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E Zonabend König, J M K Ojango, J Audho, T Mirkena, E Strandberg, A M Okeyo, J Philipsson
Meat production is the most important trait in the breeding objectives of sheep production in East Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate breed differences in live weight, conformation, carcass traits and economic values for meat production among Red Maasai and Dorper sheep and their crosses. In total, 88 ram lambs, which were reared at the ILRI experimental station, Kapiti plains Estate in Central Kenya, were used for the study. The lambs were slaughtered at Kenya Meat Commission (KMC) at about 1 year of age...
October 14, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Jørgen Høgberget, Anja Røyne, Dag K Dysthe, Espen Jettestuen
We extend the (1+1)-dimensional fluid solid-on-solid (SOS) model to include a confining flat surface opposite to the SOS surface subject to a constant load. This load is balanced by a repulsive surface-surface interaction given by an ansatz which agrees with known analytical solutions in the limit of two separated flat surfaces. Mechanical equilibrium is imposed at all times by repositioning the confining surface. By the use of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) we calculate how the equilibrium concentration (deposition rate) depends on the applied load, and find it to reproduce analytical thermodynamics independent of the parameters of the interaction ansatz...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Ying Pan, Ye Tao, Guangzhao Qin, Yuriy Fedoryshyn, Shyamprasad N Raja, Ming Hu, Christian L Degen, Dimos Poulikakos
We report electronic and phononic transport measurements of monocrystalline batch-fabricated silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays functionalized with different surface chemistries. We find that hydrogen-terminated SiNWs prepared by vapor HF etching of native-oxide-covered devices show increased electrical conductivity but decreased thermal conductivity. We used the kinetic Monte Carlo method to solve the Boltzmann transport equation and also numerically examine the effect of phonon boundary scattering. Surface transfer doping of the SiNWs by cobaltocene or decamethylcobaltocene drastically improves the electrical conductivity by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude without affecting the thermal conductivity...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Issiaka Sombie, Namoudou Keita, Virgil Lokossou, Ermel Johnson, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo
BACKGROUND: The introduction of implementation science into maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) research has facilitated better methods to improve uptake of research findings into practices. With increase in implementation research related to MNCH world-wide, stronger scientific evidence are now available and have improved MNCH policies in many countries including Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to review MNCH implementation studies undertaken in Nigeria in order to understand the extent the evidence generated informed better policy...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Yuan Kang, Weijian Pan, Siyun Liang, Lixuan Zeng, Qiuyun Zhang, Jiwen Luo, Xinmei Guo
The bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust was estimated by a series of in vitro digestion methods. However, the absorption of PBDEs by intestinal cells after in vitro digestion was seldom studied. In the present study, the bioaccessibility of BDE-28, 47, 99 and 153 in indoor dust was firstly investigated by using the in vitro digestion method. Bioaccessibility in intestinal phase (BDE-28: 24.5-30.1%; BDE-47: 6.99-13.0; BDE-99: 1.61-14.2%; and BDE-153 5.97-24.4%.) was higher than that in gastric phase (BDE-28: 38...
August 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shyam Kattel, Binhang Yan, Yixiong Yang, Jingguang G Chen, Ping Liu
Rational optimization of catalytic performance has been one of the major challenges in catalysis. Here we report a bottom-up study on the ability of TiO2 and ZrO2 to optimize the CO2 conversion to methanol on Cu, using combined density functional theory (DFT) calculations, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements, and steady-state flow reactor tests. The theoretical results from DFT and KMC agree with in situ DRIFTS measurements, showing that both TiO2 and ZrO2 help to promote methanol synthesis on Cu via carboxyl intermediates and the reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) pathway; the formate intermediates, on the other hand, likely act as a spectator eventually...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Deepak Sharma, Srinivas Murki, Oleti Tejo Pratap
UNLABELLED: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in preterm infants. In this study, we compared the efficacy of "baby care in kangaroo ward (KWC)" with "baby care in intermediate intensive care (IIC)" in stable preterm infants (birth weight <1100 g) for improving the growth velocity till term corrected age. One hundred and forty-one infants were randomized to KWC (n = 71) or IIC (n = 70) once the infant reached a weight of 1150 g...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Riccardo Volpi, Racine Nassau, Morten Steen Nørby, Mathieu Linares
We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold CT state were performed at a range of applied electric fields, and with the fields applied at a range of angles to the interface to simulate the action of the electric field in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Agustin Conde-Agudelo, José L Díaz-Rossello
BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care (KMC), originally defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from hospital, has been proposed as an alternative to conventional neonatal care for low birthweight (LBW) infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether evidence is available to support the use of KMC in LBW infants as an alternative to conventional neonatal care before or after the initial period of stabilization with conventional care, and to assess beneficial and adverse effects...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kishwar Azad, Jiji Mathews
Preterm births (PTBs), defined as births before 37 weeks of gestation account for the majority of deaths in the newborn period. Prediction and prevention of PTB is challenging. A history of preterm labour or second trimester losses and accurate measurement of cervical length help to identify women who would benefit from progesterone and cerclage. Fibronectin estimation in the cervicovaginal secretions of a symptomatic woman with an undilated cervix can predict PTB within 10 days of testing. Antibiotics should be given to women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes but tocolysis has a limited role in the management of preterm labour...
June 24, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Kmc Topcu, D Ö Kırıcı, M S Evcil
AIM: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be healthy, were the source of the pulp tissue. The situation of the dental pulps was evaluated using clinical and radiographic assessments. The patients were divided two groups from healthy, and inflamed pulp tissues were obtained; each participant provided one pulp tissue specimens...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Hyma Jose, Deepak Madi, Nithyananda Chowta, John Ramapuram, Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran, Basavaprabhu Achappa, Vishnu Chandran
INTRODUCTION: The desire of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to have children can have significant public health implications. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of PLWHA as a result of which they may consider child bearing. There are hardly any studies from India addressing the fertility desires among PLWHA. AIM: This study was done to assess the fertility desires of PLWHA in Southern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 230 HIV-positive men and women who presented to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Vanishri S Nayak, Abhilasha Priya, Nandini Bhat, Sunil S Nayak, Antony Sylvan D'Souza, Hemalatha Bangera, Suhani Sumalatha
INTRODUCTION: The dorsal interossei are the abductors of the fingers and the knowledge of its variation help the surgeon in treatment of fractures, claw hand and compartment syndromes. AIM: To note the origin, insertion, pattern of muscle fibres and tendon length of all the dorsal interossei of hand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routinely dissected 30 formalin fixed hand in the Department of Anatomy, KMC, Manipal, were observed for origin, insertion and tendon length and muscle pattern of dorsal interossei...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Sabyasachi Das, Abhijit Banik, Amiya Kumar Hati, Somenath Roy
BACKGROUND: Emergence of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium vivax is a serious obstacle towards malaria control in India. This study elucidates the temporal pattern of antifolate [sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)] resistance in P. vivax infection by means of genetic polymorphisms, especially analysing the single nucleotide polymorphisms of dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) gene among the field isolates of urban Kolkata Municipal Corporation and rural Purulia region of West Bengal, India...
2016: Malaria Journal
Krishna Feron, James M Cave, Mahir N Thameel, Connor O'Sullivan, Renee Kroon, Mats R Andersson, Xiaojing Zhou, Christopher J Fell, Warwick J Belcher, Alison B Walker, Paul C Dastoor
Energy transfer has been identified as an important process in ternary organic solar cells. Here, we develop kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models to assess the impact of energy transfer in ternary and binary bulk heterojunction systems. We used fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy to determine the energy disorder and Förster radii for poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, 4-bis[4-(N,N-diisobutylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl]squaraine (DIBSq), and poly(2,5-thiophene-alt-4,9-bis(2-hexyldecyl)-4,9-dihydrodithieno[3,2-c:3',2'-h][1,5]naphthyridine-5,10-dione)...
August 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Vishnu Chandran, Deepak Madi, Nithyananda Chowta, John Ramapuram, Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran, Basavaprabhu Achappa, Hyma Jose
INTRODUCTION: In India, family caregivers provide bulk of care to People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Caregiver burden refers to the physical, emotional and financial hardships associated with providing care to a diseased individual. Attending to the needs of PLWHA can place a significant burden on family members. This may adversely affect their Quality of Life (QOL). AIM: The main aim of our study was to assess the caregiver burden and QOL among the family members of PLWHA in Southern India...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Jin Woo Park, Kyu Il Lee, Youn-Suk Choi, Jung-Hwa Kim, Daun Jeong, Young-Nam Kwon, Jong-Bong Park, Ho Young Ahn, Jeong-Il Park, Hyo Sug Lee, Jaikwang Shin
A new reliable computational model to predict the hole mobility of poly-crystalline organic semiconductors in thin films was developed. Site energy differences and transfer integrals in crystalline morphologies of organic molecules were obtained from quantum chemical calculations, in which periodic boundary conditions were efficiently applied to capture the interactions with the surrounding molecules in the crystalline organic layer. Then the parameters were employed in kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations to estimate the carrier mobility...
August 3, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Izaac Mitchell, Stephan Irle, Alister J Page
We propose a new on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method that is based on exhaustive potential energy surface searching carried out with the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) algorithm. Starting from any given equilibrium state, this GRRM-KMC algorithm performs a one-step GRRM search to identify all surrounding transition states. Intrinsic reaction coordinate pathways are then calculated to identify potential subsequent equilibrium states. Harmonic transition state theory is used to calculate rate constants for all potential pathways, before a standard KMC accept/reject selection is performed...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yuhe Wang, Thomas R Mazur, Olga Green, Yanle Hu, Hua Li, Vivian Rodriguez, H Omar Wooten, Deshan Yang, Tianyu Zhao, Sasa Mutic, H Harold Li
PURPOSE: The clinical commissioning of IMRT subject to a magnetic field is challenging. The purpose of this work is to develop a GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculation platform based on penelope and then use the platform to validate a vendor-provided MRIdian head model toward quality assurance of clinical IMRT treatment plans subject to a 0.35 T magnetic field. METHODS: penelope was first translated from fortran to c++ and the result was confirmed to produce equivalent results to the original code...
July 2016: Medical Physics
Razieh Fallah, Naeimah Naserzadeh, Farzad Ferdosian, Fariba Binesh
BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of this research was to compare the analgesic effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC), breastfeeding and swaddling in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in term neonates. METHODS: In a randomized 120 healthy term neonates who received routine BCG vaccination in the first day of their life are distributed into three groups. In group 1, neonates breastfed two minutes before, during and one minute after BCG vaccination. In group 2, neonates received KMC 10 minutes before, during and one minute after vaccination and in group 3, they were swaddled 10 minutes before, during and one minute after vaccination...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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