Lauren E McLane, Jennifer N Bourne, Angelina V Evangelou, Luipa Khandker, Wendy B Macklin, Teresa L Wood
Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an essential regulator of developmental oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, oligodendrocyte-specific deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a major upstream inhibitor of mTOR, surprisingly also leads to hypomyelination during CNS development. However, the function of TSC has not been studied in the context of remyelination. Here, we used the inducible Cre-lox system to study the function of TSC in the remyelination of a focal, lysolecithin-demyelinated lesion in adult male mice...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684344/inhibition-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-reduces-reactive-glia-and-scar-formation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#14
Dan Pei, Nan Liu, Dan Li, Hongjing Yan, Qiu-Bo Wang, Yan Fang, Ling Xie, Hong-Peng Li
Brain injury leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system. As the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Here we investigated the roles of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating astrocyte reactivity and scar formation in mice following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The expression and distribution of phosphorylated PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (IBA1), oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) (NG2) and leukocytes (CD45)...
July 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657129/acetyl-coa-production-from-pyruvate-is-not-necessary-for-preservation-of-myelin
#15
Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Lauren Mueller, Nicholas Silvestri, Mulchand S Patel, Lawrence Wrabetz, M Laura Feltri, Yannick Poitelon
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells not only form myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also provide metabolic and trophic support to the axons they ensheathe. Acetyl-CoA is potentially a key molecule in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes because it is at the crossroads of cellular lipid biosynthesis and energy generation. The main route for acetyl-CoA production is the oxidation of pyruvate by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC deficiency in humans results in neurodegeneration and developmental impairments in both white and gray matter structures...
October 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647856/glial-and-neuronal-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-alpha-ptp%C3%AE-regulate-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#16
Yuda Shih, Philip T T Ly, Jing Wang, Catherine J Pallen
CNS myelination defects occur in mice deficient in receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTPα). Here, we investigated the role of PTPα in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination using cells and tissues from wild-type (WT) and PTPα knockout (KO) mice. PTPα promoted the timely differentiation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Compared to WT OPCs, KO OPC cultures had more NG2+ progenitors, fewer myelin basic protein (MBP)+ oligodendrocytes, and reduced morphological complexity...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643756/is-neuroglial-antigen-2-a-potential-contributor-to-cilengitide-response-in-glioblastoma
#17
Hatice Sevim Nalkiran, Kerrie Leanne McDonald
BACKGROUND: Determining the expression levels of neuroglial antigen 2 (NG2) in glioma cell lines and to evaluate the potential contribution of NG2 to cilengitide response were aimed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endogenous expression level of NG2 was determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Cilengitide responses of the cells were monitored to determine half maximal inhibitory concentration values. Whether the suppression of NG2 expression alters the response of A172 cells to cilengitide was examined...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634469/alexander-disease-mutations-produce-cells-with-coexpression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-ng2-in-neurosphere-cultures-and-inhibit-differentiation-into-mature-oligodendrocytes
#18
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Maria Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, María Durán-Moreno, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#19
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627746/hepatic-perivascular-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-myogenic-properties
#20
Sudheer Shenoy P, Bipasha Bose
Pericytes are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located on the walls of blood vessels in various organs and are characterized as CD146(+) cells.. In this study, we have first immunohistochemically detected such pericytes in the perivascular regions of liver from two mouse genotypes namely wild-type (WT) and myostatin null (Mstn(-/-) ). We further isolated such pericytes using sorting as CD146(+) CD34(-) CD56(-) CD45(-) cells. The main finding of this study involve the contrasting -fibrogenic versus myogenic behavior of liver pericytes from WTMstn(-/-) ) mouse respectively...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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