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epigenetics in oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739108/using-blood-and-plasma-micrornas-as-a-non-invasive-biomarker-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#1
Horatiu Stefanescu, Delia Muntean, Ciprian Pilut, Mircea Diaconu, Roxana Popescu, Delia Hutanu, Marius Moise, Lighezan Diana, Razvan Nitu, Alina Popa Cherecheanu, Silvius Negoita, Ciprian V Iovan, Emil Ungureanu, Valentin Calu, Ioana Ciuca
BACKGROUND: A high percentage of oncological patients die yearly because of colorectal cancer (CRC). Worldwide, CRC represents the fourth leading cause of death among oncological patients. Numerous studies have been conducted in order to identify new biomarkers for the early diagnosis of patients with CRC. From this point of view, an ideal biomarker is represented by the expression of microRNAs. In this paper, we wish to summarize the expressions of microRNAs in CRC and to present the pathophysiological and genetic interactions that microRNAs have with protein systems in these patients...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693637/paltem-what-parameters-should-be-collected-in-disaster-settings-to-assess-the-long-term-outcomes-of-famine
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra Moraru, Maria Moitinho de Almeida, Jean-Marie Degryse
Evidence suggests that nutritional status during fetal development and early life leaves an imprint on the genome, which leads to health outcomes not only on a person as an adult but also on his offspring. The purpose of this study is to bring forth an overview of the relevant parameters that need to be collected to assess the long-term and transgenerational health outcomes of famine. A literature search was conducted for the most pertinent articles on the epigenetic effects of famine. The results were compiled, synthesized and discussed with an expert in genetics for critical input and validation...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668458/on-the-concepts-and-history-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-morphology-genetics-and-epigenetics
#3
REVIEW
George St Stoyanov, Deyan L Dzhenkov
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade IV WHO malignant tumor with astrocytic differentiation. As one of the most common clinically diagnosed central nervous system (CNS) oncological entries, there have been a wide variety of historical reports of the description and evolution of ideas regarding these tumors. The first recorded reports of gliomas were given in British scientific reports, by Berns in 1800 and in 1804 by Abernety, with the first comprehensive histomorphological description being given in 1865 by Rudolf Virchow...
March 1, 2018: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664561/the-function-and-dysfunction-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#4
REVIEW
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628786/personalized-medicine-in-oncology-new-perspectives-in-management-of-gliomas
#5
REVIEW
Justyna Gil, Izabela Laczmanska, Karolina A Pesz, Maria M Sasiadek
Studies on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis have led to the discovery of crucial genetic events for many of particular malignancies. This was followed by invention of new therapeutic approaches based on molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression that bears the name of personalised medicine. In the case of gliomas, ascertainment of genetic/epigenetic markers was the basis for re-classification of tumours that until now depended on histopathological analysis. This article reviews recent advances in personalised medicine and the new World Health Organisation classification of gliomas...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587736/comparison-of-clinicopathologic-characteristics-epigenetic-biomarkers-and-prognosis-between-renal-pelvic-and-ureteral-tumors-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#6
Dong Fang, Shiming He, Gengyan Xiong, Nirmish Singla, Zhenpeng Cao, Lei Zhang, Xuesong Li, Liqun Zhou
BACKGROUND: There's no consensus about the difference between renal pelvic and ureteral tumors in terms of clinical features, pathological outcomes, epigenetic biomarkers and prognosis. METHODS: The data of 341 patients with renal pelvic tumors and 271 patients with ureteral tumors who underwent radical nephroureterectomy between 1999 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinicopathologic features, gene promoters methylation status and oncologic outcomes were compared...
March 27, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562193/combination-cancer-therapy-with-immune-checkpoint-blockade-mechanisms-and-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Shetal A Patel, Andy J Minn
The success of immune checkpoint blockade in patients with a wide variety of malignancies has changed the treatment paradigm in oncology. However, combination therapies with immune checkpoint blockade will be needed to overcome resistance and broaden the clinical utility of immunotherapy. Here we discuss a framework for rationally designing combination therapy strategies based on enhancing major discriminatory functions of the immune system that are corrupted by cancer-namely, antigenicity, adjuvanticity, and homeostatic feedback inhibition...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535070/hdac-inhibitors-as-epigenetic-regulators-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Mariarosaria Conte, Raffaele De Palma, Lucia Altucci
In recent years, anti-tumor immunotherapy has shown promising results, and immune-oncology is now emerging as the fourth major wave in the treatment of tumors after radiotherapy, chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Understanding the impact of the immune system on neoplastic cells is crucial to improve its effectiveness against cancer. The stratification of patients who might benefit from immunotherapy as well as the personalization of medicine have contributed to the discovery of new immunotherapeutic targets and molecules...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526163/mechanisms-of-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-htert-regulation-clinical-impacts-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Ricardo Leão, Joana Dias Apolónio, Donghyun Lee, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Uri Tabori, Pedro Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Limitless self-renewal is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is attained by telomere maintenance, essentially through telomerase (hTERT) activation. Transcriptional regulation of hTERT is believed to play a major role in telomerase activation in human cancers. MAIN BODY: The dominant interest in telomerase results from its role in cancer. The role of telomeres and telomere maintenance mechanisms is well established as a major driving force in generating chromosomal and genomic instability...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471014/epigenomic-drugs-and-the-germline-collateral-damage-in-the-home-of-heritability
#10
REVIEW
Patrick S Western
The testis and ovary provide specialised environments that nurture germ cells and facilitate their maturation, culminating in the production of mature gametes that can found the following generation. The sperm and egg not only transmit genetic information, but also epigenetic modifications that affect the development and physiology of offspring. Importantly, the epigenetic information contained in mature sperm and oocytes can be influenced by a range of environmental factors, such as diet, chemicals and drugs...
February 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456764/integrative-analysis-of-the-epigenetic-basis-of-muscle-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma
#11
Thomas Sanford, Maxwell V Meng, Reema Railkar, Piyush K Agarwal, Sima P Porten
Background: Elucidation of epigenetic alterations in bladder cancer will lead to further understanding of the biology of the disease and hopefully improved therapies. Our aim was to perform an integrative epigenetic analysis of invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder to identify the epigenetic abnormalities involved in the development and progression of this cancer. Methods: Pre-processed methylation data and RNA-seq data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and processed using the R package TCGA-Assembler...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360725/clinical-development-of-pd-1-blockade-in-hematologic-malignancies
#12
Matthew J Pianko, Aaron D Goldberg, Alexander M Lesokhin
Clinical development of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1 pathway has led to clinical benefits for patients with multiple solid tumor and hematologic malignancies and has revolutionized modern oncology. High response rates to PD-1 blockade in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma and certain subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma highlight an intrinsic biologic sensitivity to this strategy of treatment. Despite early success of checkpoint inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug combinations in phase 2 studies in multiple myeloma, safety concerns in patients treated with the combination of immunomodulatory drugs and checkpoint inhibitors in myeloma have stalled drug development in this space...
January 2018: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305580/the-epigenetically-regulated-mir-494-associates-with-stem-cell-phenotype-and-induces-sorafenib-resistance-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Daniela Pollutri, Clarissa Patrizi, Sara Marinelli, Catia Giovannini, Elena Trombetta, Ferdinando A Giannone, Maurizio Baldassarre, Santina Quarta, Y P Vandewynckel, A Vandierendonck, H Van Vlierberghe, Laura Porretti, Massimo Negrini, Luigi Bolondi, Laura Gramantieri, Francesca Fornari
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is associated with poor prognosis, especially in patients not amenable for curative treatments. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib represents the first-line treatment option for advanced HCC; nevertheless, its effectiveness is limited due to tumor heterogeneity as well as innate or acquired drug resistance, raising the need for new therapeutic strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) involvement in treatment response as well as their safety and efficacy in preclinical models and clinical trials have been widely documented in the oncologic field, including HCC...
January 5, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233295/novel-approaches-to-targeting-brd4
#14
REVIEW
Olesya A Kharenko, Henrik C Hansen
Inhibition of bromo and extra-terminal (BET) bromodomains, including BRD4, has emerged as a new exciting epigenetic target for oncology, in particular. Recently, novel alternatives to the traditional use of reversible small molecules have emerged, including proteolytic targeting BET agents and irreversible binding inhibitors. These alternatives to reversible inhibitors may offer some advantage and can be used as tools to further decipher the underlying biology. Supportive pre-clinical data have these novel approaches bound for clinical development in the near future...
June 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230998/-research-progress-on-the-detection-method-of-dna-methylation-and-its-application-in-forensic-science
#15
REVIEW
Y C Nie, L J Yu, H Guan, Y Zhao, H B Rong, B W Jiang, T Zhang
As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215703/design-synthesis-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsaturated-carboxylic-acid-and-its-urea-based-derivatives-that-explores-novel-epigenetic-modulators-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a549-cell-line
#16
Anusha Chidambaram, Kavya Sundararaju, Ramesh K Chidambaram, Rajasekaran Subbiah, John M Jayaraj, Karthikeyan Muthusamy, Ravikumar Vilwanathan
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a small molecule chemotherapeutics that target the chromatin remodeling through the regulation of histone and non-histone proteins. These inhibitors directed against histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have become an important therapeutic tool in oncology; consequently, scientific efforts have fortified the quest for newer and novel HDACi, which forces the design of structurally innovative HDACi. Various urea containing compounds exhibited admirable anticancer activity...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174566/the-roles-of-pathology-in-targeted-therapy-of-women-with-gynecologic-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Rajmohan Murali, Rachel N Grisham, Robert A Soslow
The role of the pathologist in the multidisciplinary management of women with gynecologic cancer has evolved substantially over the past decade. Pathologists' evaluation of parameters such as pathologic stage, histologic subtype, grade and microsatellite instability, and their identification of patients at risk for Lynch syndrome have become essential components of diagnosis, prognostic assessment and determination of optimal treatment of affected women. Despite the use of multimodality treatment and combination cytotoxic chemotherapy, the prognosis of women with advanced-stage gynecologic cancer is often poor...
January 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168653/utilizing-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer-an-interview-with-ajay-goel
#18
Ajay Goel
Ajay Goel speaks to Rachel Jenkins, Commissioning Editor. Ajay Goel, PhD, is a Professor and Director, Center for Gastrointestinal Research, and Director, Center for Translational Genomics and Oncology, at the Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. Dr Goel has spent more than 20 years researching cancer and has been the lead author or contributor to over 240 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed international journals and several book chapters...
December 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093018/the-future-of-surveillance-in-the-context-of-cancer-predisposition-through-the-murky-looking-glass
#19
EDITORIAL
David Malkin, Kim E Nichols, Joshua D Schiffman, Sharon E Plon, Garrett M Brodeur
At least 10% of children with cancer harbor a disease-associated pathogenic variant in a known cancer predisposition gene. It is widely accepted that pathogenic variants affecting other genes, epigenetic factors, or abnormalities in additional gene products may contribute to the etiology of many more childhood cancers. Effective preventive measures exist for only a few cancer types associated with predisposing conditions, but the development and implementation of surveillance protocols aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in at-risk children through the early detection of cancer has emerged as an important clinical tool...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058986/identification-of-clinical-and-biologic-correlates-associated-with-outcome-in-children-with-adrenocortical-tumors-without-germline-tp53-mutations-a-st-jude-adrenocortical-tumor-registry-and-children-s-oncology-group-study
#20
Emilia Modolo Pinto, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Stanley B Pounds, Lei Wang, Michael R Clay, Geoffrey Neale, Elizabeth A R Garfinkle, Catherine G Lam, Carolyn Fein Levy, Alberto S Pappo, Gerard P Zambetti, Raul C Ribeiro
Purpose The clinical features, pathogenesis, and outcomes in children with adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) without germline TP53 mutations have not been systematically studied. Herein, we describe these correlates and analyze their association with outcome. Patients and Methods Genomic DNA was analyzed for TP53, CTNNB1, CDKN1C, ATRX, and chromosome 11p15 abnormalities. β-catenin expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were evaluated by immunostaining. Primary end points were progression-free (PFS) and overall survival...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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