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Airway physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738327/updated-concepts-on-treatment-outcomes-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Victor Certal, Robson Capasso
Obstructive sleep apnea is a highly prevalent and poorly understood condition that not only leads to significant individual patient health damage, but carries a large societal cost secondary to excessive healthcare utilization, motor-vehicle accidents, and work absenteeism. While a significant fund of knowledge about its damaging effects on the cardiovascular system and neural pathways has been gathered over the past few decades, the translation to direct patient care still presents numerous challenges. With the exception of clear issues such as socially unacceptable snoring and breathing irregularities, the exact cause and effect relationship between airway narrowing, hypoxemia, and sleep fragmentation with subjective sleep-related complaints and neurocognitive symptoms is less clear...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737194/-face-protective-patches-do-not-reduce-facial-pressure-ulcers-in-a-simulated-model-of-non-invasive-ventilation
#2
Hugo Riquelme M, David Wood V, Santiago Martínez F, Fernando Carmona M, Axel Peña V, Adriana Wegner A
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) frequently involves the development of facial pressure ulcers (FPU). Its prevention considers the empirical use of protective patches between skin and mask, in order to reduce the pressure exerted by it. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of protective patches on the pressure exerted by the facial mask, and its impact on the programmed ventilatory parameters. METHOD: Bilevel NIV simulated model using full face mask in phantom with a physiological airway (ALS PRO +) in supine position...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736665/airway-compliance-measured-by-anatomic-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Ruofei Bu, Santosh Balakrishnan, Nicusor Iftimia, Hillel Price, Carlton Zdanski, Amy L Oldenburg
Quantification of airway compliance can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive airway disorders by detecting regions vulnerable to collapse. Here we evaluate the ability of a swept-source anatomic optical coherence tomography (SSaOCT) system to quantify airway cross-sectional compliance (CC) by measuring changes in the luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) under physiologically relevant pressures of 10-40 cmH2O. The accuracy and precision of CC measurements are determined using simulations of non-uniform rotation distortion (NURD) endemic to endoscopic scanning, and experiments performed in a simplified tube phantom and ex vivo porcine tracheas...
April 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735925/upper-airway-flow-limitation-and-transcutaneous-carbon-dioxide-during-sleep-in-normal-pregnancy
#4
Ville Rimpilä, Riina Jernman, Katariina Lassila, Jukka Uotila, Heini Huhtala, Johanna Mäenpää, Olli Polo
OBJECTIVE: Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. METHODS: Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#5
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724876/treatment-with-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-diurnal-and-nocturnal-serum-melatonin-concentration-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
Małgorzata Barnaś, Marta Maskey-Warzęchowska, Piotr Bielicki, Marta Kumor, Ryszarda Chazan
INTRODUCTION    Melatonin secretion, one of the main factors controlling the sleep-wake rhythm, may be disrupted in subjects with sleep disorders. OBJECTIVES    To evaluate the profile of circadian melatonin secretion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to assess the impact of a 2 day and a 3-month period of treatment with continuous airway pressure (CPAP) on diurnal and nocturnal serum melatonin. PATIENTS AND METHODS    Serum melatonin was evaluated in 71 untreated OSA patients and 18 healthy controls at six time points: 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm, 10 pm, 2 am, 6 am...
July 10, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722758/asthma-in-the-elderly-and-late-onset-adult-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Ryan M Dunn, Paula J Busse, Michael E Wechsler
Elderly asthmatics are at a higher risk for morbidity and mortality from their asthma than younger patients. There are important age-related physiologic and immunologic changes that complicate the presentation, diagnosis and management of asthma in the aged population. Evidence suggests that elderly asthmatics are more likely to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. Additionally, elderly patients with asthma have highest rates of morbidity and mortality from their disease than younger patients. The underlying airway inflammation of asthma in this age group likely differs from younger patients and is felt to be non-Type 2 mediated...
July 19, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719135/multiple-breath-washout-in-paediatric-patients-after-lung-transplantation
#8
Sylvia Nyilas, Julia Carlens, Timothy Price, Florian Singer, Carsten Müller, Gesine Hansen, Gregor Warnecke, Philipp Latzin, Nicolaus Schwerk
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) from spirometry, is the most commonly used parameter to detect early allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation (LTx). There are concerns regarding its sensitivity. Nitrogen-multiple breath washout (N2 -MBW) is sensitive at detecting early global (lung clearance index; LCI), and acinar (Sacin ) airway inhomogeneity. We investigated whether N2 -MBW indices indicate small airways pathology after LTx in children with stable spirometry. Thirty-seven children without BOS on median 1...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718683/the-measurement-of-cough-response-to-bronchoconstriction-induced-by-methacholine-inhalation-in-healthy-subjects-an-examination-using-the-astograph-method
#9
Johsuke Hara, Masaki Fujimura, Noriyuki Ohkura, Tamami Sakai, Kenta Yamamura, Miki Abo, Hayato Koba, Satoshi Watanabe, Taro Yoneda, Shingo Nishikawa, Takashi Sone, Hideharu Kimura, Yoshihisa Ishiura, Kazuo Kasahara
BACKGROUND: We demonstrated that heightened cough response to bronchoconstriction is a fundamental feature of cough variant asthma (CVA). To evaluate this physiological feature of CVA in daily clinical practice, it is necessary to clarify the cough response to bronchoconstriction in healthy subjects. We evaluated cough response to methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction in healthy subjects. A forced oscillometry technique was used to measure airway resistance changes with Mch. METHODS: Healthy never-smokers (21 men, 20 women; mean 22...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701167/a-combined-experimental-and-numerical-study-on-upper-airway-dosimetry-of-inhaled-nanoparticles-from-an-electrical-discharge-machine-shop
#10
Lin Tian, Yidan Shang, Rui Chen, Ru Bai, Chunying Chen, Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu
BACKGROUNDS: Exposure to nanoparticles in the workplace is a health concern to occupational workers with increased risk of developing respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders. Based on animal inhalation study and human lung tumor risk extrapolation, current authoritative recommendations on exposure limits are either on total mass or number concentrations. Effects of particle size distribution and the implication to regional airway dosages are not elaborated. METHODS: Real time production of particle concentration and size distribution in the range from 5...
July 12, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700909/assessing-the-collective-dynamics-of-motile-cilia-in-cultures-of-human-airway-cells-by-multiscale-ddm
#11
Luigi Feriani, Maya Juenet, Cedar J Fowler, Nicolas Bruot, Maurizio Chioccioli, Steven M Holland, Clare E Bryant, Pietro Cicuta
The technique of differential dynamic microscopy is extended here, showing that it can provide a powerful and objective method of video analysis for optical microscopy videos of in vitro samples of live human bronchial epithelial ciliated cells. These cells are multiciliated, with motile cilia that play key physiological roles. It is shown that the ciliary beat frequency can be recovered to match conventional analysis, but in a fully automated fashion. Furthermore, it is shown that the properties of spatial and temporal coherence of cilia beat can be recovered and distinguished, and that if a collective traveling wave (the metachronal wave) is present, this has a distinct signature and its wavelength and direction can be measured...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700565/nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-influences-bottle-feeding-in-preterm-lambs
#12
Nathalie Samson, Audrey Michaud, Rahmeh Othman, Charlène Nadeau, Stéphanie Nault, Danny Cantin, Michaël Sage, Céline Catelin, Jean-Paul Praud
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, the time from initiation to full oral feeding can take weeks, which represents a very worrisome problem in neonatal medicine. Although current knowledge suggests that oral feeding should be introduced early, this is often delayed due to the need for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Indeed, most caregivers fear that nCPAP could disrupt sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and induce tracheal aspiration. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of nCPAP delivered by the Infant Flow System on the physiology of sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination during bottle-feeding in preterm lambs over 24 h...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683763/new-setting-of-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-for-noninvasive-ventilation-by-facial-mask-a-physiologic-study
#13
Federico Longhini, Chun Pan, Jianfeng Xie, Gianmaria Cammarota, Andrea Bruni, Eugenio Garofalo, Yi Yang, Paolo Navalesi, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is generally delivered using pneumatically-triggered and cycled-off pressure support (PSP) through a mask. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is the only ventilatory mode that uses a non-pneumatic signal, i.e., diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), to trigger and drive ventilator assistance. A specific setting to generate neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) was recently proposed for delivering NIV by helmet. We compared PSN with PSP and NAVA during NIV using a facial mask, with respect to patient comfort, gas exchange, and patient-ventilator interaction and synchrony...
July 7, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682006/air-trapping-in-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-does-ct-tell-the-full-story
#14
Tim Rosenow, Kathryn Ramsey, Lidija Turkovic, Conor P Murray, L Clara Mok, Graham L Hall, Stephen M Stick
INTRODUCTION: Mosaic attenuation on expiratory chest computed tomography (CT) is common in early life cystic fibrosis (CF) and often referred to as "air trapping". It is presumed to be localized hyperinflation due to small airway obstruction. In order to test this assumption, we compared air trapping extent to lung volumes measured on CT in young children with CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children aged below 7 years undergoing inspiratory/expiratory CT were recruited from the Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis cohort...
July 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680497/late-term-effects-of-surgery-on-nasal-functions-in-patients-who-underwent-total-laryngectomy-surgery
#15
Deniz Karaoglu, Murat Kocyigit, Safiye Giran Ortekin, Mustafa Kemal Adali
Introduction  There is a common opinion that losing airway functions in total laryngectomy patients cause changes in nasal physiological rates. Studies conducted to review the subject present gaps, especially in terms of objective measurements. Objective  We evaluated late-term effects of surgery on nasal functions in patients who underwent total laryngectomy surgery more than two years ago. Methods  We included in the study 22 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy, as well as 24 healthy subjects with similar demographic characteristics as the control group...
July 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679612/functional-and-prognostic-effects-when-emphysema-complicates-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Joseph Jacob, Brian J Bartholmai, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Maria Kokosi, Toby M Maher, Arjun Nair, Ronald Karwoski, Elisabetta Renzoni, Simon L F Walsh, David M Hansell, Athol U Wells
This study aimed to investigate whether the combination of fibrosis and emphysema has a greater effect than the sum of its parts on functional indices and outcome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), using visual and computer-based (CALIPER) computed tomography (CT) analysis.Consecutive patients (n=272) with a multidisciplinary IPF diagnosis had the extent of interstitial lung disease (ILD) scored visually and by CALIPER. Visually scored emphysema was subcategorised as isolated or mixed with fibrotic lung...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676331/the-relationship-between-partial-upper-airway-obstruction-and-inter-breath-transition-period-during-sleep
#17
Dwayne L Mann, Bradley A Edwards, Simon A Joosten, Garun S Hamilton, Shane Landry, Scott A Sands, Stephen J Wilson, Philip I Terrill
Short pauses or "transition-periods" at the end of expiration and prior to subsequent inspiration are commonly observed during sleep in humans. However, the role of transition periods in regulating ventilation during physiological challenges such as partial airway obstruction (PAO) has not been investigated. Twenty-nine obstructive sleep apnea patients and eight controls underwent overnight polysomnography with an epiglottic catheter. Sustained-PAO segments (increased epiglottic pressure over ≥5 breaths without increased peak inspiratory flow) and unobstructed reference segments were manually scored during apnea-free non-REM sleep...
July 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676074/immunoregulatory-effects-of-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-in-a-porcine-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-model
#18
An Martens, Sofie Ordies, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Stijn E Verleden, Robin Vos, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Valerie D Roobrouck, Sandra Claes, Dominique Schols, Eric Verbeken, Catherine M Verfaillie, Arne P Neyrinck
BACKGROUND: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is considered to be the end result of an inflammatory response targeting the new lung allograft after transplant. Previous research has indicated that MAPC cell therapy might attenuate this injury by its paracrine effects on the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. This study aims to investigate the immunoregulatory capacities of MAPC cells in PGD when administered in the airways. METHODS: Lungs of domestic pigs (n = 6/group) were subjected to 90 minutes of warm ischemia...
July 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671107/volatile-compounds-in-blood-headspace-and-nasal-breath
#19
Brian M Ross, Randa Babgi
Breath analysis is a form of metabolomics that utilises the identification and quantification of volatile chemicals to provide information about physiological or pathological processes occurring within the body. An inherent assumption of such analyses is that the concentration of the exhaled gases correlates with the concentration of the same gas in the tissue of interest. In this study we have investigated this assumption by quantifying some volatile compounds in peripheral venous blood headspace, and in nasal breath collected in Tedlar bags obtained at the same time from 30 healthy volunteers, prior to analysis by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670393/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-decreases-pulmonary-clearance-of-99m-tc-labelled-particulate-matter-in-mice
#20
Cuiping Fu, Huan Lu, Xu Wu, Jie Liu, Chengying Liu, Zilong Liu, Wei Yuan, Jian Zhou, Shanqun Li
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) could cause systematic inflammation including pulmonary inflammatory response, whereas the influence of OSAHS in pulmonary clearance ability remains unknown. The main pathophysiological feature of OSAHS is chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The goal of this study is to clarify the airway clearance of particulate matter (PM) in CIH mice, and to explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into a CIH group and a control group, exposed to intermittent hypoxia and air chamber, respectively...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
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