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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229643/vestpd-as-a-measure-of-ventilatory-acclimatization-to-hypobaric-hypoxia
#1
J A Loeppky, A C Sheard, R M Salgado, C M Mermier
This study compared the ventilation response to an incremental ergometer exercise at two altitudes: 633 mmHg (resident altitude = 1,600 m) and following acute decompression to 455 mmHg (≈4,350 m altitude) in eight male cyclists and runners. At 455 mmHg, the VESTPD at RER <1.0 was significantly lower and the VEBTPS was higher because of higher breathing frequency; at VO2max, both VESTPD and VEBTPS were not significantly different. As percent of VO2max, the VEBTPS was nearly identical and VESTPD was 30% lower throughout the exercise at 455 mmHg...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229577/maximal-aerobic-capacity-can-be-increased-by-enhancing-performers-expectancies
#2
Jeff Montes, Gabriele Wulf, James W Navalta
BACKGROUND: Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) is widely accepted as the best measure of cardiovascular fitness and aerobic power. The present study investigated whether enhancing participants' performance expectancies through positive social-comparative feedback would increase VO2max. METHODS: Participants were experienced runners who regularly ran for exercise or competitively. All participants completed two VO2max tests within a 2-week period at similar times of the day...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227893/wearable-embroidered-muscle-activity-sensing-device-for-the-human-upper-leg
#3
R B Ribas Manero, A Shafti, B Michael, J Grewal, J Ll Ribas Fernandez, K Althoefer, M J Howard, R B Ribas Manero, A Shafti, B Michael, J Grewal, J Ll Ribas Fernandez, K Althoefer, M J Howard, K Althoefer, B Michael, A Shafti, J Ll Ribas Fernandez, J Grewal, M J Howard
Within the last decade, running has become one of the most popular physical activities in the world. Although the benefits of running are numerous, there is a risk of Running Related Injuries (RRIs) of the lower extremities. Electromyography (EMG) techniques have previously been used to study causes of RRIs, but the complexity of this technology limits its use to a laboratory setting. As running is primarily an outdoors activity, this lack of technology acts as a barrier to the study of RRIs in natural environments...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227704/comparing-glucose-and-insulin-data-from-the-two-hour-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-metabolic-syndrome-subjects-and-marathon-runners
#4
Miguel Altuve, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong, Miguel Altuve, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong, Sara Wong, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn
Glucose is the main energy source of the body's cells and is essential for normal metabolism. Two pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, are involved in glucose home-ostasis. Alteration in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations could lead to distinct symptoms and diseases, ranging from mental function impairment to coma and even death. Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are typical examples of abnormal glucose metabolism that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227625/preliminary-investigation-of-energy-comparation-between-gyroscope-electromyography-and-vo2-wearable-sensors
#5
Gareth Williams, Saiyi Li, Pubudu N Pathirana, Gareth Williams, Saiyi Li, Pubudu N Pathirana, Pubudu N Pathirana, Saiyi Li, Gareth Williams
Building on previous experiments in the domain of energy expenditure estimation using wearable sensors, the measurements of energy ratios of a runner on a treadmill were analyzed to observe any commonalities between an inertia measurement unit and an electromyograph sensor. The subjects were equipped with a VO2 gas measurement device, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) measuring gyroscopic activity and an electromyography (EMG) sensor network whilst running at 5 different speeds on a calibrated treadmill. The observed results established a co-linear relationship with the gyroscope based measurements, EMG based measurements with the VO2 measurements...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222581/a-comparison-of-the-physiological-demands-imposed-by-competing-in-a-half-marathon-vs-a-marathon
#6
Juan Del Coso, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicén, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces
BACKGROUND: While there is widespread scientific information about the physiological challenges imposed on elite endurance runners during competitions, the information regarding the amateur population is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and physiological load imposed by competing in a real half-marathon vs a marathon race. METHODS: From a larger group of participants, we selected 22 experienced runners who were matched in pairs (11 marathoners and 11 half-marathoners) for age and anthropometric data...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222048/comparison-of-running-economy-values-while-wearing-no-shoes-minimal-shoes-and-normal-running-shoes
#7
Robbie G Cochrum, Ryan T Connors, John M Coons, Dana K Fuller, Don W Morgan, Jennifer L Caputo
Cochrum, RG, Connors, RT, Coons, JM, Fuller, DK, Morgan, DW, and Caputo, JL. Comparison of running economy values while wearing no shoes, minimal shoes, and normal running shoes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 595-601, 2017-The purpose of this study was to quantify differences in running economy (RE) at 50 and 70% of each subject's velocity at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) across barefoot and 2 mass, stack height, and heel-to-toe-drop controlled footwear conditions (minimal shoes and normal running shoes) in 9 recreational distance runners (mean age 26...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220961/carbon-based-perovskite-solar-cells-without-hole-transport-materials-the-front-runner-to-the-market
#8
REVIEW
Haining Chen, Shihe Yang
Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have garnered recent interest in the scientific community. In the past few years, they have achieved power conversion efficiencies comparable to traditional commercial solar cells (e.g., crystalline Si, CuInGaSe and CdTe) due to their low-cost of production via solution-processed fabrication techniques. However, the stability of PSCs must be addressed before their commercialization is viable. Among various kinds of PSCs, carbon-based PSCs without hole transport materials (C-PSCs) seem to be the most promising for addressing the stability issue because carbon materials are stable, inert to ion migration (which originates from perovskite and metal electrodes), and inherently water-resistant...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#9
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217413/deformation-response-of-the-iliotibial-band-tensor-fascia-lata-complex-to-clinical-grade-longitudinal-tension-loading-in-vitro
#10
Mark Wilhelm, Omer Matthijs, Kevin Browne, Gesine Seeber, Anja Matthijs, Phillip S Sizer, Jean-Michel Brismée, C Roger James, Kerry K Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Iliotibial Band (ITB) syndrome is a troublesome condition with prevalence as high as 12% in runners. Stretching has been utilized as a conservative treatment. However, there is limited evidence supporting ITB elongation in response to a stretching force. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESES: The purpose of this study was to describe the iliotibial band tensor fascia lata complex (ITBTFLC) tissue elongation response to a simulated clinical stretch in-vitro. The authors hypothesized that the ITBTFLC would undergo statistically significant elongation when exposed to a clinical-grade stretching regimen, with the majority of the elongation occurring within the proximal ITBTFLC region...
February 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212348/an-electromagnetic-sensor-for-the-autonomous-running-of-visually-impaired-and-blind-athletes-part-ii-the-wearable-device
#11
Marco Pieralisi, Valentina Di Mattia, Valerio Petrini, Alfredo De Leo, Giovanni Manfredi, Paola Russo, Lorenzo Scalise, Graziano Cerri
Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II) focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I) and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device...
February 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212265/variations-in-oxidative-stress-levels-in-3-days-follow-up-in-ultramarathon-mountain-race-athletes
#12
Ypatios Spanidis, Dimitrios Stagos, Marina Orfanou, Nikolaos Goutzourelas, David Bar-Or, Demetrios Spandidos, Demetrios Kouretas
Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210643/perception-of-health-problems-among-competitive-runners-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-appraisals-and-behavioral-responses
#13
Sara Jelvegård, Toomas Timpka, Victor Bargoria, Håkan Gauffin, Jenny Jacobsson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2 of every 3 competitive runners sustain at least 1 health problem each season. Most of these problems are nontraumatic injuries with gradual onset. The main known risk indicator for sustaining a new running-related injury episode is a history of a previous injury, suggesting that behavioral habits are part of the causal mechanisms. PURPOSE: Identification of elements associated with purposeful interpretations of body perceptions and balanced behavioral responses may supply vital information for prevention of health problems in runners...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207961/muscle-stiffness-of-posterior-lower-leg-in-runners-with-a-history-of-medial-tibial-stress-syndrome
#14
Junya Saeki, Masatoshi Nakamura, Sayaka Nakao, Kosuke Fujita, Ko Yanase, Noriaki Ichihashi
Previous history of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a risk factor for MTSS relapse, which suggests that there might be some physical factors that are related to MTSS development in runners with a history of MTSS. The relationship between MTSS and muscle stiffness can be assessed in a cross-sectional study that measures muscle stiffness in subjects with a history of MTSS, who do not have pain at the time of measurement, and in those without a history of MTSS. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear elastic modulus, which is an index of muscle stiffness, of all posterior lower leg muscles of subjects with a history of MTSS and those with no history and investigate which muscles could be related to MTSS...
February 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195978/lack-of-influence-of-muscular-performance-parameters-on-spatio-temporal-adaptations-with-increased-running-velocity
#15
Luis E Roche-Seruendo, Felipe García-Pinillos, Joana Haicaguerre, Ana V Bataller-Cervero, Víctor M Soto-Hermoso, Pedro Á Latorre-Román
This study aimed to analyse the influence of muscular performance parameters on spatio-temporal gait characteristics during running when gradually increasing speed. 51 recreationally trained male endurance runners (age: 28 ± 8 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed a battery of jumping tests (squat jump, countermovement jump, and 20 cm drop jump), and after that, the subjects performed an incremental running test (10 to 20 km/h) on a motorized treadmill. Spatio-temporal parameters were measured using the OptoGait system...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187185/declines-in-marathon-performance-sex-differences-in-elite-and-recreational-athletes
#16
Gerald S Zavorsky, Kelly A Tomko, James M Smoliga
The first aim of this study was to determine the age group at which marathon performance declines in top male and female runners and to compare that to the runners of average ability. Another aim of this of this study was to examine the age-related yearly decline in marathon performance between age group winners and the average marathon finisher. Data from the New York (NYC), Boston, and Chicago marathons from 2001-2016 were analyzed. Age, sex, and location were used in multiple linear regression models to determine the rate of decline in marathon times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184175/the-motivational-influence-of-milestone-times-on-10-km-running-performance
#17
Daniel M Cushman, Ashwin Babu, Benjamin Marshall, Monica Rho
To date, little research has been conducted to evaluate the potentially motivating effect of completing a race at a specific "milestone" finishing time. As this is difficult to perform in a laboratory setting, we examined 10-km runners from a large cohort to see if they were more likely to complete a race before rather than after a set milestone time (40:00, 45:00, and 50:00). Frequency distributions for finishers of each sex were created in 30-second time groups, with ideal normal distributions modeled based on this data...
August 2016: Int J Perform Anal Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182775/relationship-between-anaerobic-capacity-estimated-using-a-single-effort-and-30-s-tethered-running-outcomes
#18
Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Willian Eiji Miyagi, Filipe Antônio de Barros Sousa, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between alternative anaerobic capacity method (MAODALT) and a 30-s all-out tethered running test. Fourteen male recreational endurance runners underwent a graded exercise test, a supramaximal exhaustive effort and a 30-s all-out test on different days, interspaced by 48h. After verification of data normality (Shapiro-Wilk test), the Pearson's correlation test was used to verify the association between the anaerobic estimates from the MAODALT and the 30-s all-out tethered running outputs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181836/volume-exercise-in-older-athletes-influences-inflammatory-and-redox-responses-to-acute-exercise
#19
Andre L Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jefferson D da Silva, José C Moreira, James E Turner, Moisés E Bauer
To examine whether the volume of previous exercise training in older athletes influences inflammatory, redox and hormonal profiles, forty trained marathon runners were divided into higher-volume (HVG, ~480 min/week) and lower-volume groups (LVG, ~240 min/week). Plasma inflammatory proteins, redox biomarkers and salivary testosterone and cortisol, were assessed at rest and following two maximal acute exercise bouts. At rest, the LVG exhibited higher CRP, higher protein carbonyls and lower SOD activity compared to the HVG (p's<0...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177747/short-term-heat-acclimation-improves-the-determinants-of-endurance-performance-and-5-000-m-running-performance-in-the-heat
#20
Carl Alexander James, Alan J Richardson, Peter W Watt, Ashley G B Willmott, Oliver R Gibson, Neil S Maxwell
This study investigated the effect of 5 days controlled hyperthermia heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5 km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W.kg-1), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in cool (13°C, 50% RH, pre training) and hot conditions (32°C, 60% RH, pre and post training), as well as 5 km time trials (TT) in the heat, pre and post training...
November 18, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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