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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643756/is-neuroglial-antigen-2-a-potential-contributor-to-cilengitide-response-in-glioblastoma
#1
Hatice Sevim Nalkiran, Kerrie Leanne McDonald
BACKGROUND: Determining the expression levels of neuroglial antigen 2 (NG2) in glioma cell lines and to evaluate the potential contribution of NG2 to cilengitide response were aimed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endogenous expression level of NG2 was determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Cilengitide responses of the cells were monitored to determine half maximal inhibitory concentration values. Whether the suppression of NG2 expression alters the response of A172 cells to cilengitide was examined...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634469/alexander-disease-mutations-produce-cells-with-coexpression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-ng2-in-neurosphere-cultures-and-inhibit-differentiation-into-mature-oligodendrocytes
#2
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Maria Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, María Durán-Moreno, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#3
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627746/hepatic-perivascular-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-myogenic-properties
#4
Sudheer Shenoy P, Bipasha Bose
Pericytes are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located on the walls of blood vessels in various organs and are characterized as CD146(+) cells.. In this study, we have first immunohistochemically detected such pericytes in the perivascular regions of liver from two mouse genotypes namely wild-type (WT) and myostatin null (Mstn(-/-) ). We further isolated such pericytes using sorting as CD146(+) CD34(-) CD56(-) CD45(-) cells. The main finding of this study involve the contrasting -fibrogenic versus myogenic behavior of liver pericytes from WTMstn(-/-) ) mouse respectively...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621170/therapeutic-efficacy-of-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-versus-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Saurabh Pratap Singh, Sachin Hanumantrao Jadhav, Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi, Soniya Nityanand
AIM: In this study, we have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of mouse multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPCs) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and compared it with mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs). MATERIALS & METHODS: We administered PKH26-labeled mMAPC and mMSC into EAE mice and evaluated their therapeutic efficacy. RESULTS: The mMAPC-treated mice in comparison with the mMSC group exhibited a higher suppression of EAE (p < 0...
June 16, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614918/the-significance-of-sdf-1alpha-cxcr4-axis-in-in-vivo-angiogenic-ability-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#6
Yoon-Kyung Bae, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae Cheoun Lee, Byoung-Moo Seo, Kyeung-Min Joo, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from periodontium and have mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics. Recently, the perivascular region was recognized as the developmental origin of MSCs, which suggests the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. In this study, we investigated whether PDLSCs could be a potential source of perivascular cells, which could contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. PDLSCs exhibited typical MSC-like characteristics such as the expression pattern of surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105) and differentiation potentials (osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation)...
June 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608561/angiogenic-and-restorative-ability-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-were-reduced-following-treatment-with-serum-from-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-patients
#7
Jafar Rezaie, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Ali Shariatzadeh
This experiment investigated the impact of serum from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on the angiogenic behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Changes in the level of Ang-1, Ang-2, cell migration and trans-differentiation into pericytes and endothelial lineage were monitored after 7 days. The interaction of mesenchymal stem cells with endothelial cells were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance technique. Paracrine restorative effect of diabetic stem cells was tested on pancreatic β cells...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605361/isolation-of-type-i-and-type-ii-pericytes-from-mouse-skeletal-muscles
#8
Abhijit Nirwane, Jyoti Gautam, Yao Yao
Pericytes are perivascular multipotent cells that show heterogeneity in different organs or even within the same tissue. In skeletal muscles, there are at least two pericyte subpopulations (called type I and type II), which express different molecular markers and have distinct differentiation capabilities. Using NG2-DsRed and Nestin-GFP double-transgenic mice, type I (NG2-DsRed(+)Nestin-GFP(-)) and type II (NG2-DsRed(+)Nestin-GFP(+)) pericytes have been successfully isolated. However, the availability of these double-transgenic mice prevents the widespread use of this purification method...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596976/endogenous-brain-repair-overriding-intrinsic-lineage-determinates-through-injury-induced-micro-environmental-signals
#9
Kathryn S Jones, Bronwen Connor
Adult human neurogenesis has generated excitement over the last 2 decades with the idea that endogenous adult stem cells could act as a potential cell source for brain repair after injury. Indeed, many forms of experimentally induced brain injury including stroke and excitotoxic lesioning can promote proliferation from the subventricular zone and mobilise neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to migrate through brain parenchyma to damaged regions. However the failure of neuroblasts to mature into appropriate neuronal subtypes for cell replacement has been an issue...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594400/the-role-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-expressing-the-gpr17-receptor-in-brain-remodeling-after-stroke
#10
Elisabetta Bonfanti, Paolo Gelosa, Marta Fumagalli, Leda Dimou, Francesca Viganò, Elena Tremoli, Mauro Cimino, Luigi Sironi, Maria P Abbracchio
Following stroke-induced neuronal damage, quiescent oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are activated to proliferate and later to differentiate to myelin-producing cells. GPR17, a receptor transiently expressed on early OPCs, has emerged as a target to implement stroke repair through stimulation of OPC maturation. However, being GPR17 completely downregulated in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, its actual role in determining the final fate of OPCs after cerebral ischemia is still uncertain. Here, to univocally define the spatiotemporal changes and final fate of GPR17-expressing OPCs, we induced ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in reporter GPR17iCreER(T2):CAG-eGreen florescent protein (GFP) mice, in which, upon tamoxifen treatment, cells expressing GPR17 become green and traceable for their entire life...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589165/effects-of-fumarates-on-inflammatory-human-astrocyte-responses-and-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#11
Dylan A Galloway, John B Williams, Craig S Moore
OBJECTIVE: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a fumaric acid ester approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In both the brain and periphery, DMF and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to compare the effects of DMF and MMF on inflammatory and antioxidant pathways within astrocytes, a critical supporting glial cell in the central nervous system (CNS). Direct effects of fumarates on neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation toward the oligodendrocyte lineage were also assessed...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588623/angiogenic-capacity-of-dental-pulp-stem-cell-regulated-by-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-axis
#12
Hyun Nam, Gee-Hye Kim, Yoon-Kyung Bae, Da-Eun Jeong, Kyeung-Min Joo, Kyunghoon Lee, Sun-Ho Lee
Previously, the perivascular characteristics of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were reported, which suggested the potential application of DPSCs as perivascular cell source. In this study, we investigated whether DPSCs had angiogenic capacity by coinjection with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vivo; in addition, we determined the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF-1α) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in the mutual interaction between DPSCs and HUVECs. Primarily isolated DPSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) like characteristics...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583585/effects-of-the-notch-signalling-pathway-on-hyperoxia-induced-immature-brain-damage-in-newborn-mice
#13
Min Du, Yuting Tan, Guangjian Liu, Lan Liu, Fei Cao, Jianxia Liu, Pu Jiang, Ying Xu
Hyperoxia exposure can cause dramatic release of proinflammatory cytokines, leading to neuronal apoptosis and inducing white matter damage in newborn mouse brains. Some studies indicated that the Notch activation was provoked during inflammation and might regulate adaptive and innate immune responses. Moreover, the pathway also regulated oligodendrocyte maturation which was disrupted in neonatal mice after hyperoxia exposure. This study sought to investigate whether the Notch signalling activation contributed to immature brain damage after hyperoxia exposure...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567522/ng2-plays-a-role-in-neuroinflammation-but-is-not-expressed-by-immune-cells
#14
Maja Kitic, Khalad Karram, Nicole Israel, Nir Yogev, Sonja M Lacher, Yilang Tang, Hatice Yigit, Jan Bauer, Florian Wanke, Anela Knezovic, Jacqueline Trotter, Florian C Kurschus, Ari Waisman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553358/inhibition-of-lysyl-oxidases-impairs-migration-and-angiogenic-properties-of-tumor-associated-pericytes
#15
Aline Lopes Ribeiro, Carolini Kaid, Patrícia B G Silva, Beatriz A Cortez, Oswaldo Keith Okamoto
Pericytes are important cellular components of the tumor microenviroment with established roles in angiogenesis and metastasis. These two cancer hallmarks are modulated by enzymes of the LOX family, but thus far, information about LOX relevance in tumor-associated pericytes is lacking. Here, we performed a comparative characterization of normal and tumoral pericytes and report for the first time the modulatory effects of LOX enzymes on activated pericyte properties. Tumoral pericytes isolated from childhood ependymoma and neuroblastoma specimens displayed angiogenic properties in vitro and expressed typical markers, including CD146, NG2, and PDGFRβ...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546458/proteoglycans-ion-channels-and-cell-matrix-adhesion
#16
REVIEW
Ioli Mitsou, Hinke A B Multhaupt, John R Couchman
Cell surface proteoglycans comprise a transmembrane or membrane-associated core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. They are ubiquitous receptors on nearly all animal cell surfaces. In mammals, the cell surface proteoglycans include the six glypicans, CD44, NG2 (CSPG4), neuropilin-1 and four syndecans. A single syndecan is present in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. Uniquely, syndecans are receptors for many classes of proteins that can bind to the heparan sulphate chains present on syndecan core proteins...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536901/increased-epithelial-free-areas-in-thymuses-with-altered-ephb-mediated-thymocyte-thymic-epithelial-cell-interactions
#17
Javier García-Ceca, Sara Montero-Herradón, David Alfaro, Agustín G Zapata
Epithelial-free areas, present in both thymic cortex and medulla, have been studied in WT and EphB-deficient mice that have important alterations in the development of thymic epithelium due to the lack of proper thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell interactions. In both WT and mutant thymuses, the number and size of epithelial-free areas are significantly larger in the medulla than in the cortex. The two parameters show a reverse correlation: low numbers of these areas course with large epithelial-free areas and vice versa...
May 24, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536635/the-regulatory-mechanisms-of-ng2-cspg4-expression
#18
REVIEW
Emmanuel Ampofo, Beate M Schmitt, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke
Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), also known as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), is a surface type I transmembrane core proteoglycan that is crucially involved in cell survival, migration and angiogenesis. NG2 is frequently used as a marker for the identification and characterization of certain cell types, but little is known about the mechanisms regulating its expression. In this review, we provide evidence that the regulation of NG2 expression underlies inflammation and hypoxia and is mediated by methyltransferases, transcription factors, including Sp1, paired box (Pax) 3 and Egr-1, and the microRNA miR129-2...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524001/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promotes-growth-of-neurons-and-neural-stem-cells-possibly-by-triggering-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#19
Xing-Tong Li, Zhang Liang, Tong-Tong Wang, Jin-Wei Yang, Wei Ma, Shi-Kang Deng Deng, Xian-Bin Wang, Yun-Fei Dai, Jian-Hui Guo, Li-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in promoting survival and differentiation of neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs), but the downstream regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether BDNF exerts its effect by triggering the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B, PKB (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin signaling pathway in cultured neurons and NSCs derived from the rat embryonic spinal cord...
May 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522408/multipotency-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ng2-cells
#20
REVIEW
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Jan Kriska, Miroslava Anderova
NG2 cells represent one of the most proliferative glial cell populations in the intact mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are well-known for their ability to renew themselves or to generate new oligodendrocytes during development as well as in adulthood, therefore also being termed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Following CNS injuries, such as demyelination, trauma or ischemia, the proliferative capacity of NG2 cells rapidly increases and moreover, their differentiation potential broadens, as documented by numerous reports also describing their differentiation into astrocytes or even neurons...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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