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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779031/a-novel-ex-vivo-mouse-mesometrium-culture-model-for-investigating-angiogenesis-in-microvascular-networks
#1
Ariana D Suarez-Martinez, Susanne Bierschenk, Katie Huang, Dana Kaplan, Carolyn L Bayer, Stryder M Meadows, Markus Sperandio, Walter L Murfee
BACKGROUND: The development of models that incorporate intact microvascular networks enables the investigation of multicellular dynamics during angiogenesis. Our laboratory introduced the rat mesentery culture model as such a tool, which would be enhanced with mouse tissue. Since mouse mesentery is avascular, an alternative is mouse mesometrium, the connective tissue of uterine horns. The study's objective was to demonstrate that mouse mesometrium contains microvascular networks that can be cultured to investigate multicellular dynamics during angiogenesis...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775846/reproductive-stage-and-sex-steroid-hormone-levels-influence-the-expression-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-msc-markers-in-the-equine-endometrium
#2
B Elisabeth Rink, Juliane Kuhl, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) play key roles in tissue homeostasis. In the cyclic equine endometrium, this may be regulated by changes in serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones. This study was designed to investigate the changes in endometrial expression of MSC markers during reproductive cycles in mares and the influence of sex steroid hormones on endometrial MSC proliferation in vitro. Endometrial biopsies were collected from pony mares at different reproductive stages (estrus; day 5 and 13 after ovulation; seasonal anestrus; 20 h and 7days post-partum; n = 5 per stage) and were analyzed by RT-qPCR...
May 4, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770934/total-and-methyl-mercury-seasonal-particulate-fluxes-in-the-water-column-of-a-large-lake-lake-geneva-switzerland
#3
Elena Gascón Díez, Neil D Graham, Jean-Luc Loizeau
Concentrations and fluxes of total and methylmercury were determined in surface sediments and associated with settling particles at two sites in Lake Geneva to evaluate the sources and dynamics of this toxic contaminant. Total mercury concentrations measured in settling particles were different throughout the seasons and were greatly influenced by the Rhone River particulate inputs. Total mercury concentrations closer to shore (NG2) ranged between 0.073 ± 0.001 and 0.27 ± 0.01 μg/g, and between 0...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770525/establishment-and-characterization-of-an-embryonic-pericyte-cell-line
#4
Huaning Zhao, Jordan Darden, John C Chappell
OBJECTIVE: Pericytes are specialized perivascular cells embedded within the basement membrane. These cells envelope the abluminal surface of endothelial cells and promote microvessel homeostasis. Recent discoveries of unique pericyte functions, particularly in neural tissues, underscore the need for overcoming existing challenges in establishing a functionally validated pericyte cell line. Here, we present methodologies for addressing these challenges as well as an embryonic pericyte cell line for use with in vitro and ex vivo experimental models...
May 16, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730261/acid-degradable-lactobionic-acid-modified-soy-protein-nanogels-crosslinked-by-ortho-ester-linkage-for-efficient-antitumor-in-vivo
#5
Xu Cheng, Jiejie Qin, Xin Wang, Qian Zha, Weijing Yao, Shengxiang Fu, Rupei Tang
It remains a crucial challenge to achieve efficient cellular uptake and intracellular drug release in tumor cells for the nanoscale drug delivery systems. Herein, acid-degradable nanogels were prepared by cross-linking methacrylated soy protein with an acid-labile ortho ester cross-linker (NG1), and then modified with lactobionic acid (LA) to give tumor-targeted nanogels (NG2). Both NG1 and NG2 displayed excellent stability in neutral environment, while showed pH-triggered degradation behaviors under mildly acidic conditions resulting from the breakage of ortho ester bonds...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726608/the-deletion-of-dicer-in-mature-myelinating-glial-cells-causes-progressive-axonal-degeneration-but-not-overt-demyelination-in-adult-mice
#6
Tao Li, Jingjing Wang, Hongkai Wang, Yujian Yang, Shouyu Wang, Nanxin Huang, Fei Wang, Xing Gao, Jianqin Niu, Zhifang Li, Feng Mei, Lan Xiao
Myelinating glial cells (MGCs), oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), generate myelin sheaths that insulate axons. After myelination is completed in adulthood, MGC functions independent from myelin are required to support axon survival, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Dicer is a key enzyme that is responsible for generating functional micro-RNAs (miRNAs). Despite the importance of Dicer in initiating myelination, the role of Dicer in mature MGCs is still unclear...
May 4, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724654/the-novel-pathogenesis-of-retinopathy-mediated-by-multiple-rtk-signals-is-uncovered-in-newly-developed-mouse-model
#7
Hideyuki Kitahara, Sayaka Kajikawa, Yoko Ishii, Seiji Yamamoto, Takeru Hamashima, Erika Azuma, Hikari Sato, Takako Matsushima, Masabumi Shibuya, Yutaka Shimada, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericyte desorption from retinal blood vessels and subsequent vascular abnormalities are the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Although the involvement of abnormal signals including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) have been hypothesized in DR, the mechanisms that underlie this processes are largely unknown. Here, novel retinopathy mouse model (N-PRβ-KO) was developed with conditional Pdgfrb gene deletion by Nestin promoter-driven Cre recombinase (Nestin-Cre) consistently reproduced through early non-proliferative to late proliferative DR pathologies...
April 25, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691270/combining-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-and-cardiac-troponin-t-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Noreen van der Linden, Karin Wildi, Raphael Twerenbold, John W Pickering, Martin Than, Louise Cullen, Jaimi Greenslade, William Parsonage, Thomas Nestelberger, Jasper Boeddinghaus, Patrick Badertscher, Maria Rubini Giménez, Lieke J J Klinkenberg, Otto Bekers, Aline Schöni, Dagmar I Keller, Zaid Sabti, Christian Puelacher, Janosch Cupa, Lukas Schumacher, Nikola Kozhuharov, Karin Grimm, Samyut Shrestha, Dayana Flores, Michael Freese, Claudia Stelzig, Ivo Strebel, Òscar Miró, Katharina Rentsch, Beata Morawiec, Damian Kawecki, Wanda Kloos, Jens Lohrmann, A Mark Richards, Richard Troughton, Christopher Pemberton, Stefan Osswald, Marja P van Dieijen-Visser, Alma M Mingels, Tobias Reichlin, Steven J R Meex, Christian Mueller
Background -Combining two signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of AMI. Methods -The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected AMI...
April 24, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684040/differentiation-capacities-of-ps-clusters-adult-pituitary-stem-progenitor-cell-clusters-located-in-the-parenchymal-niche-of-the-rat-anterior-lobe
#9
Saishu Yoshida, Naoto Nishimura, Hideaki Yurino, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kotaro Horiguchi, Kentaro Yano, Shin-Ichi Hashimoto, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Pituitary endocrine cells are supplied by Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells in the anterior lobe of the adult pituitary. In relation to their microenvironment ("niche"), SOX2-positive cells exist in two types of niches; the marginal cell layer-niche and the parenchymal-niche. Recently, we isolated dense stem/progenitor cell clusters from the parenchymal-niche as parenchymal stem/progenitor cell (PS)-clusters. We classified these PS-clusters into three subtypes based on differences in S100β-expression (S100β-positive, -negative, and -mixed type), and reported that S100β-positive PS-clusters exhibited the capacity for differentiation into endocrine cells under 3-dimensional cultivation system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683222/ascl1-regulates-proliferation-of-ng2-glia-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-spinal-cord
#10
Demetra P Kelenis, Emma Hart, Morgan Edwards-Fligner, Jane E Johnson, Tou Yia Vue
NG2-glia are highly proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). During development, NG2-glia predominantly differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) to myelinate axon fibers, but they can also remain as OPCs persisting into the mature CNS. Interestingly, NG2-glia in the gray matter (GM) are intrinsically different from those in the white matter (WM) in terms of proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, and electrophysiological properties...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623545/glial-fatty-acid-binding-protein-7-fabp7-regulates-neuronal-leptin-sensitivity-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#11
Yuki Yasumoto, Hirofumi Miyazaki, Masaki Ogata, Yoshiteru Kagawa, Yui Yamamoto, Ariful Islam, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Yuji Owada
The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence (ME) are the primary hypothalamic sites that sense leptin and nutrients in the blood, thereby mediating food intake. Recently, studies demonstrating a role for non-neuronal cell types, including astrocytes and tanycytes, in these regulatory processes have begun to emerge. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined in detail the localization of fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) in the hypothalamic ARC and sought to determine its role in the hypothalamus...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596849/histochemical-characteristics-of-regressing-vessels-in-the-hyaloid-vascular-system-of-neonatal-mice-novel-implication-for-vascular-atrophy
#12
Ayuko Kishimoto, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga, Ah-Mee Park, Toshihiko Iwanaga
The hyaloid vasculature constitutes a transitory system nourishing the internal structures of the developing eye, but the mechanism of vascular regression and its cell biological characteristics are not fully understood. The present study aimed to reveal the specificity of the hyaloid vessels by a systematic immunohistochemical approach for marker substances of myeloid cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in neonatal mice. Macrophages immunoreactive for F4/80, cathepsin D, and LYVE-1 gathered around the vasa hyaloidea propria (VHP), while small round cells in vascular lumen of VHP were selectively immunoreactive for galectin-3; their segmented nuclei and immunoreactivities for Ly-6G, CD11b, and myeloperoxidase indicated their neutrophilic origin...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593734/experimental-demyelination-and-axonal-loss-are-reduced-in-microrna-146a-deficient-mice
#13
Nellie A Martin, Viktor Molnar, Gabor T Szilagyi, Maria L Elkjaer, Arkadiusz Nawrocki, Justyna Okarmus, Agnieszka Wlodarczyk, Eva K Thygesen, Miklos Palkovits, Ferenc Gallyas, Martin R Larsen, Hans Lassmann, Eirikur Benedikz, Trevor Owens, Asa F Svenningsen, Zsolt Illes
Background: The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during remyelination, but its role has not been examined during demyelination. Methods: MicroRNAs were examined by Agilent Mouse miRNA Microarray in the corpus callosum during CPZ-induced demyelination and remyelination...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573353/influence-of-white-matter-injury-on-gray-matter-reactive-gliosis-upon-stab-wound-in-the-adult-murine-cerebral-cortex
#14
Nicola Mattugini, Juliane Merl-Pham, Elisabetta Petrozziello, Lisa Schindler, Jürgen Bernhagen, Stefanie M Hauck, Magdalena Götz
Traumatic brain injury frequently affects the cerebral cortex, yet little is known about the differential effects that occur if only the gray matter (GM) is damaged or if the injury also involves the white matter (WM). To tackle this important question and directly compare similarities and differences in reactive gliosis, we performed stab wound injury affecting GM and WM (GM+) and one restricted to the GM (GM-) in the adult murine cerebral cortex. First, we examined glial reactivity in the regions affected (WM and GM) and determined the influence of WM injury on reactive gliosis in the GM comparing the same area in the two injury paradigms...
March 24, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571912/mechanical-properties-of-glide-path-preparation-instruments-with-different-pitch-lengths
#15
Dana Al Raeesi, Sang Won Kwak, Jung-Hong Ha, Sameh Sulaiman, Rashid El Abed, Hyeon-Cheol Kim
INTRODUCTION: This study compared the effects of pitch length on the torsional resistance and cyclic fatigue resistance of glide path preparation instruments. METHODS: G-File (G1 and G2; Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) and new generation G-File (NG1 and NG2, Micro-Mega) instruments were compared to evaluate the effects of the shorter pitch of the latter (25% shorter than G-File). G1 and NG1 have a #12 tip size, whereas G2 and NG2 have a #17 tip size. All the files have the same taper of 3%...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569358/prefrontal-cortex-ng2-glia-undergo-a-developmental-switch-in-their-responsiveness-to-exercise
#16
Lyl Tomlinson, Po Hsuan Huang, Holly Colognato
Aerobic exercise is known to influence brain function, e.g., enhancing executive function in both children and adults, with many of these influences being attributed to alterations in neurogenesis and neuronal function. Yet oligodendroglia in adult brains have also been reported to be highly responsive to exercise, including in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC), a late myelinating region implicated in working memory. However, whether exercise affects oligodendroglia or myelination in juveniles, either in the PFC or in other brain regions, remains unknown...
March 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565434/enhanced-targeting-of-triple-negative-breast-carcinoma-and-malignant-melanoma-by-photochemical-internalization-of-cspg4-targeting-immunotoxins
#17
M S Eng, J Kaur, L Prasmickaite, B Ø Engesæter, A Weyergang, E Skarpen, K Berg, M G Rosenblum, G M Mælandsmo, A Høgset, S Ferrone, P K Selbo
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and malignant melanoma are highly aggressive cancers that widely express the cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4/NG2). CSPG4 plays an important role in tumor cell growth and survival and promotes chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, suggesting that CSPG4 is an attractive target in cancer therapy. In the present work, we applied the drug delivery technology photochemical internalization (PCI) in combination with the novel CSPG4-targeting immunotoxin 225...
March 22, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518167/correction-recovery-from-toxic-induced-demyelination-does-not-require-the-ng2-proteoglycan
#18
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163841.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506015/ng2-glia-a-new-player-in-energy-balance
#19
Sarah Robins, Maia Kokoeva
<br>There is increasing evidence that glia act not only as neuronal support cells, but that they can also influence physiological outcomes via effects on neural signalling. The role of NG2-glia in this regard is especially enigmatic, as they are known to interact with neural circuits but their precise functions other than as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain elusive. Here we summarise recent evidence suggesting that NG2-glia play a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, most notably via the support of leptin sensing neural circuits...
March 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501892/in-vivo-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-ng2-glia-activity-caused-by-neural-electrode-implantation
#20
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
May 2018: Biomaterials
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