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epigenetics in oncology

Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Lamech M Mwapagha, Nasir Al-Awwad, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Michela Falco, Giuseppe Palma, Domenica Rea, Davide De Biase, Stefania Scala, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, Gaetano Facchini, Sisto Perdonà, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra
The term 'personalized medicine' refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a 'tailored' therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis...
December 2016: Open Biology
Ju Yeon Lee, Hyun Tae Lee, Woori Shin, Jongseok Chae, Jaemo Choi, Sung Hyun Kim, Heejin Lim, Tae Won Heo, Kyeong Young Park, Yeon Ji Lee, Seong Eon Ryu, Ji Young Son, Jee Un Lee, Yong-Seok Heo
Cancer cells express tumour-specific antigens derived via genetic and epigenetic alterations, which may be targeted by T-cell-mediated immune responses. However, cancer cells can avoid immune surveillance by suppressing immunity through activation of specific inhibitory signalling pathways, referred to as immune checkpoints. In recent years, the blockade of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4, with monoclonal antibodies has enabled the development of breakthrough therapies in oncology, and four therapeutic antibodies targeting these checkpoint molecules have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of several types of cancer...
October 31, 2016: Nature Communications
Wei Yang, Xiaoyuan Wang, Wei Zheng, Kedong Li, Haofeng Liu, Yueming Sun
Following the publication of this article, an interested reader drew to our attention anomalies associated with the data shown in Fig. 2, which presented the mRNA and protein expression levels of tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) in HuCCT1 cells. Essentially, the control bands for α-tubulin had been duplicated across from Fig. 2A to Fig. 2B, and from Fig. 2D to Fig. 2E [the experiments showing treatment of the cells with (A) manumycin A, (B) U0126, (D) 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (DAC) and (E) trichostatin A (TSA)], respectively...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Jason R Cuomo, Gyanendra K Sharma, Preston D Conger, Neal L Weintraub
Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors who have undergone mediastinal radiation therapy (RT). Cardiovascular complications include effusive or constrictive pericarditis, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and coronary/vascular disease. These are pathophysiologically distinct disease entities whose prevalence varies depending on the timing and extent of radiation exposure to the heart and great vessels. Although refinements in RT dosimetry and shielding will inevitably limit future cases of RICVD, the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, including those treated with older higher-dose RT regimens, will ensure a steady flow of afflicted patients for the foreseeable future...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Thomas A Rasmussen, Jenny L Anderson, Fiona Wightman, Sharon R Lewin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of anticancer therapies in various stages of clinical development as potential interventions to target HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetic drugs developed for cancer have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in clinical trials as interventions aimed at reversing HIV latency and depleting the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors induced HIV expression in patients on antiretroviral therapy but did not reduce the frequency of infected cells...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Dominic Tisi, Elisabetta Chiarparin, Emiliano Tamanini, Puja Pathuri, Joseph E Coyle, Adam Hold, Finn P Holding, Nader Amin, Agnes C L Martin, Sharna J Rich, Valerio Berdini, Jeff Yon, Paul Acklam, Rosemary Burke, Ludovic Drouin, Jenny E Harmer, Fiona Jeganathan, Rob L M van Montfort, Yvette Newbatt, Marcello Tortorici, Maura Westlake, Amy Wood, Swen Hoelder, Tom D Heightman
The members of the NSD subfamily of lysine methyl transferases are compelling oncology targets due to the recent characterization of gain-of-function mutations and translocations in several hematological cancers. To date, these proteins have proven intractable to small molecule inhibition. Here, we present initial efforts to identify inhibitors of MMSET (aka NSD2 or WHSC1) using solution phase and crystal structural methods. On the basis of 2D NMR experiments comparing NSD1 and MMSET structural mobility, we designed an MMSET construct with five point mutations in the N-terminal helix of its SET domain for crystallization experiments and elucidated the structure of the mutant MMSET SET domain at 2...
September 27, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Matthieu Schapira
Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) participate in the epigenetic control of cell fate and other signaling pathways that are deregulated in disease, and the first PMT inhibitors have entered clinical trials in oncology. This review discusses structural studies that recently uncovered the mode of action of compounds in the clinic, as well as challenges and opportunities in the development of PMT inhibitors. It examines inhibitors that compete with the highly polar cofactor but preserve cell penetrance, and allosteric modes of inhibition...
September 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Diane Catherine Wang, Xiangdong Wang
The concept of systems heterogeneity was firstly coined and explained in the Special Issue, as a new alternative to understand the importance and complexity of heterogeneity in cancer. Systems heterogeneity can offer a full image of heterogeneity at multi-dimensional functions and multi-omics by integrating gene or protein expression, epigenetics, sequencing, phosphorylation, transcription, pathway, or interaction. The Special Issue starts with the roles of epigenetics in the initiation and development of cancer heterogeneity through the interaction between permanent genetic mutations and dynamic epigenetic alterations...
August 20, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Carmela Paolillo, Eric Londin, Paolo Fortina
Over the past decade, testing the genes of patients and their specific cancer types has become standardized practice in medical oncology since somatic mutations, changes in gene expression and epigenetic modifications are all hallmarks of cancer. However, while cancer genetic assessment has been limited to single biomarkers to guide the use of therapies, improvements in nucleic acid sequencing technologies and implementation of different genome analysis tools have enabled clinicians to detect these genomic alterations and identify functional and disease-associated genomic variants...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
J Šmardová, J Koptíková
BACKGROUND: The somatic mutation theory explaining the process of carcinogenesis is generally accepted. The theory postulates that carcinogenesis begins in a first renegade cell that undergoes gradual transformation from a healthy to a fully malignant state through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic "hits". This theory focuses specifically on mutations and genetic aberrations, and their impact on cells. It considers tumors as populations of sick cells that lose control of their own proliferation...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Joby Cole, Paul Morris, Mark J Dickman, David H Dockrell
Epigenetic modifications are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. They represent a critical mechanism regulating transcriptional profiles in the immune system that contributes to the cell-type and stimulus specificity of the transcriptional response. Recent data highlight how epigenetic changes impact macrophage functional responses and polarization, influencing the innate immune system through macrophage tolerance and training. In this review we will explore how post-translational modifications of histone tails influence immune function to specific infectious diseases...
August 9, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
C Rory Goodwin, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Mark H Bilsky, Jeremy J Reynolds, Laurence D Rhines, Ilya Laufer, Alexander C Disch, Arpad Bozsodi, Shreyaskumar R Patel, Ziya L Gokaslan, Daniel M Sciubba, Chetan Bettegowda
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVE: To describe advancements in molecular techniques, biomarkers, technology, and targeted therapeutics and the potential these modalities hold to predict treatment paradigms, clinical outcomes, and/or survival in patients diagnosed with primary spinal column tumors. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Advances in molecular technologies and techniques have influenced the prevention, diagnosis, and overall management of patients diagnosed with cancer...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Alba Maiques-Diaz, Tim Cp Somervaille
LSD1 (KDM1A; BHC110; AOF2) was the first protein reported to exhibit histone demethylase activity and has since been shown to have multiple essential roles in mammalian biology. Given its enzymatic activity and its high-level expression in many human malignancies, a significant recent focus has been the development of pharmacologic inhibitors. Here we summarize structural and biochemical knowledge of this important epigenetic regulator, with a particular emphasis on the functional and preclinical studies in oncology that have provided justification for the evaluation of tranylcypromine derivative LSD1 inhibitors in early phase clinical trials...
August 2016: Epigenomics
Maria Ramaglia, Velia D'Angelo, Adriana Iannotta, Daniela Di Pinto, Elvira Pota, Maria Carmen Affinita, Vittoria Donofrio, Maria Elena Errico, Angela Lombardi, Cristiana Indolfi, Fiorina Casale, Michele Caraglia
BACKGROUND: Enhancer of Zeste Drosophila Homologue 2 (EZH2) is a key regulator of transcription as a member of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) which exerts repression of downstream genes and is correlated to invasiveness and progression of different tumours. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PRC2 proteins in pediatric soft tissue sarcoma (rhabdomyosarcoma, RMS and extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, EES) correlating them to the clinical outcome of the patients. METHODS: We analyzed PRC2 protein expression by quantitative real time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry in 17 soft tissue sarcomas (11 RMS and 6 EES) enrolled at Paediatric Oncology Units of the Second University of Naples...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Marlise R Luskin, Phyllis A Gimotty, Catherine Smith, Alison W Loren, Maria E Figueroa, Jenna Harrison, Zhuoxin Sun, Martin S Tallman, Elisabeth M Paietta, Mark R Litzow, Ari M Melnick, Ross L Levine, Hugo F Fernandez, Selina M Luger, Martin Carroll, Stephen R Master, Gerald B W Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Variable response to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a major treatment challenge. Clinical and genetic features incompletely predict outcome. The value of clinical epigenetic assays for risk classification has not been extensively explored. We assess the prognostic implications of a clinical assay for multilocus DNA methylation on adult patients with de novo AML. METHODS: We performed multilocus DNA methylation assessment using xMELP on samples and calculated a methylation statistic (M-score) for 166 patients from UPENN with de novo AML who received induction chemotherapy...
June 16, 2016: JCI Insight
Yi-Chao Zheng, Jin-Lian Ma, Ying Liu, Hong M Liu
Histone lysine methylation can be modified by various writers and erasers. Different from other epigenetic modifications, mono-, di, and tri- methylation distinctly modulate chromatin structure and thereby contribute to the regulation of DNA-based nuclear processes such as transcription, replication and repair on their target genes depending on different sites. Modulators with opposing catalytic activities dynamically and precisely control levels of histone lysine methylation, and individual enzymes within these families have become candidate oncology targets in recent years...
July 15, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Carlo Selmi
Compared to the clear trend observed in previous years, the number of peer-reviewed articles published during 2015 and retrieved using the "autoimmunity" key word declined by 4 %, while remaining 5 % of immunology articles. On the other hand, a more detailed analysis of the published articles in leading immunology and autoimmunity journals revealed exciting scenarios, with fascinating lines of evidence being supported by convincing data and likely followed by rapid translational or clinical developments. As examples, the study of the microbiome, the development of new serum or other tissue biomarkers, and a more solid understanding of disease pathogenesis and tolerance breakdown mechanisms have been central issues in the past year...
August 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Laura Lori, Alessandra Pasquo, Clorinda Lori, Maria Petrosino, Roberta Chiaraluce, Cynthia Tallant, Stefan Knapp, Valerio Consalvi
Lysine acetylation is an important epigenetic mark regulating gene transcription and chromatin structure. Acetylated lysine residues are specifically recognized by bromodomains, small protein interaction modules that read these modification in a sequence and acetylation dependent way regulating the recruitment of transcriptional regulators and chromatin remodelling enzymes to acetylated sites in chromatin. Recent studies revealed that bromodomains are highly druggable protein interaction domains resulting in the development of a large number of bromodomain inhibitors...
2016: PloS One
D Scott McMeekin, David L Tritchler, David E Cohn, David G Mutch, Heather A Lankes, Melissa A Geller, Matthew A Powell, Floor J Backes, Lisa M Landrum, Richard Zaino, Russell D Broaddus, Nilsa Ramirez, Feng Gao, Shamshad Ali, Kathleen M Darcy, Michael L Pearl, Paul A DiSilvestro, Shashikant B Lele, Paul J Goodfellow
PURPOSE: The clinicopathologic significance of mismatch repair (MMR) defects in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) has not been definitively established. We undertook tumor typing to classify MMR defects to determine if MMR status is prognostic or predictive. METHODS: Primary EECs from NRG/GOG0210 patients were assessed for microsatellite instability (MSI), MLH1 methylation, and MMR protein expression. Each tumor was assigned to one of four MMR classes: normal, epigenetic defect, probable mutation (MMR defect not attributable to MLH1 methylation), or MSI-low...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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