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epigenetics in oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931097/-approaching-new-pharmacotherapy-options-in-pain-treatment
#1
András Telekes
The evolution of medicine is noticeable in most therapeutic areas, the worse the current therapeutic result, the more quick the improvement. This is especially true in such areas that require substantial social resources, namely oncology, diabetology and CNS diseases. Pain is not a disease, it is a symptom. Pain is one of the most important components of human suffering thus it deserves special attention. In recent years new formulations of old medicines were introduced rather than new medicines. Maybe ziconitide is the last pain killer with new mechanism of action which was approved by FDA in 2004...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930219/qigong-in-cancer-care-theory-evidence-base-and-practice
#2
Penelope Klein
Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine...
January 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926430/targeting-histone-methylation-in-cancer
#3
Michael T McCabe, Helai P Mohammad, Olena Barbash, Ryan G Kruger
Most, if not all, human cancers exhibit altered epigenetic signatures that promote aberrant gene expression that contributes to cellular transformation. Historically, attempts to pharmacologically intervene in this process have focused on DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, genome-wide studies have identified histone and chromatin regulators as one of the most frequently dysregulated functional classes in a wide range of cancer types. These findings have provided numerous potential therapeutic targets including many that affect histone methylation...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926426/epigenetics-and-precision-oncology
#4
Rachael J Werner, Andrew D Kelly, Jean-Pierre J Issa
Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation defects and aberrant covalent histone modifications occur within all cancers and are selected for throughout the natural history of tumor formation, with changes being detectable in early onset, progression, and ultimately recurrence and metastasis. The ascertainment and use of these marks to identify at-risk patient populations, refine diagnostic criteria, and provide prognostic and predictive factors to guide treatment decisions are of growing clinical relevance...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904641/histone-code-and-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-aberrations-in-lung-cancer-implications-in-the-therapy-response
#5
REVIEW
Abril Marcela Herrera-Solorio, Leonel Armas-López, Oscar Arrieta, Joaquín Zúñiga, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Respiratory diseases hold several genome, epigenome, and transcriptional aberrations as a cause of the accumulated damage promoted by, among others, environmental risk factors. Such aberrations can also come about as an adaptive response when faced with therapeutic oncological drugs. In epigenetic terms, aberrations in DNA methylation patterns, histone code marks balance, and/or chromatin-remodeling complexes recruitment, among Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2) versus Trithorax (TRX) Activator Complex, have been proposed to be affected by several previously characterized functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881702/the-epigenetic-integrator-uhrf1-on-the-road-to-become-a-universal-biomarker-for-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Waseem Ashraf, Abdulkhaleg Ibrahim, Mahmoud Alhosin, Liliyana Zaayter, Khalid Ouararhni, Christophe Papin, Tanveer Ahmad, Ali Hamiche, Yves Mély, Christian Bronner, Marc Mousli
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world causing record number of mortalities in both developed and undeveloped countries. Despite a lot of advances and breakthroughs in the field of oncology still, it is very hard to diagnose and treat the cancers at early stages. Here in this review we analyze the potential of Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and Ring Finger domain 1 (UHRF1) as a universal biomarker for cancers. UHRF1 is an important epigenetic regulator maintaining DNA methylation and histone code in the cell...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875369/-personalized-oncology
#7
REVIEW
C Heining, P Horak, S Gröschel, H Glimm, S Fröhling
CLINICAL ISSUE: Innovative next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and comprehensive sequencing investigations in large patient cohorts have paved the way for very promising personalized treatment strategies based on the molecular characteristics of individual tumors. STANDARD TREATMENT: Targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies and modern immunotherapeutic approaches are well established as monotherapy and combination therapy for many hematological and oncological malignancies...
September 5, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830841/molecular-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-implications-in-pediatric-high-grade-gliomas
#8
REVIEW
Tareq A Juratli, Nan Qin, Daniel P Cahill, Mariella G Filbin
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common malignant brain tumors in the pediatric population and account for a large subset of all pediatric central nervous system neoplasms. The management of pediatric HGG continues to be challenging, with poor outcome in many cases despite aggressive treatments. Consequently, parallel research efforts have been focused on identifying the underlying genetic and biological basis of pediatric HGG in order to more clearly define prognostic subgroups for treatment stratification as well as identify new treatment targets...
August 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770179/risk-factors-for-breast-cancer-in-gaza-strip-palestine-a-case-control-study
#9
Mueen Kariri, Marwan O Jalambo, Basil Kanou, Saleh Deqes, Samaher Younis, Baker Zabut, Usama Balawi
Breast cancer (BC) is the main common cause of cancer mortality among women in the world. This study aims at investigating BC epidemiology and identifying the different risk factors associated and the most affecting ones among women in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. This study was a hospital-based case-control (1:2), as the study was carried out over the period of October 2014 to February 2015. A total of 105 BC patients, chosen from Al-Shifa Hospital in Gaza City and European hospital for the south governorate, were the case and compared to 209 women as a control group who matched the cases in age, residence, and with no history of breast problems...
July 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765517/the-hedgehog-gli-pathway-in-embryonic-development-and-cancer-implications-for-pulmonary-oncology-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Armas López Leonel, Zúñiga Joaquín, Arrieta Oscar, Ávila-Moreno Federico
Transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms closely control gene expression through diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. These include the development of germ layers and post-natal epithelial cell-tissue differentiation, as well as, involved with the induction, promotion and/or progression of human malignancies.Diverse studies have shed light on the molecular similarities and differences involved in the stages of embryological epithelial development and dedifferentiation processes in malignant tumors of epithelial origin, of which many focus on lung carcinomas...
July 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754000/the-role-of-tumor-microenvironment-in-chemoresistance-to-survive-keep-your-enemies-closer
#11
REVIEW
Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Hendrina Shipanga, Daniella Munro, Mohammad A M Al Mazeedi, Hashim A M Almazyadi, Karlien Kallmeyer, Collet Dandara, Michael S Pepper, M Iqbal Parker, Kevin Dzobo
Chemoresistance is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer and it continues to be a challenge in cancer treatment. Chemoresistance is influenced by genetic and epigenetic alterations which affect drug uptake, metabolism and export of drugs at the cellular levels. While most research has focused on tumor cell autonomous mechanisms of chemoresistance, the tumor microenvironment has emerged as a key player in the development of chemoresistance and in malignant progression, thereby influencing the development of novel therapies in clinical oncology...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735685/utilizing-circulating-tumour-dna-in-radiation-oncology
#12
REVIEW
Ariana Rostami, Scott V Bratman
Emerging technologies for detection of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) are expanding the possibilities for clinical impact to patients with localized, potentially curable cancer. For such patients, ctDNA analysis could aid in prognostication, prediction of treatment response, longitudinal monitoring for adaptive treatment, and evaluation of minimal residual disease. Radiation oncologists currently have few tools at their disposal for predicting or rapidly assessing treatment efficacy. By reflecting the genetic and epigenetic makeup of tumours as well as dynamic changes with treatment, ctDNA as a biomarker for radiation response could enable new personalized treatment approaches...
July 20, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711921/mir-30e-is-overexpressed-in-prostate-cancer-and-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#13
Shawn M Egan, Ellen Karasik, Leigh Ellis, Sandra O Gollnick
According to the CDC prostate cancer (CaP) has the highest incidence and second highest mortality rate amongst cancers in American men. Constitutive NF-κB activation is a hallmark of CaP and this pathway drives many pro-tumorigenic characteristics of CaP cells, including cell proliferation and survival. An activated NF-κB gene signature is predictive of CaP progression and biochemical recurrence following therapeutic intervention. However, the mechanisms that perpetuate NF-κB activation are incompletely understood...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678605/the-early-pregnancy-placenta-foreshadows-dna-methylation-alterations-of-solid-tumors
#14
Akpéli V Nordor, Djamel Nehar-Belaid, Sophie Richon, David Klatzmann, Dominique Bellet, Virginie Dangles-Marie, Thierry Fournier, Martin J Aryee
The placenta relies on phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer to successfully implant the embryo in the uterus during early pregnancy. Notably, it has to invade its host tissues, promote angiogenesis-while surviving hypoxia-, and escape the immune system. Similarities in DNA methylation patterns between the placenta and cancers suggest that common epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in regulating these behaviors. We show here that megabase-scale patterns of hypomethylation distinguish first from third trimester chorionic villi in the placenta, and that these patterns mirror those that distinguish many tumors from corresponding normal tissues...
July 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674120/surveillance-recommendations-for-children-with-overgrowth-syndromes-and-predisposition-to-wilms-tumors-and-hepatoblastoma
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer M Kalish, Leslie Doros, Lee J Helman, Raoul C Hennekam, Roland P Kuiper, Saskia M Maas, Eamonn R Maher, Kim E Nichols, Sharon E Plon, Christopher C Porter, Surya Rednam, Kris Ann P Schultz, Lisa J States, Gail E Tomlinson, Kristin Zelley, Todd E Druley
A number of genetic syndromes have been linked to increased risk for Wilms tumor (WT), hepatoblastoma (HB), and other embryonal tumors. Here, we outline these rare syndromes with at least a 1% risk to develop these tumors and recommend uniform tumor screening recommendations for North America. Specifically, for syndromes with increased risk for WT, we recommend renal ultrasounds every 3 months from birth (or the time of diagnosis) through the seventh birthday. For HB, we recommend screening with full abdominal ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein serum measurements every 3 months from birth (or the time of diagnosis) through the fourth birthday...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606381/which-origin-for-polycystic-ovaries-syndrome-genetic-environmental-or-both
#16
Patrick Fenichel, Charlotte Rougier, Sylvie Hieronimus, Nicolas Chevalier
Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS), the most common female endocrine disorder, affects 7-10% of women of childbearing age. It includes ovarian hyperandrogenism, impaired follicular maturation, anovulation and subfertility. Insulin resistance, although present in most cases, is not necessary for diagnosis. It increases hyperandrogenism and long-term metabolic, cardiovascular and oncological risks. The origin of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia has a genetic component, as demonstrated by familial aggregation studies and recent identification of associated genomic variants, conferring a particular susceptibility to the syndrome...
July 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600472/precision-medicine-in-pediatric-oncology-translating-genomic-discoveries-into-optimized-therapies
#17
REVIEW
Thai Hoa Tran, Avanthi Tayi Shah, Mignon L Loh
Survival of children with cancers has dramatically improved over the past several decades. This success has been achieved through improvement of combined modalities in treatment approaches, intensification of cytotoxic chemotherapy for those with high-risk disease, and refinement of risk stratification incorporating novel biologic markers in addition to traditional clinical and histologic features. Advances in cancer genomics have shed important mechanistic insights on disease biology and have identified "driver" genomic alterations, aberrant activation of signaling pathways, and epigenetic modifiers that can be targeted by novel agents...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571582/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-31-39-edited-by-chinese-journal-of-cancer
#18
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
To accelerate our endeavors to overcome cancer, Chinese Journal of Cancer has launched a program of publishing 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology. In this article, 9 more questions are presented as follows. Question 31: How does aging process inhibit the formation of sarcoma? Question 32: Is intratumoral morphological heterogeneity the consequence of tumor genomic instability or the cause of aggressive tumor behavior? Can we identify more aggressive tumors by computationally analyzing the morphological heterogeneity of the tumor tissues? Question 33: How to pre-surgically differentiate irradiation-induced ulceration from cancerous ulceration? Question 34: Why is epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19 Del-positive tumor more sensitive to targeted therapy than EGFR 21 L858R-positive tumor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer? Question 35: Can an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine be developed to reduce the incidence of EBV-related malignancies? Question 36: What is the unique feature in sarcoma vasculature that causes the intrinsic resistance of sarcoma against anti-angiogenic therapy? Question 37: How many ways can sarcoma cells protect themselves from the attacks of cytotoxic drugs? Question 38: How stable does the tumor heterogeneity remain along with cytotoxic chemotherapy? Question 39: How to generate a prognostic classifier for diffuse low-grade gliomas by integrating genetic and epigenetic signatures with histological features?...
June 2, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537914/epigenomic-study-identifies-a-novel-mesenchyme-homeobox2-gli1-transcription-axis-involved-in-cancer-drug-resistance-overall-survival-and-therapy-prognosis-in-lung-cancer-patients
#19
Leonel Armas-López, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Oscar Arrieta, Enrique Guzman de Alba, Blanca Ortiz-Quintero, Patricio Santillán-Doherty, David C Christiani, Joaquín Zúñiga, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Several homeobox-related gene (HOX) transcription factors such as mesenchyme HOX-2 (MEOX2) have previously been associated with cancer drug resistance, malignant progression and/or clinical prognostic responses in lung cancer patients; however, the mechanisms involved in these responses have yet to be elucidated. Here, an epigenomic strategy was implemented to identify novel MEOX2 gene promoter transcription targets and propose a new molecular mechanism underlying lung cancer drug resistance and poor clinical prognosis...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505447/interrogating-the-roles-of-post-translational-modifications-of-non-histone-proteins
#20
Zakey Yusuf Buuh, Zhigang Lyu, Rongsheng E Wang
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) allot versatility to the biological functions of highly conserved proteins. Recently, modifications to non-histone proteins such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, and many more have been linked to the regulation of pivotal pathways related to cellular response and stability. Due to the roles these dynamic modifications assume, their dysregulation has been associated with cancer and many other important diseases such as inflammatory disorders and neurodegenerative diseases...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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