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Amar Sarkar, Siobhán Harty, Soili M Lehto, Andrew H Moeller, Timothy G Dinan, Robin I M Dunbar, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychology and microbiology make unlikely friends, but the past decade has witnessed striking bidirectional associations between intrinsic gut microbes and the brain, relationships with largely untested psychological implications. Although microbe-brain relationships are receiving a great deal of attention in biomedicine and neuroscience, psychologists have yet to join this journey. Here, we illustrate microbial associations with emotion, cognition, and social behavior. However, despite considerable enthusiasm and potential, technical and conceptual limitations including low statistical power and lack of mechanistic descriptions prevent a nuanced understanding of microbiome-brain-behavior relationships...
June 8, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Gordon Pennycook, Valerie A Thompson
How accomplished does one need to be to compete in the Canadian cognitive psychology job market? We looked at the publication record of everyone who was hired as an assistant professor in Canadian cognitive psychology divisions with PhD programs between 2006 and 2016 (N = 64). Individuals who were hired from 2006 to 2011 averaged 10 journal-article publications up to and including the year they were hired. However, this number increased by 57% to 18 publications between 2012 and 2016. Notably, this increase (a) occurred despite an increase in the number of positions since 2010, (b) was not restricted to top-ranked institutions, (c) did not come at the cost of decreasing quality in research (based on citations), and (d) was not driven by longer postdoctoral fellowships...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
Lennie R C Geerlings, Claire L Thompson, Vivian Kraaij, Ger P J Keijsers
This is the first research into preparation for multicultural clinical psychology practice in Europe. It applies the theory of multicultural counselling competency (MCC) to a case study in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that cross-cultural practice experience, identification as a cultural minority, and satisfaction with cultural training was associated with MCC. The Multicultural Awareness Knowledge and Skills Survey was completed by 106 participants (22 students, 10 academics, 74 alumni) from clinical psychology masters' programs...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
Zeyan Liew, Beate Ritz, Cathrine Carlsen Bach, Robert F Asarnow, Bodil Hammer Bech, Ellen A Nohr, Rossana Bossi, Tine Brink Henriksen, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Jørn Olsen
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread persistent organic compounds that have been suggested to affect neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with IQ in children. METHODS: We studied 1,592 pregnancies enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996-2002. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early gestation. Child IQ was assessed at 5 y of age using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) administered by trained psychologists...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Gabriela Salim Xavier Moreira, Luciana Lorenzato, Carmem Beatriz Neufeld, Sebastião Sousa Almeida
The present study developed a Brazilian adaptation of the BAS for young adolescents, testing its factor structure by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), concurrent and criterion validity, and its internal consistency. Participants were 347 adolescents (171 male and 176 female, aged between 10 and 13 years old). Three psychologists experts in psychological evaluation and three teachers of Portuguese of elementary school also participated for the adaptation stage of the items in order to be properly understood by the sample age group...
June 13, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Wyona M Freysteinson
The will is a word that nurses may use to describe their patients' actions or inactions. This concept has been extensively addressed by religions, psychologists, and philosophers. Ricoeur offered a phenomenology of the will in which three overarching key concepts were uncovered: decision, action, and consent. In this article, Ricoeur's elaborative and exhaustive description of these three concepts is summarized. Examples as to how a phenomenology of the will may guide nurses in their day-to-day clinical practice in caring are provided...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
Melvyn Zhang, JiangBo Ying, Guo Song, Daniel Ss Fung, Helen Smith
BACKGROUND: Cognitive biases refer to automatic attentional and interpretational tendencies, which could be retained by cognitive bias modification interventions. Cristea et al and Jones et al have published reviews (in 2016 and 2017 respectively) on the effectiveness of such interventions. The advancement of technologies such as electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) has led to them being harnessed for the delivery of cognitive bias modification. To date, at least eight studies have demonstrated the feasibility of mobile technologies for the delivery of cognitive bias modification...
June 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Cédric Gil-Jardiné, Grégoire Evrard, Samantha Al Joboory, Juliane Tortes Saint Jammes, Françoise Masson, Régis Ribéreau-Gayon, Michel Galinski, Louis-Rachid Salmi, Philippe Revel, Cyril Alexandre Régis, Guillaume Valdenaire, Emmanuel Lagarde
Up to 20% of patients presenting at an emergency room (ER) after a stressful event will for several months suffer from very diverse long-lasting symptoms and a potentially significant decline in quality of life, often described as post concussion-like symptoms (PCLS). The objectives of our randomized open-label single-center study were to assess the feasibility of psychologist-led interventions in the context of the ER and to compare the effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with reassurance and usual care...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Kira E Riehm, Eric Latimer, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée, Gonneke W J M Stevens, Geneviève Gariépy, Frank J Elgar
Background: Scant evidence exists on the relation between the availability of health professionals and adolescent health, and whether the size of the health workforce equally benefits adolescents across socioeconomic strata. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adolescent health in 38 countries. Data from 218 790 adolescents were drawn from the 2013/2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. We used multilevel regression analyses to examine the association between the density of the health workforce and psychosomatic and mental health symptoms with differences in country wealth and income inequality controlled...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
C Harvey, J Lewis, J Farhall
AIMS: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) recommend evidence-based psychosocial interventions (EBPIs) to improve consumer recovery; however, availability appears limited. We describe receipt of six EBPIs, reported by people with psychoses, and associations with service and consumer characteristics, including indicators of need (eligibility) and benefit (suitability). METHODS: Participants in the 2010 Australian national survey of psychosis (n = 1825) were interviewed to assess demographic, functional, mental and physical health characteristics and service use in the previous year...
June 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Satu Turunen-Taheri, Per-Inge Carlsson, Ann-Christin Johnson, Sten Hellström
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify and report demographic data of patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss, assess participation in audiological rehabilitation and analyze the benefits of various rehabilitation methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 4286 patients with severe-to-profound hearing impairments registered in the Swedish Quality Register of Otorhinolaryngology over a period from 2006-2015 were studied. Demographic data, gender differences, audiological rehabilitation and benefits of the rehabilitation were analyzed...
June 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Richard Karban, John L Orrock
Recently plant biologists have documented that plants, like animals, engage in many activities that can be considered as behaviors, although plant biologists currently lack a conceptual framework to understand these processes. Borrowing the well-established framework developed by psychologists, we propose that plant behaviors can be constructively modeled by identifying four distinct components: 1) a cue or stimulus that provides information, 2) a judgment whereby the plant perceives and processes this informative cue, 3) a decision whereby the plant chooses among several options based on their relative costs and benefits, and 4) action...
June 12, 2018: Ecology
Seyyed Salman Alavi, Maryam Ghanizadeh, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Soroush Mohammadi Kalhory, Fereshteh Jannatifard, Ghazal Sepahbodi
Objective: Smart phones have rapidly become an integral, and for some, an essential communication device worldwide. The issue of identity has always been a subject of interest among psychologists. The present study was conducted to compare personal and national identity and their subscales between cell phone addicts and non-addicts. Method : In this cross-sectional study, 500 student cell phone users from various universities in Tehran were recruited using stratified sampling. Participants completed cell phone addiction questionnaires including Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), Cell Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ), Personal Identity Development Questionnaire, Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS) and National Identity Questionnaire...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
J Vanneste, S Flament, A Bourjot, E Leclercq, A Prevotat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Inês Rothes, Margarida Henriques
Clinical work with suicidal people is a demanding area. Little is known about health professionals’ practices when faced with suicidal patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the practices most likely to be adopted by professionals facing a suicidal patient and (2) analyze the differences according to professional characteristics (group, specific training on suicide, and experience with suicidal patients). A self-report questionnaire that was developed for this study was filled out by 239 participants...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Megan E Riehl, Joan W Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a difficult to treat medical condition, where nearly 40% of patients are refractory to standard medical intervention, which typically begins with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). These PPI nonresponders represent a population of patients, where treatment planning must be individualized; multidisciplinary and psychiatric comorbidities should be considered. This review highlights treatment options that include neuromodulators, lifestyle, and psychological interventions for the PPI nonresponder...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Sujin Ann-Yi, Eduardo Bruera, Jimin Wu, Diane D Liu, Monica Agosta, Janet L Williams, Vishidha Reddy Balankari, Cindy L Carmack
CONTEXT: Psychologists can provide unique contributions to interdisciplinary palliative care. Despite research indicating high distress in palliative care cancer patients, little has been reported regarding the feasibility and practice of psychology in this setting. OBJECTIVES: To review the integration of clinical psychology practice in a palliative care department at a major comprehensive cancer center. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 1940 unique cancer patients (6451 total patient contacts) referred for psychology services provided by clinical psychologists in palliative care from 9/1/2013 to 2/29/2016...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Florent Serina
If his relationship to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis has been widely acknowledged, Claude Lévi-Strauss' rapport with C.G. Jung's analytical psychology remains quite obscure. While secondary commentary has been abundant, its approach has above all been intertextual, to the detriment of a rigorously historical reading. Even if certain arguments put forward by supporters of so-called "influence" deserve to be taken into account, especially because they highlight Lévi-Strauss ambiguities and paradoxes toward Jung, this paper provides proof that a precise reading of the texts, with the help of recent studies on the intellectual genesis of Lévi-Strauss, lead to reject the thesis of an unstated debt owed by the French anthropologist to the Zurich psychologist...
June 9, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Ethan R Van Norman, Peter M Nelson, David C Parker
Student response to instruction is a key piece of information that school psychologists use to make instructional decisions. Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) are the most commonly used and researched family of academic progress-monitoring assessments. There are a variety of reading CBMs that differ in the type and specificity of skills they assess. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the CBM of oral reading (CBM-R) progress-monitoring data differed from nonsense-word fluency (NWF) progress-monitoring data in the presence of a common intervention...
June 7, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Mia T Minen, Sarah Azarchi, Rachel Sobolev, Amanda Shallcross, Audrey Halpern, Thomas Berk, Naomi M Simon, Scott Powers, Richard B Lipton, Elizabeth Seng
Objective: To evaluate the frequency with which migraine patients initiated behavioral migraine treatment following a headache specialist recommendation and the predictors for initiating behavioral migraine treatment. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients diagnosed with migraine to examine whether the patients initiated behavioral migraine treatment following a provider recommendation. The primary outcome was scheduling the initial visit for behavioral migraine treatment...
June 5, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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