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Jenni Kyyriäinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated after brain injury and its depletion results in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We investigated the time-window and localization of PDGFRβ expression in mice with intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) and in rats with lateral fluid-percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tissue immunohistochemistry was evaluated at several time-points after SE and TBI. The distribution of PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double/triple-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), NG2 cells, and endothelial cells (RECA-1)...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Stefanie Albrecht, Karin Hagemeier, Marc Ehrlich, Claudia Kemming, Jacqueline Trotter, Tanja Kuhlmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: PloS One
Olivia Gay, Benoît Gilquin, Nicole Assard, Pascal Stuelsatz, Christian Delphin, Joël Lachuer, Xavier Gidrol, Jacques Baudier
Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are members of a novel family of Filamin binding proteins that function as molecular switches to conformationally alter the Actin filament network into bundles. We show here that Refilins are extremely labile proteins. An N-terminal PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif mediates ubiquitin-independent rapid degradation. A second degradation signal is localized within the C-terminus. Only RefilinB is protected from rapid degradation by an auto-inhibitory domain that masks the PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Liqun He, Michael Vanlandewijck, Elisabeth Raschperger, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Bongnam Jung, Thibaud Lebouvier, Koji Ando, Jennifer Hofmann, Annika Keller, Christer Betsholtz
Pericytes, the mural cells of blood microvessels, regulate microvascular development and function and have been implicated in many brain diseases. However, due to a paucity of defining markers, pericyte identification and functional characterization remain ambiguous and data interpretation problematic. In mice carrying two transgenic reporters, Pdgfrb-eGFP and NG2-DsRed, we found that double-positive cells were vascular mural cells, while the single reporters marked additional, but non-overlapping, neuroglial cells...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ryan L O'Hare Doig, Carole A Bartlett, Nicole M Smith, Stuart I Hodgetts, Sarah A Dunlop, Livia Hool, Melinda Fitzgerald
Combinations of Ca(2+) channel inhibitors have been proposed as an effective means to prevent excess Ca(2+) flux and death of neurons and glia following neurotrauma in vivo. However, it is not yet known if beneficial outcomes such as improved viability have been due to direct effects on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Here, the effects of combinations of Lomerizine (Lom), YM872, memantine and/or oxATP to block voltage gated Ca(2+) channels, Ca(2+) permeable AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors and purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) respectively, on Ca(2+) concentration and viability of primary mixed cortical cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) insult, were assessed...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Jaime Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Leda Dimou
NG2-glia are a mysterious and ubiquitous glial population with a highly branched morphology. Initial studies suggested that their unique function is the generation and maintenance of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), important for proper myelination and therefore for axonal support and fast conduction velocity. Over the last years this simplistic notion has been dramatically changed: the wide and homogeneous distribution of NG2-glia within all areas of the developing CNS that is maintained during the whole lifespan, their potential to also differentiate into other cell types in a spatiotemporal manner, their active capability of maintaining their population and their dynamic behavior in altered conditions have raised the question: are NG2-glia simple progenitor cells or do they play further major roles in the normal function of the CNS? In this chapter, we will discuss some important features of NG2-glia like their homeostatic distribution in the CNS and their potential to differentiate into diverse cell types...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andres A Urrutia, Aqeela Afzal, Jacob Nelson, Olena Davidoff, Kenneth W Gross, Volker H Haase
A classic response to systemic hypoxia is the increased production of red blood cells due to hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is essential for normal erythropoiesis and is predominantly synthesized by peritubular renal interstitial fibroblast-like cells, which express cellular markers characteristic of neuronal cells and pericytes. To investigate whether the ability to synthesize EPO is a general functional feature of pericytes, we used conditional gene targeting to examine the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) / prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) / HIF axis in cell expressing neural glial antigen 2 (NG2), a known molecular marker of pericytes in multiple organs...
September 28, 2016: Blood
Ania Stefanska, Christopher Kenyon, Helen C Christian, Charlotte Buckley, Isaac Shaw, John J Mullins, Bruno Péault
Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro...
September 24, 2016: Kidney International
Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Moara E Silva Conceição Pinto, Lucas de Araújo Bastos Santana, Ingrid Grazielle Souza, Luan Kelves Miranda de Souza, Natássia Cristina Martins Oliveira, Claudio Angelo Ventura, Pedro Duarte Novaes, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa, Jand-Venes Rolim Medeiros, Ivana Mikolasevic, Arya Mani, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The damages caused by periodontitis have affected not only periodontal tissues, but have also increased the severity of different illnesses such as: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between induced periodontitis and the damages caused through its systemic effects on the liver. METHODS: Twenty rats were divided into two groups: control and periodontitis. The following parameters were evaluated: Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, Alveolar Bone Loss (ABL) for periodontal tissues; histopathological examination of gingival and liver tissues; immunohistochemistry to positive cell for neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2) expressed in hepatic pericytes, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver; serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Valeria B Gotti, Américo B Correr, Steven H Lewis, Victor P Feitosa, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, Jeffrey W Stansbury
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of hydrophilicity of reactive nanogels on the mechanical performance of dental adhesives and microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin after 24h or 3 months of aging. METHODS: A series of three nanogels were synthesized: NG1-IBMA/UDMA; NG2-HEMA/BisGMA; NG3-HEMA/TE-EGDMA. The nanogels were dispersed in solvent, HEMA or BisGMA/HEMA. The degree of conversion (DC) of the materials was measured and the flexural modulus of these polymers was evaluated in dry or wet conditions...
September 21, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Samah Kalakh, Abdeslam Mouihate
There is compelling evidence that microglial activation negatively impacts neurogenesis. However, microglia have also been shown to promote recruitment of newly born neurons to injured areas of the gray matter. In the present study, we explored whether demyelination-triggered inflammation alters the process of neurogenesis in the white matter. A 2-μl solution of 0.04 % ethidium bromide was stereotaxically injected into the corpus callosum of adult male rats. Brain inflammation was dampened by daily injections of progesterone (5 mg/kg, s...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Daniëlle G Leuning, Marlies E J Reinders, Joan Li, Anna J Peired, Ellen Lievers, Hetty C de Boer, Willem E Fibbe, Paola Romagnani, Cees van Kooten, Melissa H Little, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink
: : Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are immunomodulatory and tissue homeostatic cells that have shown beneficial effects in kidney diseases and transplantation. Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) identified within several different organs share characteristics of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). These PSCs may also possess tissue-specific properties and play a role in local tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that human kidney-derived PSCs (hkPSCs) would elicit improved kidney repair in comparison with BM-MSCs...
September 20, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Hai Jie Yang, Shuang Ping Ma, Fei Ju, Ya Ping Zhang, Zhi Chao Li, Bin Bin Zhang, Jun Jiang Lian, Lei Wang, Bin Feng Cheng, Mian Wang, Zhi Wei Feng
NG2-expressing neural progenitors can produce neurons in the central nervous system, providing a potential cell resource of therapy for neurological disorders. However, the mechanism underlying neuronal differentiation of NG2 cells remains largely unknown. In this report, we found that a thrombospondin (TSP) family member, TSP4, is involved in the neuronal differentiation of NG2 cells. When TSP4 was overexpressed, NG2 cells underwent spontaneous neuronal differentiation, as demonstrated by the induction of various neuronal differentiation markers such as NeuN, Tuj1, and NF200, at the messenger RNA and protein levels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Wenjing Sun, Elizabeth A Matthews, Vicky Nicolas, Susanne Schoch, Dirk Dietrich
Synaptic signaling to NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2 cells) could be key to rendering myelination of axons dependent on neuronal activity, but it has remained unclear whether NG2 glial cells integrate and respond to synaptic input. Here we show that NG2 cells perform linear integration of glutamatergic synaptic inputs and respond with increasing dendritic calcium elevations. Synaptic activity induces rapid Ca(2+) signals mediated by low-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels under strict inhibitory control of voltage-gated A-type K(+) channels...
September 19, 2016: ELife
Alexander Birbrair, Anirudh Sattiraju, Dongqin Zhu, Gilberto Zulato, Izadora Batista, Van T Nguyen, Maria Laura Messi, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Frank C Marini, Osvaldo Delbono, Akiva Mintz
: : Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor characterized by extensive invasiveness, heterogeneity, and angiogenesis. Standard treatment options such as radiation and chemotherapy have proven to be only marginally effective in treating GBM because of its invasive nature. Therefore, extensive efforts have been put forth to develop tumor-tropic stem cells as viable therapeutic vehicles with potential to treat even the most invasive tumor cells that are harbored within areas of normal brain...
September 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Sarah Schneider, Agnès Gruart, Sofia Grade, Yina Zhang, Stephan Kröger, Frank Kirchhoff, Gregor Eichele, José M Delgado García, Leda Dimou
NG2-glia in the adult brain are known to proliferate and differentiate into mature and myelinating oligodendrocytes throughout lifetime. However, the role of these newly generated oligodendrocytes in the adult brain still remains little understood. Here we took advantage of the Sox10-iCreER(T2) x CAG-eGFP x Esco2(fl/fl) mouse line in which we can specifically ablate proliferating NG2-glia in adult animals. Surprisingly, we observed that the generation of new oligodendrocytes in the adult brain was severely affected, although the number of NG2-glia remained stable due to the enhanced proliferation of non-recombined cells...
September 12, 2016: Glia
Kayoko Hosaka, Yunlong Yang, Takahiro Seki, Carina Fischer, Olivier Dubey, Erik Fredlund, Johan Hartman, Piotr Religa, Hiromasa Morikawa, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Ola Larsson, Giulio Cossu, Renhai Cao, Sharon Lim, Yihai Cao
Vascular pericytes, an important cellular component in the tumor microenvironment, are often associated with tumor vasculatures, and their functions in cancer invasion and metastasis are poorly understood. Here we show that PDGF-BB induces pericyte-fibroblast transition (PFT), which significantly contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that PDGF-BB-PDGFRβ signaling promotes PFT both in vitro and in in vivo tumors. Genome-wide expression analysis indicates that PDGF-BB-activated pericytes acquire mesenchymal progenitor features...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guiyun Mi, Yunyun Gao, Shuai Liu, Enmao Ye, Yanyan Li, Xiao Jin, Hongju Yang, Zheng Yang
The cuprizone (CPZ) model has been widely used for the studies of de-and remyelination. The CPZ-exposed mice show oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) increase and mature oligodendrocytes decrease, suggesting an imbalance between proliferation and differentiation of OPCs. In the first experiment of this study, we examined the expression of cell cycle related genes in brains of mice following CPZ administration for 5 weeks by means of microarray assay. In addition, we performed a double labeling of BrdU and Ki-67 to calculate cell cycle exit index in the mice...
October 17, 2016: Cell Cycle
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