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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905041/new-xymedon-analogues-for-stimulation-of-posttraumatic-regeneration-of-the-spinal-cord-in-rats
#1
T V Povysheva, V E Semenov, I V Galyametdinova, V S Reznik, K S Knni, P E Kolesnikov, Yu A Chelyshev
Effect of systemic administration of synthetic pyrimidine derivatives, xymedon and compounds 29D and 34D, was studied in rats with experimental dosed contusion spinal cord injury. Xymedon promoted recovery of motor function after injury. Compounds 29D and 34D more effectively restored the parameters of open-field and Rotarod tests in comparison with xymedon. Compound 29D more effectively than xymedon maintained the number of Olig2(+) oligodendrocytes in the corticospinal tract and NG2 cells in all investigated areas of the white matter...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871176/in-vivo-angiogenic-capacity-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-with-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#3
Ji-Hye Kim, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Hee Jang Pyeon, Jae Cheoun Lee, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring adequate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and CD146 as pericyte markers...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812322/tamoxifen-in-the-mouse-brain-implications-for-fate-mapping-studies-using-the-tamoxifen-inducible-cre-loxp-system
#4
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Denisa Kirdajova, Zdenek Kamenik, Miroslava Anderova
The tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP system is widely used to overcome gene targeting pre-adult lethality, to modify a specific cell population at desired time-points, and to visualize and trace cells in fate-mapping studies. In this study we focused on tamoxifen degradation kinetics, because for all genetic fate-mapping studies, the period during which tamoxifen or its metabolites remain active in the CNS, is essential. Additionally, we aimed to define the tamoxifen administration scheme, enabling the maximal recombination rate together with minimal animal mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807896/transient-cnp-expression-by-early-progenitors-causes-cre-lox-based-reporter-lines-to-map-profoundly-different-fates
#5
Reshmi Tognatta, Wenjing Sun, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Akiko Nishiyama, Susanne Schoch, Leda Dimou, Dirk Dietrich
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798140/conditional-deletion-of-the-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-affects-postnatal-myelination-in-mice
#6
Veronica T Cheli, Diara A Santiago González, Tenzing Namgyal Lama, Vilma Spreuer, Vance Handley, Geoffrey G Murphy, Pablo M Paez
: To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2(KO)) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778377/dynamics-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-expression-in-different-cell-types-after-brain-injury
#7
Jenni Kyyriäinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated after brain injury and its depletion results in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We investigated the time-window and localization of PDGFRβ expression in mice with intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) and in rats with lateral fluid-percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tissue immunohistochemistry was evaluated at several time-points after SE and TBI. The distribution of PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double/triple-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), NG2 cells, and endothelial cells (RECA-1)...
October 25, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768001/diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-induces-a-transient-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-injured-white-matter-tracts
#8
Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765579/antisera-against-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-cross-react-with-specific-brain-proteins-of-the-common-marmoset-monkey-and-other-nonhuman-primate-species
#9
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744291/refilins-are-short-lived-actin-bundling-proteins-that-regulate-lamellipodium-protrusion-dynamics
#10
Olivia Gay, Benoît Gilquin, Nicole Assard, Pascal Stuelsatz, Christian Delphin, Joël Lachuer, Xavier Gidrol, Jacques Baudier
Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are members of a novel family of Filamin binding proteins that function as molecular switches to conformationally alter the Actin filament network into bundles. We show here that Refilins are extremely labile proteins. An N-terminal PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif mediates ubiquitin-independent rapid degradation. A second degradation signal is localized within the C-terminus. Only RefilinB is protected from rapid degradation by an auto-inhibitory domain that masks the PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725773/analysis-of-the-brain-mural-cell-transcriptome
#11
Liqun He, Michael Vanlandewijck, Elisabeth Raschperger, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Bongnam Jung, Thibaud Lebouvier, Koji Ando, Jennifer Hofmann, Annika Keller, Christer Betsholtz
Pericytes, the mural cells of blood microvessels, regulate microvascular development and function and have been implicated in many brain diseases. However, due to a paucity of defining markers, pericyte identification and functional characterization remain ambiguous and data interpretation problematic. In mice carrying two transgenic reporters, Pdgfrb-eGFP and NG2-DsRed, we found that double-positive cells were vascular mural cells, while the single reporters marked additional, but non-overlapping, neuroglial cells...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725216/specific-combinations-of-ion-channel-inhibitors-reduce-excessive-ca-2-influx-as-a-consequence-of-oxidative-stress-and-increase-neuronal-and-glial-cell-viability-in-vitro
#12
Ryan L O'Hare Doig, Carole A Bartlett, Nicole M Smith, Stuart I Hodgetts, Sarah A Dunlop, Livia Hool, Melinda Fitzgerald
Combinations of Ca(2+) channel inhibitors have been proposed as an effective means to prevent excess Ca(2+) flux and death of neurons and glia following neurotrauma in vivo. However, it is not yet known if beneficial outcomes such as improved viability have been due to direct effects on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Here, the effects of combinations of Lomerizine (Lom), 2,3-dioxo-7-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-quinoxalinyl]acetic acid monohydrate (YM872), 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine (memantine (Mem)) and/or adenosine 5'-triphosphate periodate oxidized sodium salt (oxATP) to block voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, Ca(2+) permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, NMDA receptors and purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) respectively, on Ca(2+) concentration and viability of rat primary mixed cortical (MC) cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) insult, were assessed...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714683/ng2-glia-more-than-progenitor-cells
#13
Jaime Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Leda Dimou
NG2-glia are a mysterious and ubiquitous glial population with a highly branched morphology. Initial studies suggested that their unique function is the generation and maintenance of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), important for proper myelination and therefore for axonal support and fast conduction velocity. Over the last years this simplistic notion has been dramatically changed: the wide and homogeneous distribution of NG2-glia within all areas of the developing CNS that is maintained during the whole lifespan, their potential to also differentiate into other cell types in a spatiotemporal manner, their active capability of maintaining their population and their dynamic behavior in altered conditions have raised the question: are NG2-glia simple progenitor cells or do they play further major roles in the normal function of the CNS? In this chapter, we will discuss some important features of NG2-glia like their homeostatic distribution in the CNS and their potential to differentiate into diverse cell types...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683416/prolyl-4-hydroxylase-2-and-3-co-regulate-murine-erythropoietin-in-brain-pericytes
#14
Andres A Urrutia, Aqeela Afzal, Jacob Nelson, Olena Davidoff, Kenneth W Gross, Volker H Haase
A classic response to systemic hypoxia is the increased production of red blood cells due to hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is essential for normal erythropoiesis and is predominantly synthesized by peritubular renal interstitial fibroblast-like cells, which express cellular markers characteristic of neuronal cells and pericytes. To investigate whether the ability to synthesize EPO is a general functional feature of pericytes, we used conditional gene targeting to examine the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) / prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) / HIF axis in cell expressing neural glial antigen 2 (NG2), a known molecular marker of pericytes in multiple organs...
September 28, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678158/human-kidney-pericytes-produce-renin
#15
Ania Stefanska, Christopher Kenyon, Helen C Christian, Charlotte Buckley, Isaac Shaw, John J Mullins, Bruno Péault
Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro...
September 24, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666673/decrease-of-pericytes-is-associated-with-ligature-induced-periodontitis-liver-disease-in-rats
#16
Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Moara E Silva Conceição Pinto, Lucas de Araújo Bastos Santana, Ingrid Grazielle Souza, Luan Kelves Miranda de Souza, Natássia Cristina Martins Oliveira, Claudio Angelo Ventura, Pedro Duarte Novaes, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa, Jand-Venes Rolim Medeiros, Ivana Mikolasevic, Arya Mani, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The damages caused by periodontitis have affected not only periodontal tissues, but have also increased the severity of different illnesses such as: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between induced periodontitis and the damages caused through its systemic effects on the liver. METHODS: Twenty rats were divided into two groups: control and periodontitis. The following parameters were evaluated: Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, Alveolar Bone Loss (ABL) for periodontal tissues; histopathological examination of gingival and liver tissues; immunohistochemistry to positive cell for neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2) expressed in hepatic pericytes, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver; serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660277/demyelination-induced-inflammation-attracts-newly-born-neurons-to-the-white-matter
#17
Samah Kalakh, Abdeslam Mouihate
There is compelling evidence that microglial activation negatively impacts neurogenesis. However, microglia have also been shown to promote recruitment of newly born neurons to injured areas of the gray matter. In the present study, we explored whether demyelination-triggered inflammation alters the process of neurogenesis in the white matter. A 2-μl solution of 0.04 % ethidium bromide was stereotaxically injected into the corpus callosum of adult male rats. Brain inflammation was dampened by daily injections of progesterone (5 mg/kg, s...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651543/clinical-grade-isolated-human-kidney-perivascular-stromal-cells-as-an-organotypic-cell-source-for-kidney-regenerative-medicine
#18
Daniëlle G Leuning, Marlies E J Reinders, Joan Li, Anna J Peired, Ellen Lievers, Hetty C de Boer, Willem E Fibbe, Paola Romagnani, Cees van Kooten, Melissa H Little, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink
: : Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are immunomodulatory and tissue homeostatic cells that have shown beneficial effects in kidney diseases and transplantation. Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) identified within several different organs share characteristics of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). These PSCs may also possess tissue-specific properties and play a role in local tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that human kidney-derived PSCs (hkPSCs) would elicit improved kidney repair in comparison with BM-MSCs...
September 20, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647309/thrombospondin-4-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-of-ng2-cells-via-the-erk-mapk-pathway
#19
Hai Jie Yang, Shuang Ping Ma, Fei Ju, Ya Ping Zhang, Zhi Chao Li, Bin Bin Zhang, Jun Jiang Lian, Lei Wang, Bin Feng Cheng, Mian Wang, Zhi Wei Feng
NG2-expressing neural progenitors can produce neurons in the central nervous system, providing a potential cell resource of therapy for neurological disorders. However, the mechanism underlying neuronal differentiation of NG2 cells remains largely unknown. In this report, we found that a thrombospondin (TSP) family member, TSP4, is involved in the neuronal differentiation of NG2 cells. When TSP4 was overexpressed, NG2 cells underwent spontaneous neuronal differentiation, as demonstrated by the induction of various neuronal differentiation markers such as NeuN, Tuj1, and NF200, at the messenger RNA and protein levels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644104/ng2-glial-cells-integrate-synaptic-input-in-global-and-dendritic-calcium-signals
#20
Wenjing Sun, Elizabeth A Matthews, Vicky Nicolas, Susanne Schoch, Dirk Dietrich
Synaptic signaling to NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2 cells) could be key to rendering myelination of axons dependent on neuronal activity, but it has remained unclear whether NG2 glial cells integrate and respond to synaptic input. Here we show that NG2 cells perform linear integration of glutamatergic synaptic inputs and respond with increasing dendritic calcium elevations. Synaptic activity induces rapid Ca(2+) signals mediated by low-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels under strict inhibitory control of voltage-gated A-type K(+) channels...
September 19, 2016: ELife
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