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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775846/reproductive-stage-and-sex-steroid-hormone-levels-influence-the-expression-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-msc-markers-in-the-equine-endometrium
#1
B Elisabeth Rink, Juliane Kuhl, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) play key roles in tissue homeostasis. In the cyclic equine endometrium, this may be regulated by changes in serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones. This study was designed to investigate the changes in endometrial expression of MSC markers during reproductive cycles in mares and the influence of sex steroid hormones on endometrial MSC proliferation in vitro. Endometrial biopsies were collected from pony mares at different reproductive stages (estrus; day 5 and 13 after ovulation; seasonal anestrus; 20 h and 7days post-partum; n = 5 per stage) and were analyzed by RT-qPCR...
May 4, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770525/establishment-and-characterization-of-an-embryonic-pericyte-cell-line
#2
Huaning Zhao, Jordan Darden, John C Chappell
OBJECTIVE: Pericytes are specialized perivascular cells embedded within the basement membrane. These cells envelope the abluminal surface of endothelial cells and promote microvessel homeostasis. Recent discoveries of unique pericyte functions, particularly in neural tissues, underscore the need for overcoming existing challenges in establishing a functionally validated pericyte cell line. Here, we present methodologies for addressing these challenges as well as an embryonic pericyte cell line for use with in vitro and ex vivo experimental models...
May 16, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730261/acid-degradable-lactobionic-acid-modified-soy-protein-nanogels-crosslinked-by-ortho-ester-linkage-for-efficient-antitumor-in-vivo
#3
Xu Cheng, Jiejie Qin, Xin Wang, Qian Zha, Weijing Yao, Shengxiang Fu, Rupei Tang
It remains a crucial challenge to achieve efficient cellular uptake and intracellular drug release in tumor cells for the nanoscale drug delivery systems. Herein, acid-degradable nanogels were prepared by cross-linking methacrylated soy protein with an acid-labile ortho ester cross-linker (NG1), and then modified with lactobionic acid (LA) to give tumor-targeted nanogels (NG2). Both NG1 and NG2 displayed excellent stability in neutral environment, while showed pH-triggered degradation behaviors under mildly acidic conditions resulting from the breakage of ortho ester bonds...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726608/the-deletion-of-dicer-in-mature-myelinating-glial-cells-causes-progressive-axonal-degeneration-but-not-overt-demyelination-in-adult-mice
#4
Tao Li, Jingjing Wang, Hongkai Wang, Yujian Yang, Shouyu Wang, Nanxin Huang, Fei Wang, Xing Gao, Jianqin Niu, Zhifang Li, Feng Mei, Lan Xiao
Myelinating glial cells (MGCs), oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), generate myelin sheaths that insulate axons. After myelination is completed in adulthood, MGC functions independent from myelin are required to support axon survival, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Dicer is a key enzyme that is responsible for generating functional micro-RNAs (miRNAs). Despite the importance of Dicer in initiating myelination, the role of Dicer in mature MGCs is still unclear...
May 4, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684040/differentiation-capacities-of-ps-clusters-adult-pituitary-stem-progenitor-cell-clusters-located-in-the-parenchymal-niche-of-the-rat-anterior-lobe
#5
Saishu Yoshida, Naoto Nishimura, Hideaki Yurino, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kotaro Horiguchi, Kentaro Yano, Shin-Ichi Hashimoto, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Pituitary endocrine cells are supplied by Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells in the anterior lobe of the adult pituitary. In relation to their microenvironment ("niche"), SOX2-positive cells exist in two types of niches; the marginal cell layer-niche and the parenchymal-niche. Recently, we isolated dense stem/progenitor cell clusters from the parenchymal-niche as parenchymal stem/progenitor cell (PS)-clusters. We classified these PS-clusters into three subtypes based on differences in S100β-expression (S100β-positive, -negative, and -mixed type), and reported that S100β-positive PS-clusters exhibited the capacity for differentiation into endocrine cells under 3-dimensional cultivation system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683222/ascl1-regulates-proliferation-of-ng2-glia-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-spinal-cord
#6
Demetra P Kelenis, Emma Hart, Morgan Edwards-Fligner, Jane E Johnson, Tou Yia Vue
NG2-glia are highly proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). During development, NG2-glia predominantly differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) to myelinate axon fibers, but they can also remain as OPCs persisting into the mature CNS. Interestingly, NG2-glia in the gray matter (GM) are intrinsically different from those in the white matter (WM) in terms of proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, and electrophysiological properties...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623545/glial-fatty-acid-binding-protein-7-fabp7-regulates-neuronal-leptin-sensitivity-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#7
Yuki Yasumoto, Hirofumi Miyazaki, Masaki Ogata, Yoshiteru Kagawa, Yui Yamamoto, Ariful Islam, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Yuji Owada
The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence (ME) are the primary hypothalamic sites that sense leptin and nutrients in the blood, thereby mediating food intake. Recently, studies demonstrating a role for non-neuronal cell types, including astrocytes and tanycytes, in these regulatory processes have begun to emerge. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined in detail the localization of fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) in the hypothalamic ARC and sought to determine its role in the hypothalamus...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596849/histochemical-characteristics-of-regressing-vessels-in-the-hyaloid-vascular-system-of-neonatal-mice-novel-implication-for-vascular-atrophy
#8
Ayuko Kishimoto, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga, Ah-Mee Park, Toshihiko Iwanaga
The hyaloid vasculature constitutes a transitory system nourishing the internal structures of the developing eye, but the mechanism of vascular regression and its cell biological characteristics are not fully understood. The present study aimed to reveal the specificity of the hyaloid vessels by a systematic immunohistochemical approach for marker substances of myeloid cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in neonatal mice. Macrophages immunoreactive for F4/80, cathepsin D, and LYVE-1 gathered around the vasa hyaloidea propria (VHP), while small round cells in vascular lumen of VHP were selectively immunoreactive for galectin-3; their segmented nuclei and immunoreactivities for Ly-6G, CD11b, and myeloperoxidase indicated their neutrophilic origin...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593734/experimental-demyelination-and-axonal-loss-are-reduced-in-microrna-146a-deficient-mice
#9
Nellie A Martin, Viktor Molnar, Gabor T Szilagyi, Maria L Elkjaer, Arkadiusz Nawrocki, Justyna Okarmus, Agnieszka Wlodarczyk, Eva K Thygesen, Miklos Palkovits, Ferenc Gallyas, Martin R Larsen, Hans Lassmann, Eirikur Benedikz, Trevor Owens, Asa F Svenningsen, Zsolt Illes
Background: The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during remyelination, but its role has not been examined during demyelination. Methods: MicroRNAs were examined by Agilent Mouse miRNA Microarray in the corpus callosum during CPZ-induced demyelination and remyelination...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573353/influence-of-white-matter-injury-on-gray-matter-reactive-gliosis-upon-stab-wound-in-the-adult-murine-cerebral-cortex
#10
Nicola Mattugini, Juliane Merl-Pham, Elisabetta Petrozziello, Lisa Schindler, Jürgen Bernhagen, Stefanie M Hauck, Magdalena Götz
Traumatic brain injury frequently affects the cerebral cortex, yet little is known about the differential effects that occur if only the gray matter (GM) is damaged or if the injury also involves the white matter (WM). To tackle this important question and directly compare similarities and differences in reactive gliosis, we performed stab wound injury affecting GM and WM (GM+) and one restricted to the GM (GM-) in the adult murine cerebral cortex. First, we examined glial reactivity in the regions affected (WM and GM) and determined the influence of WM injury on reactive gliosis in the GM comparing the same area in the two injury paradigms...
March 24, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569358/prefrontal-cortex-ng2-glia-undergo-a-developmental-switch-in-their-responsiveness-to-exercise
#11
Lyl Tomlinson, Po Hsuan Huang, Holly Colognato
Aerobic exercise is known to influence brain function, e.g., enhancing executive function in both children and adults, with many of these influences being attributed to alterations in neurogenesis and neuronal function. Yet oligodendroglia in adult brains have also been reported to be highly responsive to exercise, including in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC), a late myelinating region implicated in working memory. However, whether exercise affects oligodendroglia or myelination in juveniles, either in the PFC or in other brain regions, remains unknown...
March 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565434/enhanced-targeting-of-triple-negative-breast-carcinoma-and-malignant-melanoma-by-photochemical-internalization-of-cspg4-targeting-immunotoxins
#12
M S Eng, J Kaur, L Prasmickaite, B Ø Engesæter, A Weyergang, E Skarpen, K Berg, M G Rosenblum, G M Mælandsmo, A Høgset, S Ferrone, P K Selbo
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and malignant melanoma are highly aggressive cancers that widely express the cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4/NG2). CSPG4 plays an important role in tumor cell growth and survival and promotes chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, suggesting that CSPG4 is an attractive target in cancer therapy. In the present work, we applied the drug delivery technology photochemical internalization (PCI) in combination with the novel CSPG4-targeting immunotoxin 225...
March 22, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506015/ng2-glia-a-new-player-in-energy-balance
#13
Sarah Robins, Maia Kokoeva
<br>There is increasing evidence that glia act not only as neuronal support cells, but that they can also influence physiological outcomes via effects on neural signalling. The role of NG2-glia in this regard is especially enigmatic, as they are known to interact with neural circuits but their precise functions other than as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain elusive. Here we summarise recent evidence suggesting that NG2-glia play a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, most notably via the support of leptin sensing neural circuits...
March 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501892/in-vivo-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-ng2-glia-activity-caused-by-neural-electrode-implantation
#14
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
May 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497572/engraftment-neuroglial-transdifferentiation-and-behavioral-recovery-after-complete-spinal-cord-transection-in-rats
#15
Luzzi Sabino, Crovace Alberto Maria, Lacitignola Luca, Valentini Valerio, Francioso Edda, Rossi Giacomo, Invernici Gloria, Galzio Renato Juan, Crovace Antonio
Background: Proof of the efficacy and safety of a xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplant for spinal cord injury (SCI) may theoretically widen the spectrum of possible grafts for neuroregeneration. Methods: Twenty rats were submitted to complete spinal cord transection. Ovine bone marrow MSCs, retrovirally transfected with red fluorescent protein and not previously induced for neuroglial differentiation, were applied in 10 study rats (MSCG). Fibrin glue was injected in 10 control rats (FGG)...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495345/mesenchymal-stem-cell-protection-of-neurons-against-glutamate-excitotoxicity-involves-reduction-of-nmda-triggered-calcium-responses-and-surface-glur1-and-is-partly-mediated-by-tnf
#16
Irini Papazian, Vasiliki Kyrargyri, Maria Evangelidou, Anda Voulgari-Kokota, Lesley Probert
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) provide therapeutic effects in experimental CNS disease models and show promise as cell-based therapies for humans, but their modes of action are not well understood. We previously show that MSC protect rodent neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro, and in vivo in an epilepsy model. Neuroprotection is associated with reduced NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression and neuronal glutamate-induced calcium (Ca2+ ) responses, and increased expression of stem cell-associated genes...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490590/effect-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-on-the-neurogenesis-and-osteogenesis-in-bone-engineering
#17
Qing Liu, Lei Lei, Tao Yu, Ting Jiang, Yunqing Kang
During bone growth, the lack of a neuralized vascular network in the regenerating area can affect subsequent bone quality. This study aimed to investigate if brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could promote neurogenesis and osteogenesis in human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to improve bone formation during tissue engineering. Initially, a safe and effective BDNF concentration that facilitated hBMSC proliferation in vitro was determined. Subsequently, examination of mineralized nodule formation and evaluation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and ALP gene expression revealed that the most effective concentration of BDNF to elicit a response in hBMSCs was 100 ng/mL...
April 10, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486300/vascular-tight-junction-disruption-and-angiogenesis-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-with-neuroinflammatory-white-matter-injury
#18
Yi Yang, Shihoko Kimura-Ohba, Jeffrey F Thompson, Victor M Salayandia, Melissa Cossé, Limor Raz, Fakhreya Y Jalal, Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment is a major cause of dementia caused by chronic hypoxia, producing progressive damage to white matter (WM) secondary to blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and vascular dysfunction. Tight junction proteins (TJPs), which maintain BBB integrity, are lost in acute ischemia. Although angiogenesis is critical for neurovascular remodeling, less is known about its role in chronic hypoxia. To study the impact of TJP degradation and angiogenesis during pathological progression of WM damage, we used the spontaneously hypertensive/stroke prone rats with unilateral carotid artery occlusion and Japanese permissive diet to model WM damage...
June 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471788/modelling-physiological-and-pathological-conditions-to-study-pericyte-biology-in-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#19
Justin Rustenhoven, Leon C Smyth, Deidre Jansson, Patrick Schweder, Miranda Aalderink, Emma L Scotter, Edward W Mee, Richard L M Faull, Thomas I-H Park, Mike Dragunow
BACKGROUND: Brain pericytes ensheathe the endothelium and contribute to formation and maintenance of the blood-brain-barrier. Additionally, pericytes are involved in several aspects of the CNS immune response including scarring, adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, and phagocytosis. In vitro cultures are routinely used to investigate these functions of brain pericytes, however, these are highly plastic cells and can display differing phenotypes and functional responses depending on their culture conditions...
February 22, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461205/pten-negatively-regulates-the-cell-lineage-progression-from-ng2-glial-progenitor-to-oligodendrocyte-via-mtor-independent-signaling
#20
Estibaliz González-Fernández, Hey-Kyeong Jeong, Masahiro Fukaya, Hyukmin Kim, Rabia R Khawaja, Isha N Srivastava, Ari Waisman, Young-Jin Son, Shin H Kang
Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming CNS glia, are highly vulnerable to cellular stresses, and a severe myelin loss underlies numerous CNS disorders. Expedited OL regeneration may prevent further axonal damage and facilitate functional CNS repair. Although adult OL progenitors (OPCs) are the primary players for OL regeneration, targetable OPC-specific intracellular signaling mechanisms for facilitated OL regeneration remain elusive. Here, we report that OPC-targeted PTEN inactivation in the mouse, in contrast to OL-specific manipulations, markedly promotes OL differentiation and regeneration in the mature CNS...
February 20, 2018: ELife
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