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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#1
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321681/in-vivo-monitoring-of-hair-cycle-stages-via-bioluminescence-imaging-of-hair-follicle-ng2-cells
#2
Yasuhisa Tamura, Kumi Takata, Asami Eguchi, Yosky Kataoka
Hair growth occurs periodically in a cycle that consists of three different phases: growth, regression, and resting. The length of each phase is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors throughout life, and influenced by physiological and pathological conditions. Elongation of the resting phase and shortening of the growth phase occur during physiological ageing and in baldness, respectively. In vivo discrimination of each phase of the hair cycle can be used to research for regeneration of hair follicles as well as to evaluate the efficacy of hair regrowth treatments in the same individual...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302076/candidate-cspg4-mutations-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-implicate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-in-familial-schizophrenia
#3
Femke M de Vrij, Christian G Bouwkamp, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Guy Shpak, Bas Lendemeijer, Maarouf Baghdadi, Shreekara Gopalakrishna, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Tracy M Li, Marialuisa Quadri, Simone Olgiati, Guido J Breedveld, Michiel Coesmans, Edwin Mientjes, Ton de Wit, Frans W Verheijen, H Berna Beverloo, Dan Cohen, Rob M Kok, P Roberto Bakker, Aviva Nijburg, Annet T Spijker, P M Judith Haffmans, Erik Hoencamp, Veerle Bergink, Jacob A Vorstman, Timothy Wu, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Najaf Amin, Carolyn D Langen, Albert Hofman, Witte J Hoogendijk, Cornelia M van Duijn, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Ype Elgersma, Ben Distel, Joost Gribnau, Tonya White, Vincenzo Bonifati, Steven A Kushner
Schizophrenia is highly heritable, yet its underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Among the most well-replicated findings in neurobiological studies of schizophrenia are deficits in myelination and white matter integrity; however, direct etiological genetic and cellular evidence has thus far been lacking. Here, we implement a family-based approach for genetic discovery in schizophrenia combined with functional analysis using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We observed familial segregation of two rare missense mutations in Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) (c...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299567/noble-gas-encapsulated-b40-cage
#4
Sudip Pan, Manas Ghara, Susmita Kar, Ximena Zarate, Gabriel Merino, Pratim K Chattaraj
The efficacy of B40 borospherene to act as a host for noble gas atoms is explored via density functional theory based computations. Although the Ng@B40 complexes are thermochemically unstable with respect to dissociation into free Ng and B40, it does not rule out their viability as all the systems possess a high activation free energy barrier (84.7-206.3 kcal mol-1). Therefore, once they are formed, it is hard to take out the Ng atom. Two Ng atoms can also be incorporated within B40 for the lighter Ng atoms (He and Ne)...
January 4, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279310/proliferating-ng2-cell-dependent-angiogenesis-and-scar-formation-alter-axon-growth-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#5
Z C Hesp, R Y Yoseph, R Suzuki, C Wilson, A Nishiyama, D M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations (pericytes and glia) also may influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274429/retinoic-acid-synthesis-by-ng2-expressing-cells-promotes-a-permissive-environment-for-axonal-outgrowth
#6
Maria B Goncalves, Yue Wu, Diogo Trigo, Earl Clarke, Tony Malmqvist, John Grist, Carl Hobbs, Thomas Carlstedt, Jonathan P T Corcoran
Stimulation of retinoic acid (RA) mediated signalling pathways following neural injury leads to regeneration in the adult nervous system and numerous studies have shown that the specific activation of the retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) is required for this process. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which neuronal RARβ activation results in the endogenous synthesis of RA which is released in association with exosomes and acts as a positive cue to axonal/neurite outgrowth. Using an established rodent model of RARβ induced axonal regeneration, we show that neuronal RARβ activation upregulates the enzymes involved in RA synthesis in a cell specific manner; alcohol dehydrogenase7 (ADH7) in neurons and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) in NG2 expressing cells (NG2+ cells)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274061/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-reinforces-pericyte-properties-of-the-non-endocrine-mouse-pituitary-cell-line-ttt-gf
#7
Takehiro Tsukada, Saishu Yoshida, Keiji Kito, Ken Fujiwara, Hideji Yako, Kotaro Horiguchi, Yukinobu Isowa, Takashi Yashiro, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
The non-endocrine TtT/GF mouse pituitary cell line was derived from radiothyroidectomy-induced pituitary adenoma. In addition to morphological characteristics, because the cells are S100β-positive, they have been accepted as a model of folliculostellate cells. However, our recent microarray analysis indicated that, in contrast to folliculostellate cells, TtT/GF cells might not be terminally differentiated, as they share some properties with stem/progenitor cells, vascular endothelial cells and pericytes. The present study investigates whether transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) can elicit further differentiation of these cells...
December 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258846/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-alleviate-brain-white-matter-injury-via-the-enhanced-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#8
Xiaohe Yu, Hongjuan Wu, Yansong Zhao, Yuanyuan Guo, Yuxi Chen, Peng Dong, Qingjie Mu, Xin Wang, Xiaoli Wang
The effects of transplanting bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of white matter damage are not well understood, nor are the underlying mechanisms. Recent studies showed that endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs)can be stimulated to proliferate. Therefore, we explore the effects of BMSCs transplantation on white matter damage and the proliferation of OPCs in transient focal cerebral ischemic rats.BMSCs were transplanted into a group of rats that had undergone middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) 24 hours after reperfusion...
December 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249301/ng2-and-gfap-co-expression-after-differentiation-in-cells-transfected-with-mutant-gfap-and-in-undifferentiated-glioma-cells
#9
U Gómez-Pinedo, S Sirerol-Piquer, M Durán-Moreno, J A Matias-Guiu, J A Barcia, J M García-Verdugo, J Matias-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Alexander disease is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In a previous study, differentiation of neurospheres transfected with these mutations resulted in a cell type that expresses both GFAP and NG2. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of molecular marker mutations in comparison to undifferentiated glioma cells simultaneously expressing GFAP and NG2. METHODS: We used samples of human glioblastoma (GBM) and rat neurospheres transfected with GFAP mutations to analyse GFAP and NG2 expression after differentiation...
December 14, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239330/expression-of-ng2-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-in-the-developing-neonatal-rat-brain
#10
Ping Li, Heng-Xi Li, Hong-Yan Jiang, Lie Zhu, Hai-Ying Wu, Jin-Tao Li, Jiang-Hua Lai
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system. NG2 is also considered a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. However, whether there are differences in the distribution and morphology of oligodendrocyte precursor cells labeled by NG2 or PDGFRα in the developing neonatal rat brain remains unclear. In this study, by immunohistochemical staining, NG2 positive (NG2+) cells were ubiquitous in the molecular layer, external pyramidal layer, internal pyramidal layer, and polymorphic layer of the cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum, external capsule, piriform cortex, and medial septal nucleus...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226483/boron-nanowheel-with-an-axle-containing-noble-gas-atoms-viable-noble-gas-bound-mb10-clusters-m-nb-ta
#11
Sudip Pan, Susmita Kar, Ranajit Saha, Edison Osorio, Ximena Zarate, Lili Zhao, Gabriel Merino, Pratim K Chattaraj
The viability of noble gas axled boron nanowheel, NgnMB10- (Ng = Ar-Rn, M = Nb, Ta; n = 1, 2), is explored via ab initio computations. In the resulting Ng2-M complexes, the Ng-M-Ng nanorod passes through the center of B10- ring, providing them with an inverse sandwich like structure. While in single Ng bound analogue, the Ng binding enthalpy (Hb) at 298 K ranges from 2.5 to 10.6 kcal/mol, in two Ng bound cases it becomes very low for Ng2MB10- -> Ng + NgMB10- dissociation channel, except for Rn case. For a given Ng, Ta has slightly higher Ng binding ability than Nb...
December 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212800/extracellular-retention-of-pdgf-b-directs-vascular-remodeling-in-mouse-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#12
Philip Tannenberg, Ya-Ting Chang, Lars Muhl, Bàrbara Laviña, Hanna Gladh, Guillem Genové, Christer Betsholtz, Erika Folestad, Karin Tran-Lundmark
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lethal condition and current vasodilator therapy has limited effect. Anti-proliferative strategies targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, such as imatinib, have generated promising results in animal studies. Imatinib is however a non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor and has in clinical studies caused unacceptable adverse events. Further studies are needed on the role of PDGF signaling in PH. Here, mice expressing a variant of PDGF-B with no retention motif (Pdgfbret/ret), resulting in defective binding to extracellular matrix, were studied...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204745/heterogeneity-and-function-of-hippocampal-macroglia
#13
REVIEW
Gerald Seifert, Christian Steinhäuser
The contribution of glial cells to normal and impaired hippocampal function is increasingly being recognized, although important questions as to the mechanisms that these cells use for their crosstalk with neurons and capillaries are still unanswered or lead to controversy. Astrocytes in the hippocampus are morphologically variable and a single cell contacts with its processes more than 100,000 synapses. They predominantly express inward rectifier K+ channels and transporters serving homeostatic function but may also release gliotransmitters to modify neuronal signaling and brain circulation...
December 4, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196603/effects-of-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-4-ng2-cspg4-on-soft-tissue-sarcoma-growth-depend-on-tumor-developmental-stage
#14
Shu-Hsuan Claire Hsu, Puvii Nadesan, Vijitha Puviindran, William B Stallcup, David G Kirsch, Benjamin A Alman
Sarcomas, and the mesenchymal precursor cells from which they arise, express chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2/CSPG4). However, the function of NG2/CSPG4 and its capacity to serve as a therapeutic target in this tumor type are unknown. Here, we used cells from human tumors and genetically engineered autochthonous mouse model of soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) to determine the role of NG2/CSPG4 in STS initiation and growth. Inhibiting NG2/CSPG4 expression in established murine and human STSs decreased tumor volume by almost two-thirds and cell proliferation rate by 50%...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182533/early-gabapentin-treatment-during-the-latency-period-increases-convulsive-threshold-reduces-microglial-activation-and-macrophage-infiltration-in-the-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#15
Alicia Rossi, Veronica Murta, Jerónimo Auzmendi, Alberto Javier Ramos
The lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy reproduces several features of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, including the chronological timeline of an initial latency period followed by the development of spontaneous seizures. Epilepsy therapies in humans are implemented, as a rule, after the onset of the spontaneous seizures. We here studied the potential effect on epileptogenesis of starting an early treatment during the latency period, in order to prevent the development of spontaneous seizures. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with 3 mEq/kg LiCl, and 20 h later 30 mg/kg pilocarpine...
November 28, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180963/spinal-cord-molecular-and-cellular-changes-induced-by-adenoviral-vector-and-cell-mediated-triple-gene-therapy-after-severe-contusion
#16
Andrei A Izmailov, Tatyana V Povysheva, Farid V Bashirov, Mikhail E Sokolov, Filip O Fadeev, Ravil R Garifulin, Boris S Naroditsky, Denis Y Logunov, Ilnur I Salafutdinov, Yuri A Chelyshev, Rustem R Islamov, Igor A Lavrov
The gene therapy has been successful in treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) in several animal models, although it still remains unavailable for clinical practice. Surprisingly, regardless the fact that multiple reports showed motor recovery with gene therapy, little is known about molecular and cellular changes in the post-traumatic spinal cord following viral vector- or cell-mediated gene therapy. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and changes in spinal cord after treatment with the genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG), and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) applied using both approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167725/transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-oligoprogenitor-cells
#17
Ardeshir Moayeri, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Sara Haratizadeh, Amir Esmaeilnejad-Moghadam, Rafieh Alizadeh, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Introduction: The nerve fibers in central nervous system are surrounded by myelin sheet which is formed by oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy based on oligodendrocytes and their precursors transplantation can hold a promising alternative treatment for myelin sheet repair in demyelinating diseases. Methods: Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) are noninvasive, autologous and easy available source with multipotency characteristics, so they are in focus of interest in regenerative medicine...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167274/distinct-cellular-mechanisms-underlie-smooth-muscle-turnover-in-vascular-development-and-repair
#18
Urmas Roostalu, Bashar Aldeiri, Alessandra Albertini, Neil E Humphreys, Maj Simonsen-Jackson, Jason K Wong, Giulio Cossu
Rationale: Vascular smooth muscle turnover has important implications for blood vessel repair and for the development of cardiovascular diseases, yet lack of specific transgenic animal models has prevented it's in vivo analysis. Objective: To characterize the dynamics and mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle turnover from the earliest stages of embryonic development to arterial repair in the adult. Methods and Results: We show that CD146 is transiently expressed in vascular smooth muscle development. By using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing and in vitro smooth muscle differentiation assay we demonstrate that CD146 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation...
November 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162133/humoral-response-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-targets-neural-precursor-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-naive-rodents
#19
Evangelia Kesidou, Olga Touloumi, Roza Lagoudaki, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Paschalis Theotokis, Kyriaki-Nepheli Poulatsidou, Marina Boziki, Evangelia Kofidou, Nickoleta Delivanoglou, Fani Minti, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Constantina Simeonidou
BACKGROUND: Neural precursor cells (NPCs) located in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a well-defined NPC niche, play a crucial role in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Moreover, NPCs are involved in the endogenous reparative process both in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the possibility that NPCs may be vulnerable to immune-related components may not be ruled out. Therefore, we investigated the potential affinity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced humoral response(s) to NPCs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156976/two-new-saponins-from-the-leaves-of-panax-notoginseng
#20
Ji-Wu Huang, Fang-You Chen, Chuang-Jun Li, Jing-Zhi Yang, Jie Ma, Xiao-Guang Chen, Dong-Ming Zhang
Two new saponins, notoginsenosides Ng1 (1) and Ng2 (2), together with seven known compounds (3-9), were isolated from the leaves of Panax notoginseng. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, HRESIMS, and NMR experiments. Compounds 6 and 7 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HCT-116, with IC50 values of 4.98 and 0.64 μmol/L, respectively.
November 20, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
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