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epigenetics in oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093018/the-future-of-surveillance-in-the-context-of-cancer-predisposition-through-the-murky-looking-glass
#1
EDITORIAL
David Malkin, Kim E Nichols, Joshua D Schiffman, Sharon E Plon, Garrett M Brodeur
At least 10% of children with cancer harbor a disease-associated pathogenic variant in a known cancer predisposition gene. It is widely accepted that pathogenic variants affecting other genes, epigenetic factors, or abnormalities in additional gene products may contribute to the etiology of many more childhood cancers. Effective preventive measures exist for only a few cancer types associated with predisposing conditions, but the development and implementation of surveillance protocols aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in at-risk children through the early detection of cancer has emerged as an important clinical tool...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058986/identification-of-clinical-and-biologic-correlates-associated-with-outcome-in-children-with-adrenocortical-tumors-without-germline-tp53-mutations-a-st-jude-adrenocortical-tumor-registry-and-children-s-oncology-group-study
#2
Emilia Modolo Pinto, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Stanley B Pounds, Lei Wang, Michael R Clay, Geoffrey Neale, Elizabeth A R Garfinkle, Catherine G Lam, Carolyn Fein Levy, Alberto S Pappo, Gerard P Zambetti, Raul C Ribeiro
Purpose The clinical features, pathogenesis, and outcomes in children with adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) without germline TP53 mutations have not been systematically studied. Herein, we describe these correlates and analyze their association with outcome. Patients and Methods Genomic DNA was analyzed for TP53, CTNNB1, CDKN1C, ATRX, and chromosome 11p15 abnormalities. β-catenin expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were evaluated by immunostaining. Primary end points were progression-free (PFS) and overall survival...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057232/expanded-molecular-interrogation-for-potential-actionable-targets-in-non-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Kah Weng Lau, Claudia Seng, Tony K H Lim, Daniel S W Tan
The advent of targeted therapies has established new standards of care for defined molecular subsets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Not only has this led to significant changes in the routine clinical management of lung cancer e.g., multiplexed genomic testing, but it has provided important principles and benchmarks for determining "actionability". At present, the clinical paradigms are most evolved for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements, where multiple randomized phase III trials have determined optimal treatment strategies in both treatment naïve and resistant settings...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029592/pharmacoepigenetics-and-toxicoepigenetics-novel-mechanistic-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#4
Volker M Lauschke, Isabel Barragan, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
Pharmacological treatment and exposure to xenobiotics can cause substantial changes in epigenetic signatures. The majority of these epigenetic changes, caused by the compounds in question, occur downstream of transcriptional activation mechanisms, whereby the epigenetic alterations can create a transcriptional memory and stably modulate cell function. The increasing understanding of epigenetic mechanisms and their importance in disease has prompted the development of therapeutic interventions that target epigenetic modulatory mechanisms, particularly in oncology where inhibitors of epigenetic-modifying proteins (epidrugs) have been successfully used in treatment, mostly in combination with standard-of-care chemotherapy, provoking either direct cytotoxicity or inhibiting resistance to anticancer drugs...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028415/crispr-cas9-mediated-noncoding-rna-editing-in-human-cancers
#5
Jie Yang, Xiaodan Meng, Jinchang Pan, Nan Jiang, Chengwei Zhou, Zhenhua Wu, Zhaohui Gong
Cancer is characterized by multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations, including a higher prevalence of mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors. Mounting evidences have shown that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the epigenetic regulation of cancer genes and their associated pathways. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, a revolutionary genome-editing technology, has shed light on ncRNA-based cancer therapy. Here, we briefly introduce the classifications and mechanisms of CRISPR/Cas9 system...
October 13, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016348/parp-1-and-parp-2-activity-in-cancer-induced-cachexia-potential-therapeutic-implications
#6
Esther Barreiro, Joaquim Gea
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and mass loss is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic diseases including cancer and acute conditions such as critical illness. Maintenance of an adequate muscle mass is crucial for the patients' prognosis irrespective of the underlying condition. Moreover, aging-related sarcopenia may further aggravate the muscle wasting process associated with chronic diseases and cancer. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation has been demonstrated to contribute to the pathophysiology of muscle mass loss and dysfunction in animal models of cancer-induced cachexia...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994387/-the-identity-of-normal-and-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Lucie Laplane, Éric Solary
What is a stem cell? Is stemness an intrinsic or extrinsic property? What role does the microenvironment play in the stemness identity? We distinguish four identities for normal and cancerous stem cells and explore their consequences for therapeutic strategy choice in the oncology setting. Acquisition of genetic and epigenetic alterations during cell transformation and disease progression questions the stability of the stemness property's identity in cancers.
October 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992739/pharmacogenetic-and-pharmacogenomic-considerations-of-asthma-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Maria Gabriella Matera, Barbara Rinaldi, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola
Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic approaches are already utilized in some areas, such as oncology and cardiovascular disease, for selecting appropriate patients and/or establishing treatment and dosing guidelines. This is not true in asthma although many patients have different responses to drug treatment due to genetic factors. Areas covered: Several genetic factors that affect the pharmacotherapeutic responses to asthma medications, such as β2-AR agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene modifiers and could contribute to significant between-person variability in response are described...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978058/mir-30e-is-overexpressed-in-prostate-cancer-and-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#9
Shawn M Egan, Ellen Karasik, Leigh Ellis, Sandra O Gollnick
According to the CDC prostate cancer (CaP) has the highest incidence and second highest mortality rate amongst cancers in American men. Constitutive NF-κB activation is a hallmark of CaP and this pathway drives many pro-tumorigenic characteristics of CaP cells, including cell proliferation and survival. An activated NF-κB gene signature is predictive of CaP progression and biochemical recurrence following therapeutic intervention. However, the mechanisms that perpetuate NF-κB activation are incompletely understood...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978016/epigenomic-study-identifies-a-novel-mesenchyme-homeobox2-gli1-transcription-axis-involved-in-cancer-drug-resistance-overall-survival-and-therapy-prognosis-in-lung-cancer-patients
#10
Leonel Armas-López, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Oscar Arrieta, Enrique Guzman de Alba, Blanca Ortiz-Quintero, Patricio Santillán-Doherty, David C Christiani, Joaquín Zúñiga, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Several homeobox-related gene (HOX) transcription factors such as mesenchyme HOX-2 (MEOX2) have previously been associated with cancer drug resistance, malignant progression and/or clinical prognostic responses in lung cancer patients; however, the mechanisms involved in these responses have yet to be elucidated. Here, an epigenomic strategy was implemented to identify novel MEOX2 gene promoter transcription targets and propose a new molecular mechanism underlying lung cancer drug resistance and poor clinical prognosis...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948003/the-hedgehog-gli-pathway-in-embryonic-development-and-cancer-implications-for-pulmonary-oncology-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Leonel Armas-López, Joaquín Zúñiga, Oscar Arrieta, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms closely control gene expression through diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. These include the development of germ layers and post-natal epithelial cell-tissue differentiation, as well as, involved with the induction, promotion and/or progression of human malignancies. Diverse studies have shed light on the molecular similarities and differences involved in the stages of embryological epithelial development and dedifferentiation processes in malignant tumors of epithelial origin, of which many focus on lung carcinomas...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935018/-progress-of-epigenetic-methylation-in-lung-cancer-research
#12
Shaowei Zhang, Zhiqiang Xue
Lung cancer is becoming an increasing threat to Chinese residents and its incidence continues to rise while the treatment effect is far from satisfactory. Hence, it is essential to improve the level of early diagnosis, treatment, prognosis in lung cancer. An epigenetic trait is a stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence. The epigenetic studies, such as DNA methylation and histone methylation, are progressing rapidly in oncology research. A comprehensive understanding of its development status and existing problems is of great significance for the future research and the implementation of precision medicine...
September 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931097/-approaching-new-pharmacotherapy-options-in-pain-treatment
#13
András Telekes
The evolution of medicine is noticeable in most therapeutic areas, the worse the current therapeutic result, the more quick the improvement. This is especially true in such areas that require substantial social resources, namely oncology, diabetology and CNS diseases. Pain is not a disease, it is a symptom. Pain is one of the most important components of human suffering thus it deserves special attention. In recent years new formulations of old medicines were introduced rather than new medicines. Maybe ziconitide is the last pain killer with new mechanism of action which was approved by FDA in 2004...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930219/qigong-in-cancer-care-theory-evidence-base-and-practice
#14
Penelope Klein
Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine...
January 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926430/targeting-histone-methylation-in-cancer
#15
Michael T McCabe, Helai P Mohammad, Olena Barbash, Ryan G Kruger
Most, if not all, human cancers exhibit altered epigenetic signatures that promote aberrant gene expression that contributes to cellular transformation. Historically, attempts to pharmacologically intervene in this process have focused on DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, genome-wide studies have identified histone and chromatin regulators as one of the most frequently dysregulated functional classes in a wide range of cancer types. These findings have provided numerous potential therapeutic targets including many that affect histone methylation...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926426/epigenetics-and-precision-oncology
#16
Rachael J Werner, Andrew D Kelly, Jean-Pierre J Issa
Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation defects and aberrant covalent histone modifications occur within all cancers and are selected for throughout the natural history of tumor formation, with changes being detectable in early onset, progression, and ultimately recurrence and metastasis. The ascertainment and use of these marks to identify at-risk patient populations, refine diagnostic criteria, and provide prognostic and predictive factors to guide treatment decisions are of growing clinical relevance...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904641/histone-code-and-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-aberrations-in-lung-cancer-implications-in-the-therapy-response
#17
REVIEW
Abril Marcela Herrera-Solorio, Leonel Armas-López, Oscar Arrieta, Joaquín Zúñiga, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Respiratory diseases hold several genome, epigenome, and transcriptional aberrations as a cause of the accumulated damage promoted by, among others, environmental risk factors. Such aberrations can also come about as an adaptive response when faced with therapeutic oncological drugs. In epigenetic terms, aberrations in DNA methylation patterns, histone code marks balance, and/or chromatin-remodeling complexes recruitment, among Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2) versus Trithorax (TRX) Activator Complex, have been proposed to be affected by several previously characterized functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881702/the-epigenetic-integrator-uhrf1-on-the-road-to-become-a-universal-biomarker-for-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Waseem Ashraf, Abdulkhaleg Ibrahim, Mahmoud Alhosin, Liliyana Zaayter, Khalid Ouararhni, Christophe Papin, Tanveer Ahmad, Ali Hamiche, Yves Mély, Christian Bronner, Marc Mousli
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world causing record number of mortalities in both developed and undeveloped countries. Despite a lot of advances and breakthroughs in the field of oncology still, it is very hard to diagnose and treat the cancers at early stages. Here in this review we analyze the potential of Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and Ring Finger domain 1 (UHRF1) as a universal biomarker for cancers. UHRF1 is an important epigenetic regulator maintaining DNA methylation and histone code in the cell...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875369/-personalized-oncology
#19
REVIEW
C Heining, P Horak, S Gröschel, H Glimm, S Fröhling
CLINICAL ISSUE: Innovative next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and comprehensive sequencing investigations in large patient cohorts have paved the way for very promising personalized treatment strategies based on the molecular characteristics of individual tumors. STANDARD TREATMENT: Targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies and modern immunotherapeutic approaches are well established as monotherapy and combination therapy for many hematological and oncological malignancies...
September 5, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830841/molecular-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-implications-in-pediatric-high-grade-gliomas
#20
REVIEW
Tareq A Juratli, Nan Qin, Daniel P Cahill, Mariella G Filbin
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common malignant brain tumors in the pediatric population and account for a large subset of all pediatric central nervous system neoplasms. The management of pediatric HGG continues to be challenging, with poor outcome in many cases despite aggressive treatments. Consequently, parallel research efforts have been focused on identifying the underlying genetic and biological basis of pediatric HGG in order to more clearly define prognostic subgroups for treatment stratification as well as identify new treatment targets...
August 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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