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Adriano Cattaneo, Adidja Amani, Nathalie Charpak, Socorro De Leon-Mendoza, Sarah Moxon, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Giorgio Tamburlini, Julieta Villegas, Anne-Marie Bergh
BACKGROUND: Globally, complications of prematurity are the leading cause of death in children under five. Preterm infants who survive their first month of life are at greater risk for various diseases and impairments in infancy, childhood and later life, representing a heavy social and economic burden for families, communities and health and social systems. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is recommended as a beneficial and effective intervention for improving short- and long-term preterm birth outcomes in low- and high-income settings...
May 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
David Ferro-Costas, Emilio Martínez-Núñez, Jesus Rodriguez-Otero, Enrique M Cabaleiro-Lago, Carlos M Estevez, Berta Fernandez, Antonio Fernandez-Ramos, Saulo A Vazquez
The potential energy surface involved in the thermal decomposition of 1-propanol radicals was investigated in detail using automated codes (tsscds2018 and Q2DTor). From the predicted elementary reactions, a relevant reaction network was constructed to study the decomposition at temperatures in the range 1000  2000 K. Specifically, this relevant network comprises 18 conformational reaction channels (CRCs), which in general exhibit a large wealth of conformers of reactants and transition states. Rate constants for all the CRCs were calculated using two approaches within the formulation of variational transition state theory (VTST), as incorporated in the TheRa program...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Gopinath Kalaiarasan, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan, Neethu Anitha Sethunath, Sivamoorthy Manoharan
Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) samples were collected from six sites in urban Mangalore and the mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5 were measured using gravimetric technique. The measurements were found to exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) limits, with the highest concentration of 231.5 μg/m3 for PM10 particles at Town hall and 120.3 μg/m3 for PM2.5 particles at KMC Attavar. The elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICPOES) revealed twelve different elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr and Zn) for PM10 particles and nine different elements (Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) for PM2...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Christina T Mathias, Solange Mianda, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 emphasises on reducing neonatal deaths caused by low birth weight (LBW) complications by the implementation and utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the empirical evidence of KMC optimising low-birth-weight infants' (LBWIs') survival, its advantages and the LMICs implementing the service, studies have shown that LBW infant deaths occurring in LMICs are largely contributing to global child mortality...
April 5, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Heather C Watkins, Melissa C Morgan, Harriet Nambuya, Peter Waiswa, Joy E Lawn
AIM: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of reducing neonatal mortality in resource-limited settings, but there has been a lack of data on the duration of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) in busy, low-resource newborn units. Previous studies of intermittent KMC suggest the duration of SSC ranged from 10 minutes to 17 hours per day. METHODS: This was an observational study of newborn infants born weighing less than 2000 g, which collected quantitative data on SSC over the first week after birth...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Enrique Martínez, Oriane Senninger, Alfredo Caro, Frédéric Soisson, Maylise Nastar, Blas P Uberuaga
Nonequilibrium chemical redistribution in open systems submitted to external forces, such as particle irradiation, leads to changes in the structural properties of the material, potentially driving the system to failure. Such redistribution is controlled by the complex interplay between the production of point defects, atomic transport rates, and the sink character of the microstructure. In this work, we analyze this interplay by means of a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) framework with an underlying atomistic model for the Fe-Cr model alloy to study the effect of ideal defect sinks on Cr concentration profiles, with a particular focus on the role of interface density...
March 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Sarmila Mazumder, Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Zelee Hill, Sunita Taneja, Brinda Dube, Jasmine Kaur, Medha Shekhar, Runa Ghosh, Shruti Bisht, Jose Carlos Martines, Rajiv Bahl, Halvor Sommerfelt, Nita Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries (LMICs), including India, contribute to a major proportion of low birth weight (LBW) infants globally. These infants require special care. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in hospitals is a cost effective and efficacious intervention. In institutional deliveries, the duration of facility stay is often short. In LMICs, a substantial proportion of deliveries still occur at home and access to health care services is limited. In these circumstances, a pragmatic choice may be to initiate KMC at home for LBW babies...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Melissa C Morgan, Harriet Nambuya, Peter Waiswa, Cally Tann, Diana Elbourne, Janet Seeley, Elizabeth Allen, Joy E Lawn
Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " [12]. However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Zongyang Qiu, Pai Li, Zhenyu Li, Jinlong Yang
Epitaxial growth is a promising strategy to produce high-quality graphene samples. At the same time, this method has great flexibility for industrial scale-up. To optimize growth protocols, it is essential to understand the underlying growth mechanisms. This is, however, very challenging, as the growth process is complicated and involves many elementary steps. Experimentally, atomic-scale in situ characterization methods are generally not feasible at the high temperature of graphene growth. Therefore, kinetics is the main experimental information to study growth mechanisms...
March 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Julius Koettgen, Steffen Grieshammer, Philipp Hein, Benjamin O H Grope, Masanobu Nakayama, Manfred Martin
Materials with high oxygen ion conductivity and low electronic conductivity are required for electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and high-temperature electrolysis (SOEC). A potential candidate for the electrolytes, which separate oxidation and reduction processes, is rare-earth doped ceria. The prediction of the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes and a better understanding of the underlying atomistic mechanisms provide an important contribution to the future of sustainable and efficient energy conversion and storage...
February 26, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ming-Hong Yen, Ching-I Huang, Min-Sheng Lee, Ya-Ping Cheng, Chia Jung Hsieh, Lien-Chai Chiang, Jung-San Chang
Artemisia capillaris (A. capillaris) is a common herbal drug used for thousands years in ancient China. A. capillaris has been empirically used to manage hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), which is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). EV71 can cause meningoencephalitis with mortality and neurologic sequelae without effective management. It is presently unknown whether A. capillaris is effective against EV71 infection. To test the hypothesis that it could protect cells from EV71-induced injury, a hot water extract of A...
March 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Manimaran Ramani, Eunjoo A Choe, Meggin Major, Rebecca Newton, Musaku Mwenechanya, Colm P Travers, Elwyn Chomba, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Waldemar A Carlo
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that kangaroo mother care (KMC) initiated either at birth or at 1 hour after birth reduces moderate or severe hypothermia in term neonates at (A) 1 hour after birth and (B) at discharge when compared with standard thermoregulation care. METHODS: Term neonates born at a tertiary delivery centre in Zambia were randomised in two phases (phase 1: birth to 1 hour, phase 2: 1 hour to discharge) to either as much KMC as possible in combination with standard thermoregulation care (KMC group) or to standard thermoregulation care (control group)...
May 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Meera Bista
INTRODUCTION: Nasal packing is one of the most common rhinological procedures in ENT practice exerting local in nose and systemic effects. Systemic effects may be due to poor sleep quality, respiratory difficulty, decreased oxygen saturation, circulatory problems and toxic shock syndrome which can threaten the life of a person.The study was done to investigate the effect on bilateral nasal packing on blood oxygen saturation and blood pressure changes. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was undertaken in Kathmandu Medical College from January 2017 to June 2017...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Fang Li, Jihua Wang, Li Xu, Songxue Wang, Minghui Zhou, Jingwei Yin, Anxiang Lu
The accuracy, repeatability and detection limits of the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer used in this study were tested to verify its suitability for rapid screening of cadmium in samples. Concentrations of cadmium in rice grain samples were tested by the XRF spectrometer. The results showed that the apparatus had good precision around the national limit value (0.2 mg/kg). Raman spectroscopy has been analyzed in the discrimination of rice grain samples from different geographical origins within China...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daisuke Inoue, Akiko Tanaka, Shunsuke Kimura, Akiko Kiriyama, Hidemasa Katsumi, Akira Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi Ogawara, Toshikiro Kimura, Kazutaka Higaki, Reiko Yutani, Toshiyasu Sakane, Tomoyuki Furubayashi
Drug absorption after nasal application is dependent on drug clearance from the nasal cavity, which is determined by nasal mucociliary clearance (MC). We previously developed an in vitro method to evaluate MC via the translocation velocity of fluorescent microspheres (VFMS ) applied to excised rat nasal mucosa. In the present study, the relationship between in vivo nasal MC and in vitro VFMS was examined to optimize our PK model for the prediction of nasal drug absorption. Appropriate inhibitors (propranolol and atropine) and enhancers (terbutaline and acetylcholine chloride) of MC were utilized to modify MC...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Stéphanie Ropars, Réjean Tessier, Nathalie Charpak, Luis Felipe Uriza
This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) intervention on the intellectual and attentional functioning of young adults born with low birth weight. Three hundred infants were randomly assigned at birth in one of two interventions, KMC or traditional care (TC), and completed cognitive tests at adulthood (19-21 years after recruitment). The main results show that participants with a neurological vulnerability at 6 months had higher IQ and sustained attention scores at adulthood if they had received KMC than if they had received TC...
January 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
César Ernesto Abadía-Barrero
This ethnographic study presents the origins, growth, and collapse of the first Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) program, a well-established practice for neonatal care created in 1978 in Colombia. The WHO and UNICEF praised this zero-cost revolutionary technique for its promotion of skin-to-skin contact between premature and low-birth-weight newborns and family members. KMC facilitates early hospital discharge, brings many clinical and psychological benefits, and constitutes an excellent alternative to placing babies in incubators...
January 24, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Si-Hyung Lee, Jee Eun Kim, Hong Sun Jang, Kyu Hyun Park, Byung Ho Oh, Sang Joon Shin, Kee Yang Chung, Mi Ryung Roh, Sun Young Rha
Purpose: Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous neoplasm, composed of subpopulations of tumor cells with distinct molecular and biological phenotypes and genotypes. In this study, to determine the genetic heterogeneity between primary and metastatic melanoma in Korean melanoma patients, we evaluated several well-known genetic alterations of melanoma. In addition, to elucidate the clinical relevance of each genetic alteration and heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesions, clinical features and patient outcome were collected...
January 22, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Rakesh Kumar Shah, Nayan Kamal Sainju, Sunil Kumar Joshi
BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care is an effective and low cost technique which prevents neonate from hypothermia, a leading cause of preventable neonatal mortality. Knowledge and practice of Kangaroo mother care is of utmost importance in developing countries such as Nepal. Purpose of this study was to find out knowledge, attitude and practice of kangaroo mother care among health workers in tertiary health centres in Nepal. METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out in three teaching hospitals in Nepal during the period from January 2016 to April 2016...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
H Tetlow, D Curcio, A Baraldi, L Kantorovich
The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons on the Ir(111) surface is determined using kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) and rate equations simulations, both based on the density functional theory (DFT) calculated energy barriers of the involved reaction processes. This decomposition process is important for understanding the early stages of epitaxial graphene growth where the deposited hydrocarbon acts as a carbon feedstock for graphene formation. The methodology of the kMC simulations and the rate equation approaches is discussed and a comparison between the results obtained from both approaches is made in the case of the temperature programmed decomposition of ethylene for different initial coverages...
February 28, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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