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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821577/ethical-behaviour-of-physicians-and-psychologists-similarities-and-differences
#1
Michall Ferencz Kaddari, Meni Koslowsky, Michael A Weingarten
OBJECTIVE: To compare the coping patterns of physicians and clinical psychologists when confronted with clinical ethical dilemmas and to explore consistency across different dilemmas. POPULATION: 88 clinical psychologists and 149 family physicians in Israel. METHOD: Six dilemmas representing different ethical domains were selected from the literature. Vignettes were composed for each dilemma, and seven possible behavioural responses for each were proposed, scaled from most to least ethical...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821393/nutritional-status-brain-network-organization-and-general-intelligence
#2
Marta K Zamroziewicz, M Tanveer Talukdar, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820952/adult-intelligence-the-construct-and-the-criterion-problem
#3
Phillip L Ackerman
Over 100 years have passed since Binet and Simon proposed scales for assessment of intelligence of children to predict academic success and failure. The extension of these assessments to adults largely resulted from efforts of psychologists to provide insights for military selection in World War I. At the time, relatively little thought was given to how adult intelligence might differ from child and adolescent intelligence. Traditional approaches for assessing adult intelligence have largely survived. However, there is little reference to adult intellectual functioning outside of laboratory-based tasks and clinical assessments of pathology...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817725/development-of-a-psychological-intervention-for-fatigue-after-stroke
#4
Simiao Wu, Trudie Chalder, Kirstin E Anderson, David Gillespie, Malcolm R Macleod, Gillian E Mead
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is common and distressing, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend any effective treatment for it. Psychological interventions are effective in treating fatigue in other conditions. This paper describes the development and evaluation of the feasibility of a psychological intervention for PSF. METHODS: Based on psychological correlates of PSF and evidence-based psychological interventions for fatigue in other medical conditions, we developed a manualised psychological intervention for PSF, with input from stroke clinicians, psychological therapists, and stroke survivors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817065/evaluation-and-treatment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-the-role-of-neuropsychology
#5
REVIEW
Carolyn Prince, Maya E Bruhns
Awareness of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and persisting post-concussive syndrome (PCS) has increased substantially in the past few decades, with a corresponding increase in research on diagnosis, management, and treatment of patients with mTBI. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on behavioral assessment and management of patients presenting with mTBI/PCS, and to detail the potential role of neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists in interdisciplinary care for this population during the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of recovery...
August 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815612/network-analysis-in-community-psychology-looking-back-looking-forward
#6
REVIEW
Zachary P Neal, Jennifer Watling Neal
Network analysis holds promise for community psychology given the field's aim to understand the interplay between individuals and their social contexts. Indeed, because network analysis focuses explicitly on patterns of relationships between actors, its theories and methods are inherently extra-individual in nature and particularly well suited to characterizing social contexts. But, to what extent has community psychology taken advantage of this network analysis as a tool for capturing context? To answer these questions, this study provides a review of the use network analysis in articles published in American Journal of Community Psychology...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815515/assessing-communication-skills-in-real-medical-encounters-in-oncology-development-and-validation-of-the-comon-coaching-rating-scales
#7
Marcelo Niglio de Figueiredo, Lorena Krippeit, Johanna Freund, Gabriele Ihorst, Andreas Joos, Juergen Bengel, Alexander Wuensch
One of the challenges in research on teaching physician-patient communication is how to assess communication, necessary for evaluating training, the learning process, and for feedback. Few instruments have been validated for real physician-patient consultations. Real consultations involve unique contexts, different persons, and topics, and are difficult to compare. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a rating scale for assessment of such consultations. For the evaluation study of a communication skills training for physicians in oncology, real consultations were recorded in three assessment points...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813346/current-opinion-in-clinical-sport-psychology-from-athletic-performance-to-psychological-well-being
#8
REVIEW
Zella E Moore, Kehana Bonagura
Clinical sport psychology (CSP) is a contemporary, empirically informed model that employs a scope, style, and mode of practice built upon cutting-edge findings from both clinical and sport sciences, and that follows the sound methodological traditions of clinical psychology [1(••)]. Conceptualizing athletic performance and well-being through the context of empirical research in both athletic and nonathletic domains of functioning, CSP practice can involve the enhancement of athletic performance, and also the personal development and psychological well-being of performers...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813345/choking-under-pressure-theoretical-models-and-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Mesagno, Juergen Beckmann
In sport, choking under pressure is a major concern for athletes, coaches and sport psychologists because athletes fail to meet self-imposed performance expectations in critical situations (when it counts the most), which is devastating and embarrassing. Researchers have debated choking under pressure definitions, identified personality characteristics that exacerbate choking outcomes, and examined models to determine mechanisms for choking. Based on these investigations, several interventions to prevent choking have been developed and tested...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812952/impact-of-adult-attachment-anxiety-on-deception-judgments-examining-the-moderating-effect-of-motivation
#10
Song Wu, Wei Cai, Yanjun Zhang, Ying Liu, Shenghua Jin
Several psychologists have paid attention to individual differences in deception detection, but only a few studies have found significant results. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between attachment anxiety and deception judgment when there are no obvious cues to distinguish lies from truth, and to examine the moderating effect of motives. Participants were instructed to judge each of 10 audios on whether they were true or false. Subsequently, the attachment anxiety of participants was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810482/a-journey-in-the-field-of-health-from-social-psychology-to-multi-disciplinarity
#11
Claudine Herzlich
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810472/the-rapid-expansion-of-mainstream-health-psychology-in-france-historical-foundations
#12
Marie Santiago-Delefosse, Maria Del Rio Carral
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810453/-health-psychology-or-psychology-for-health-a-history-of-psychologists-engagement-with-health-in-south-africa
#13
Jeffery Yen, Oriana Vaccarino
In contrast to the institutionalization of health psychology in North America and Europe, much psychological work on health issues in South Africa emerged as part of a critical revitalization of South African psychology as a whole, coinciding with the dismantling of Apartheid and global shifts in health discourse. The field's development reflects attempts to engage with urgent health problems in the context of rapid sociopolitical changes that followed democratic transition in the 1990s, and under new conditions of knowledge production...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808359/electronic-health-records-and-improved-patient-care-opportunities-for-applied-psychology
#14
Raj Ratwani
Healthcare is undergoing an unprecedented technology transition from paper medical records to electronic health records (EHRs). While the adoption of EHRs holds tremendous promise for improving efficiency, quality and safety, there have been numerous challenges that have been largely centered on the technology not meeting the cognitive needs of the clinical end-users. Clinicians are experiencing increased stress and frustration, and new safety hazards have been introduced. There is a significant opportunity for applied psychologists to address many of these challenges...
August 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805739/four-bad-habits-of-modern-psychologists
#15
James Grice, Paul Barrett, Lisa Cota, Crystal Felix, Zachery Taylor, Samantha Garner, Eliwid Medellin, Adam Vest
Four data sets from studies included in the Reproducibility Project were re-analyzed to demonstrate a number of flawed research practices (i.e., "bad habits") of modern psychology. Three of the four studies were successfully replicated, but re-analysis showed that in one study most of the participants responded in a manner inconsistent with the researchers' theoretical model. In the second study, the replicated effect was shown to be an experimental confound, and in the third study the replicated statistical effect was shown to be entirely trivial...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805420/expanding-our-reach-increasing-the-role-of-psychologists-in-public-and-community-mental-health
#16
Erika R Carr, Rebecca Miller
Psychologists are currently underrepresented in community and public mental health settings, despite the advanced training and competencies that are salient for service in various unique and important functions in the public sector. This article will explore those functions including: transformation to recovery-oriented care, delivery of positive behavioral support, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based interventions, application of scholarly guided practice, emphasis on context, therapeutic relationship, and history in therapeutic interventions, provision of training, education, program development and evaluation, and development of leadership and leadership training in systems of care...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805415/actualizing-culture-change-the-promoting-excellent-alternatives-in-kansas-nursing-homes-peak-2-0-program
#17
Gayle A Doll, Laci J Cornelison, Heath Rath, Maggie L Syme
Nursing homes have been challenged in their attempts to achieve deep, organizational change (i.e., culture change) aimed at providing quality of care and quality of life for nursing home residents through person-centered care. To attain deep change, 2 well-defined components must be in place: a shared understanding of (a) the what, or content goals, and (b) the how, or process of change. However, there are few examples of this at a macro or micro level in long-term care. In an effort to enact true culture change in nursing homes statewide, the Kansas Department for Aging and Disability Services implemented the Promoting Excellent Alternatives in Kansas Nursing Homes program...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805154/mental-health-literacy-stigma-and-perception-of-causation-of-mental-illness-among-chinese-people-in-taiwan
#18
Xiao Yu Zhuang, Daniel Fu Keung Wong, Chi-Wei Cheng, Shu-Man Pan
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been performed to explore mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes towards mental illness and their relationships with causal beliefs about mental illness among Chinese people in Taiwan. AIMS: Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes of Taiwanese Chinese with those found among Australian and Japanese participants in other studies and to explore how mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes relate to different perceptions of causes of mental illness...
September 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805087/preliminary-investigation-of-the-reliability-and-validity-of-the-birt-independent-living-scale
#19
Sara D S Ramos, Michael Oddy, Lorraine Haye, Anna Goodson
PURPOSE: Neurorehabilitation aims to increase independence and participation in ordinary life. It is argued that the fundamental indices of this are independent living and engagement in occupational or productive activity. The Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust Independent Living Scale was designed to capture change in levels of participation and independence following neurorehabilitation. With greater use of outcome measures in health care, it becomes necessary to develop tools which are simple to use and that capture the holistic impact of rehabilitation...
August 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804960/handle-with-care-rethinking-the-rights-versus-culture-dichotomy-in-cancer-disclosure-in-india
#20
Cecilia Coale Van Hollen
Medical practitioners, bioethicists, psychologists, and anthropologists have debated whether it is ethical to disclose or withhold information from patients about cancer diagnoses. This debate is framed as pitting universal individual human rights against cultural pluralism. The rights-based argument asserts that people have a right to information about their own health to make the best decisions about their treatment. The cultural variation argument suggests that in some cultural contexts there is a perception that information about one's cancer diagnosis may cause more harm than good due to the psychological trauma this may cause...
August 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
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