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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346316/impact-of-direction-of-unloading-influence-on-template-rate-of-perceived-exertion
#1
Beau Kjerulf Greer, Patrick R Young, Brooke Thompson, Brendan J Rickert, Matthew F Moran
It is suggested that exercisers engage in a process of teleoanticipation and create an exercise template based upon previous experience with the exercise task which guides their perceptions of the amount of effort required for task completion. The present study examined how altering workload intensity during a positive-pressure treadmill task may impact ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). In a counter-balanced design, 15 collegiate cross country runners (7 males, 8 females) performed two 25-min runs at a constant velocity while bodyweight (BW) was either increased from 60% to 100% (INC) or decreased from 100% to 60% (DEC) in 5 min increments...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345173/increasing-preferred-step-rate-during-running-reduces-plantar-pressures
#2
James M Gerrard, Daniel R Bonanno
Increasing preferred step rate during running is a commonly used strategy in the management of running-related injuries. This study investigated the effect of different step rates on plantar pressures during running. Thirty-two healthy runners ran at a comfortable speed on a treadmill at five step rates (preferred, ±5%, and ±10%). For each step rate, plantar pressure data were collected using the pedar-X in-shoe system. Compared to running with a preferred step rate, a 10% increase in step rate significantly reduced peak pressure (144...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344459/applied-sports-nutrition-support-dietary-intake-and-body-composition-changes-of-a-female-athlete-completing-26-marathons-in-26-days-a-case-study
#3
Chris J McManus, Kelly A Murray, David A Parry
The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338358/a-mismatch-between-athlete-practice-and-current-sports-nutrition-guidelines-among-elite-female-and-male-middle-and-long-distance-athletes
#4
Ida Aliisa Heikura, Trent Stellingwerff, Antti A Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, Louise Mary Burke
Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n=27) and male (n=21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and post-training meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335426/elevated-serum-hepcidin-levels-during-an-intensified-training-period-in-well-trained-female-long-distance-runners
#5
Aya Ishibashi, Naho Maeda, Daichi Sumi, Kazushige Goto
Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters...
March 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329258/a-new-frailty-score-for-experimental-animals-based-on-the-clinical-phenotype-inactivity-as-a-model-of-frailty
#6
Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Rebeca Garcia-Valles, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Francisco Jose Garcia-Garcia, Gloria Olaso-Gonzalez, Andrea Salvador-Pascual, Francisco Jose Tarazona-Santabalbina, Jose Viña
The development of animal models to study human frailty is important to test interventions to be translated to the clinical practice. The aim of this work was to develop a score for frailty in experimental animals based in the human frailty phenotype. We also tested the effect of physical inactivity in the development of frailty as determined by our score. Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (inactive) or spontaneous wheel-runners. We compared the sedentary versus the active lifestyle in terms of frailty by evaluating the clinical criteria used in humans: unintentional weight loss; poor endurance (running time); slowness (running speed); weakness (grip strength), and low activity level (motor coordination) at five different ages: 17, 20, 23, 26 and 28 months of age...
January 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325673/lower-limb-dynamics-and-clinical-outcomes-for-habitually-shod-runners-who-transition-to-barefoot-running
#7
Rami Hashish, Sachithra D Samarawickrame, Susan Sigward, Stanley P Azen, George J Salem
OBJECTIVES: Recent investigations have revealed lower vertical loading rates and knee energy absorption amongst experienced barefoot runners relative to those who rear-foot strike (RFS). Although this has led to an adoption of barefoot running amongst many recreational shoe runners, recent investigations indicate that the experienced barefoot pattern is not immediately realized. Therefore, the purpose this investigation was to quantify changes in lower-extremity dynamics and clinical outcomes measures for habitually shod runners who perform a transition to barefoot running...
December 10, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325645/athletic-identity-compulsive-exercise-and-eating-psychopathology-in-long-distance-runners
#8
Robert Turton, Huw Goodwin, Caroline Meyer
Having a high athletic identity is thought to increase vulnerability for compulsive exercise and Eating Disorder (ED) psychopathology. This study examined whether there is an association between athletic identity and levels of compulsive exercise and ED psychopathology in long-distance runners. A sample of 501 long-distance runners completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), Compulsive Exercise Test (CET) and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ). There was a significant positive association between participants' AIMS and total CET scores (moderate effect size; r=0...
March 8, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325022/comparing-glucose-and-insulin-data-from-the-two-hour-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-metabolic-syndrome-subjects-and-marathon-runners
#9
Miguel Altuve, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong
Glucose is the main energy source of the body's cells and is essential for normal metabolism. Two pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, are involved in glucose home-ostasis. Alteration in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations could lead to distinct symptoms and diseases, ranging from mental function impairment to coma and even death. Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are typical examples of abnormal glucose metabolism that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322630/energy-macronutrient-and-water-intake-during-a-mountain-ultramarathon-event-the-influence-of-distance
#10
Sonia Martinez, Antoni Aguilo, Lluis Rodas, Leticia Lozano, Carlos Moreno, Pedro Tauler
Adequate dietary strategies are essential for the successful participation in ultra-endurance races. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the energy and water intakes of participants during three different mountain ultra-endurance runs. The study took place at the "Ultra Mallorca Serra de Tramuntana" (Mallorca, Spain), an ultra-endurance mountain event with runners participating either in a 44-km (Marathon, n = 51), a 67-km (Trail, n = 109) or a 112-km (Ultra, n = 53) run competition. Participants in the study answered a questionnaire focused on the nutritional intake within an hour after finishing the competition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322115/lower-extremity-kinematics-of-curve-sprinting-displayed-by-runners-using-a-transtibial-prosthesis
#11
Yumeng Li, Kathy J Simpson, Lee Nolan, Marilyn Miller, Benjamin Johnson
The purpose of the study was to determine if the kinematics exhibited by skilled runners wearing a unilateral, transtibial prosthesis during the curve section of a 200-m sprint race were influenced by interaction of limb-type (prosthetic limb (PROS-L) vs. nonprosthetic limb (NONPROS-L)) and curve-side (inside and outside limb relative to the centre of the curve). Step kinematics, toe clearance and knee and hip flexion/extension, hip ab/adduction for one stride of each limb were generated from video of 13 males running the curve during an international 200 m transtibial-classified competition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321639/brain-oxygenation-declines-in-elite-kenyan-runners-during-a-maximal-interval-training-session
#12
Jordan Santos-Concejero, F Billaut, L Grobler, J Oliván, T D Noakes, R Tucker
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterise the cerebral oxygenation (Cox) response during a high-intensity interval training session in Kenyan runners, and to examine any relationship with running performance. METHODS: 15 Kenyan runners completed a 5-km time trial (TT) and a Fatigue Training Test on a treadmill (repeated running bouts of 1-km at a pace 5% faster than their mean 5-km TT pace with a 30-s recovery until exhaustion). Changes in Cox were monitored via near-infrared spectroscopy through concentration changes in oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin (Δ[O2Hb] and Δ[HHb]), tissue oxygenation index (TOI), and total hemoglobin index (nTHI)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321588/use-of-bioimpedianciometer-as-predictor-of-mountain-marathon-performance
#13
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis
This study aimed to examine the relation among body composition, training experience and race time during a mountain marathon. Body composition and training pre-race experience analyses were conducted previous to a mountain marathon in 52 male athletes. A significant correlation between race time and mountain marathon with chronological age, body fat mass, percentage of body fat (BF), level of abdominal obesity, sport experience and daily training volume was revealed. In addition, BF and athlete's chronological age were negatively associated with race performance...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303754/effects-of-running-experience-on-coordination-and-its-variability-in-runners
#14
Pablo Floría, Alberto Sánchez-Sixto, Reed Ferber, Andrew J Harrison
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in coordination variability in running gait between trained runners and non-runners using continuous relative phase (CRP) analysis. Lower extremity kinematic data were collected for 22 participants during the stance phase. The participants were assigned to either a runner or non-runner group based on running volume training. Segment coordination and coordination variability were calculated for selected hip-knee and knee-ankle couplings. Independent t-tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to compare the 2 groups...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292715/footwear-characteristics-are-related-to-running-mechanics-in-runners-with-patellofemoral-pain
#15
Jean-Francois Esculier, Blaise Dubois, Laurent J Bouyer, Bradford J McFadyen, Jean-Sébastien Roy
Running footwear is known to influence step rate, foot inclination at foot strike, average vertical loading rate (VLR) and peak patellofemoral joint (PFJ) force. However, the association between the level of minimalism of running shoes and running mechanics, especially with regards to these relevant variables for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP), has yet to be investigated. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the level of minimalism of running shoes and habitual running kinematics and kinetics in runners with PFP...
March 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290718/assessments-of-mechanical-stiffness-and-relationships-to-performance-determinants-in-middle-distance-runners
#16
Simon A Rogers, Chris S Whatman, Simon N Pearson, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine relationships between methods of lower-limb stiffness and their associations with running economy (RE) and maximal velocity (vmax) in middle-distance (MD) runners. METHODS: Eleven highly-trained male MD runners performed a series of mechanical and physiological tests to determine maximal overground sprint speed, RE and V̇O2peak. Achilles tendon stiffness (kT) was estimated using ultrasonography during maximal isometric ankle plantarflexion...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287313/the-early-days-of-commercial-ft-ir-spectrometry-a-personal-perspective
#17
Peter R Griffiths
The development of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers in the mid-1960s followed along three lines. Interferometers for far-infrared FT spectrometry typically had a slow scan speed and the beam of radiation was modulated by a rotating chopper. Several instruments based on this system were developed commercially. Very high-resolution near-infrared FT spectrometers were based on cats-eye retroreflectors mounted in a step-scan interferometer; the beam of radiation was usually modulated by dithering one of the cats-eyes (phase modulation)...
March 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282421/comparison-of-vitality-states-of-finishers-and-withdrawers-in-trail-running-an-enactive-and-phenomenological-perspective
#18
Nadège Rochat, Denis Hauw, Roberta Antonini Philippe, Fabienne Crettaz von Roten, Ludovic Seifert
Studies on ultra-endurance suggest that during the races, athletes typically experience three vitality states (i.e., preservation, loss, and revival) at the phenomenological level. Nevertheless, how these states contribute to the management and outcome of performance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how the vitality states experienced by runners and their evolution during a trail race can be used to distinguish finishers from withdrawers. From an enactive and phenomenological framework, we processed enactive interviews and blog posts of race narratives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277405/the-preferred-movement-path-paradigm-influence-of-running-shoes-on-joint-movement
#19
Benno M Nigg, Jordyn Vienneau, Aimée C Smith, Matthieu B Trudeau, Maurice Mohr, Sandro R Nigg
PURPOSE: (a) to quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics for groups of runners subjected to different running footwear conditions, and (b) to quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics on an individual basis for runners subjected to different running footwear conditions. METHODS: Three-dimensional ankle and knee joint kinematics were collected for 35 heel-toe runners when wearing three different running shoes and when running barefoot...
March 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276912/soreness-related-changes-in-three-dimensional-running-biomechanics-following-eccentric-knee-extensor-exercise
#20
Max R Paquette, Shelby A Peel, Brian K Schilling, Dan A Melcher, Richard J Bloomer
Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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