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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163841.].
2018: PloS One
Sarah Robins, Maia Kokoeva
<br>There is increasing evidence that glia act not only as neuronal support cells, but that they can also influence physiological outcomes via effects on neural signalling. The role of NG2-glia in this regard is especially enigmatic, as they are known to interact with neural circuits but their precise functions other than as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain elusive. Here we summarise recent evidence suggesting that NG2-glia play a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, most notably via the support of leptin sensing neural circuits...
March 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Luzzi Sabino, Crovace Alberto Maria, Lacitignola Luca, Valentini Valerio, Francioso Edda, Rossi Giacomo, Invernici Gloria, Galzio Renato Juan, Crovace Antonio
Background: Proof of the efficacy and safety of a xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplant for spinal cord injury (SCI) may theoretically widen the spectrum of possible grafts for neuroregeneration. Methods: Twenty rats were submitted to complete spinal cord transection. Ovine bone marrow MSCs, retrovirally transfected with red fluorescent protein and not previously induced for neuroglial differentiation, were applied in 10 study rats (MSCG). Fibrin glue was injected in 10 control rats (FGG)...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Irini Papazian, Vasiliki Kyrargyri, Maria Evangelidou, Anda Voulgari-Kokota, Lesley Probert
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) provide therapeutic effects in experimental CNS disease models and show promise as cell-based therapies for humans, but their modes of action are not well understood. We previously show that MSC protect rodent neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro, and in vivo in an epilepsy model. Neuroprotection is associated with reduced NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression and neuronal glutamate-induced calcium (Ca2+ ) responses, and increased expression of stem cell-associated genes...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qing Liu, Lei Lei, Tao Yu, Ting Jiang, Yunqing Kang
During bone growth, the lack of a neuralized vascular network in the regenerating area can affect subsequent bone quality. This study aimed to investigate if brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could promote neurogenesis and osteogenesis in human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to improve bone formation during tissue engineering. Initially, a safe and effective BDNF concentration that facilitated hBMSC proliferation in vitro was determined. Subsequently, examination of mineralized nodule formation and evaluation of ALP activity and ALP gene expression revealed that the most effective concentration of BDNF to elicit a response in hBMSCs was 100 ng/mL...
February 28, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Yi Yang, Shihoko Kimura-Ohba, Jeffrey F Thompson, Victor M Salayandia, Melissa Cosse, Limor Raz, Fakhreya Y Jalal, Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment is a major cause of dementia caused by chronic hypoxia, producing progressive damage to white matter (WM) secondary to blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and vascular dysfunction. Tight junction proteins (TJPs), which maintain BBB integrity, are lost in acute ischemia. Although angiogenesis is critical for neurovascular remodeling, less is known about its role in chronic hypoxia. To study the impact of TJP degradation and angiogenesis during pathological progression of WM damage, we used the spontaneously hypertensive/stroke prone rats with unilateral carotid artery occlusion and Japanese permissive diet to model WM damage...
February 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Justin Rustenhoven, Leon C Smyth, Deidre Jansson, Patrick Schweder, Miranda Aalderink, Emma L Scotter, Edward W Mee, Richard L M Faull, Thomas I-H Park, Mike Dragunow
BACKGROUND: Brain pericytes ensheathe the endothelium and contribute to formation and maintenance of the blood-brain-barrier. Additionally, pericytes are involved in several aspects of the CNS immune response including scarring, adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, and phagocytosis. In vitro cultures are routinely used to investigate these functions of brain pericytes, however, these are highly plastic cells and can display differing phenotypes and functional responses depending on their culture conditions...
February 22, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Dominik Michalski, Anna L Keck, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Wolfgang Härtig
Because stroke therapies are still limited and patients are often concerned by long-term sequelae with significant impairment of daily living, elaborated neuroprotective strategies are needed. During the last decades, research substantially improved the knowledge on cellular pathologies responsible for stroke-related tissue damage. In this context, the neurovascular unit (NVU) concept has been established, summarizing the affections of neurons, associated astrocytes and the vasculature. Although oligodendrocytes were already identified to play a major role in other brain pathologies, their role during stroke evolution and long-lasting tissue damage is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Estibaliz González-Fernández, Hey-Kyeong Jeong, Masahiro Fukaya, Hyukmin Kim, Rabia R Khawaja, Isha N Srivastava, Ari Waisman, Young-Jin Son, Shin H Kang
Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming CNS glia, are highly vulnerable to cellular stresses, and a severe myelin loss underlies numerous CNS disorders. Expedited OL regeneration may prevent further axonal damage and facilitate functional CNS repair. Although adult OL progenitors (OPCs) are the primary players for OL regeneration, targetable OPC-specific intracellular signaling mechanisms for facilitated OL regeneration remain elusive. Here, we report that OPC-targeted PTEN inactivation in the mouse, in contrast to OL-specific manipulations, markedly promotes OL differentiation and regeneration in the mature CNS...
February 20, 2018: ELife
Sandra Pinho, Tony Marchand, Eva Yang, Qiaozhi Wei, Claus Nerlov, Paul S Frenette
The spatial localization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) remains controversial, with some studies suggesting that they are maintained in homogeneously distributed niches while others have suggested the contributions of distinct niche structures. Subsets of quiescent HSCs have been reported to associate with megakaryocytes (MK) or arterioles in the BM. However, these HSC subsets have not been prospectively defined. Here, we show that platelet and myeloid-biased HSCs, marked by von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression, are highly enriched in MK niches...
February 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
Nina Schultz, Kristoffer Brännström, Elin Byman, Simon Moussaud, Henrietta M Nielsen, Anders Olofsson, Malin Wennström
The population of brain pericytes, a cell type important for vessel stability and blood brain barrier function, has recently been shown altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying reason for this alteration is not fully understood, but progressive accumulation of the AD characteristic peptide amyloid-beta (Aβ) has been suggested as a potential culprit. In the current study, we show reduced number of hippocampal NG2+ pericytes and an association between NG2+ pericyte numbers and Aβ1-40 levels in AD patients...
February 17, 2018: Aging Cell
Yixing Du, Wei Wang, Anthony D Lutton, Conrad M Kiyoshi, Baofeng Ma, Anne T Taylor, John W Olesik, Dana M McTigue, Candice C Askwith, Min Zhou
Membrane potential (VM) depolarization occurs immediately following cerebral ischemia and is devastating for the astrocyte homeostasis and neuronal signaling. Previously, an excessive release of extracellular K+ and glutamate has been shown to underlie an ischemia-induced VM depolarization. Ischemic insults should impair membrane ion channels and disrupt the physiological ion gradients. However, their respective contribution to ischemia-induced neuronal and glial depolarization and loss of neuronal excitability are unanswered questions...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Fan Yang, Xiao Feng, Arndt Rolfs, Jiankai Luo
Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is a rare neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations of either NPC1 or NPC2 gene and characterized by defective intracellular transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, leading to neuron loss and myelin aberration in the central nervous system. In this study, by comparing protein expression in the cortical white matter tracts from mice at different postnatal days, we identified that in the NPC1 mutant (NPC1-/-) mice, the onset of myelination is delayed and the amount of the major myelin protein MBP and PLP, and oligodendrocyte regulatory factor Olig1 and Olig2, but not NG2 and Sox10, decreased significantly, suggesting a disruption of oligodendrocyte differentiation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Xiaobing Qian, Leilei Lin, Yao Zong, Yongguang Yuan, Yanmin Dong, Yue Fu, Wanwen Shao, Yujie Li, Qianying Gao
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyse shifts in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress-related protein expression in the lamina cribrosa (LC) region in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. METHODS: Six months after diabetes induction, the retinal vessels of male C57BL/6 J mice were observed by colour photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and immunofluorescent staining following incubation with CD31. Immunofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA),and NG2 was also performed...
February 5, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Alessio Rotini, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Robin Duelen, Domiziana Costamagna, Ester Sara Di Filippo, Giorgia Giacomazzi, Hanne Grosemans, Stefania Fulle, Maurilio Sampaolesi
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. Although the role of human satellite cells (SCs) as adult skeletal muscle stem cells has been deeply investigated, little is known about the impact of aging on muscle interstitial stem cells. Here, we isolated the non-SC CD56- fraction from human muscle biopsies of young and elderly subjects. The elderly interstitial cell population contained a higher number of CD15+ and PDGFRα+ cells when compared to young samples. In addition, we found that the CD56- /ALP+ cells were well represented as a multipotent stem cell population inside the CD56- fraction...
February 4, 2018: Aging Cell
Yanqing Shi, Qi Shao, Zhenghao Li, Ginez A Gonzalez, Fengfeng Lu, Dan Wang, Yingyan Pu, Aijun Huang, Chao Zhao, Cheng He, Li Cao
The differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is essential for myelination and remyelination in the CNS. The failure of OPCs to achieve terminal differentiation in demyelinating lesions often results in unsuccessful remyelination in a variety of human demyelinating diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling OPC differentiation under pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Myt1L (myelin transcription factor 1-like), mainly expressed in neurons, has been associated with intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and depression...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Valny Martin, Honsa Pavel, Waloschkova Eliska, Matuskova Hana, Kriska Jan, Kirdajova Denisa, Androvic Peter, Valihrach Lukas, Kubista Mikael, Anderova Miroslava
NG2 cells represent precursors of oligodendrocytes under physiological conditions; however, following cerebral ischemia they play an important role in glial scar formation. Here, we compared the expression profiles of oligodendroglial lineage cells, after focal cerebral ischemia (FCI) and in Alzheimer's-like pathology using transgenic mice, which enables genetic fate-mapping of Cspg4-positive NG2 cells and their progeny, based on the expression of red fluorescent protein tdTomato. tdTomato-positive cells possessed the expression profile of NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes; however, based on the expression of cell type-specific genes, we were able to distinguish between them...
February 2, 2018: Glia
Hao Zuo, William M Wood, Amin Sherafat, Robert A Hill, Q Richard Lu, Akiko Nishiyama
NG2 cells are a resident glial progenitor cell population that is uniformly distributed throughout the developing and mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Those in the postnatal CNS generate exclusively myelinating and non-myelinating oligodendrocytes and are hence equated with oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Prenatally, NG2 cells in the ventral gray matter of the forebrain generate protoplasmic astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes. The fate conversion from NG2 cells into protoplasmic astrocytes is dependent on downregulation of the key oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
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