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Airway physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328592/status-asthmaticus-and-central-herniation-a-case-for-multidisciplinary-critical-care
#1
Joelle B Karlik, Tristan Stani, Stephanie Nonas, Aclan Dogan, Ansgar Brambrink
A 24-year-old woman with history of asthma was intubated emergently for acute status asthmaticus triggered by acute respiratory syncytial virus infection and treated with permissive hypercapnia. Her ventilation was complicated by auto-positive end-expiratory pressure and elevated peak airway, plateau, and central venous pressures. On hospital day 2, she was noted to have anisocoria. Imaging showed diffuse cerebral edema with central herniation. Difficult ventilation and hypercapnia directly contributed to her severe cerebral edema...
March 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319487/videolaryngoscopy-in-neonates-infants-and-children
#2
Onur Balaban, Joseph D Tobias
Airway management is vital during anesthetic care and during resuscitative efforts in the PICU, the emergency department, and the delivery room. Given specific anatomic and physiologic differences, neonates and infants may be more prone to complications during airway management. Videolaryngoscopy may offer an alternative to or advantages over direct laryngoscopy in specific clinical scenarios. The following article reviews some of the basic types of videolaryngoscopy and discusses their potential applications in the pediatric population...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314465/data-capture-and-communication-during-transfers-to-definitive-care-in-an-inclusive-trauma-system
#3
Nori L Bradley, Naisan Garraway, Nathaniel Bell, Nasira Lakha, S Morad Hameed
INTRODUCTION: Background trauma survivors in rural areas transferred to urban centers have higher mortality than trauma patients admitted directly to urban centers. Transfer data in trauma registries is important for injury control. Prehospital and early physiologic data may reflect processes of pre-hospital care. British Columbia currently has no standardized process for trauma patient data transfer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective data analysis for major trauma patients (ISS>15) transferred to a Level I trauma center over a 1year period (n=243)...
November 5, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303275/modeling-pathological-hemodynamic-responses-to-the-valsalva-maneuver
#4
Leszek Pstras, Karl Thomaseth, Jacek Waniewski, Italo Balzani, Federico Bellavere
The Valsalva maneuver consisting in a forced expiration against closed airways is one of the most popular clinical tests of the autonomic nervous system function. When properly performed by a healthy subject, it features four characteristic phases of arterial blood pressure and heart rate variations, based on the magnitude of which the autonomic function may be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In patients with some disorders or in healthy patients subject to specific conditions, the pattern of blood pressure and heart rate changes during the execution of the Valsalva maneuver may, however, differ from the typical sinusoidal-like pattern...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301889/geburtshilfe-an%C3%A3-sthesie-bei-exit-prozedur
#5
Alexander Torossian
The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is performed as a part of an extended caesarean section for example to treat fetal airway disorders. For treatment, optimal uterine relaxation is necessary, however utero-placental supply of the fetus has to be guaranteed as well. "Balanced" anesthesia, tocolysis and tight maternal arterial blood pressure control are recommended. Standard fetal monitoring comprises pulse oxymetry and echocardiography. The article describes the physiology and anesthestic goals of the EXIT procedure, discusses alternative anesthesia techniques and gives an outlook on emerging progress...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298960/lung-volume-reduction-coils-as-a-novel-bronchoscopic-treatment-for-emphysema
#6
Timothy A Connolly
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite regular advances in pharmacology, there remains great potential for addressing structural deficiencies, especially in emphysema. The loss of alveolar attachments to small bronchial tubes results in diffuse loss of elastic recoil and airway collapse during exhalation. This appears physiologically as hyperinflation of lung volumes with flattened diaphragms and significantly elevated residual volumes (RV) on pulmonary function testing (predicted RV > 175%)...
October 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293414/galectin-3-an-early-predictive-biomarker-of-modulation-of-airway-remodeling-in-patients-with-severe-asthma-treated-with-omalizumab-for-36%C3%A2-months
#7
Anna Maria Riccio, Pierluigi Mauri, Laura De Ferrari, Rossana Rossi, Dario Di Silvestre, Louise Benazzi, Alessandra Chiappori, Roberto Walter Dal Negro, Claudio Micheletto, Giorgio Walter Canonica
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by three cardinal features: chronic inflammation, variable airflow obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Asthma has traditionally been defined using nonspecific clinical and physiologic variables that encompass multiple phenotypes and are treated with nonspecific anti-inflammatory therapies. Based on the modulation of airway remodeling after 12 months of anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) treatment, we identified two phenotypes (omalizumab responder, OR; and non-omalizumab responder, NOR) and performed morphometric analysis of bronchial biopsy specimens...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287530/open-tracheostomy-gastric-acid-aspiration-murine-model-of-acute-lung-injury-results-in-maximal-acute-nonlethal-lung-injury
#8
Ravi Alluri, Hilliard L Kutscher, Barbara A Mullan, Bruce A Davidson, Paul R Knight
Acid pneumonitis is a major cause of sterile acute lung injury (ALI) in humans. Acid pneumonitis spans the clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by neutrophilic alveolitis, and injury to both alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium. Clinically, ARDS is defined by acute onset of hypoxemia, bilateral patchy pulmonary infiltrates and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Human studies have provided us with valuable information about the physiological and inflammatory changes in the lung caused by ARDS, which has led to various hypotheses about the underling mechanisms...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280109/exercise-induced-dehydration-alters-pulmonary-function-but-does-not-modify-airway-responsiveness-to-dry-air-in-athletes-with-mild-asthma
#9
Andrew J Simpson, Lee M Romer, Pascale Kippelen
BACKGROUND: Local airway water loss is the main physiological trigger for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). AIM: To investigate the effects of whole-body water loss on airway responsiveness and pulmonary function in athletes with mild asthma and/or EIB. METHODS: Ten recreational athletes with a doctor diagnosis of mild asthma and/or EIB completed a randomized, cross-over study. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, whole-body plethysmography and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) were conducted before and after three conditions: i) 2 h exercise in the heat with no fluid intake (dehydration); ii) 2 h exercise with ad libitum fluid intake (control); and iii) time-matched rest period (rest)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278518/the-actin-regulator-zyxin-reinforces-airway-smooth-muscle-and-accumulates-in-airways-of-fatal-asthmatics
#10
Sonia R Rosner, Christopher D Pascoe, Elizabeth Blankman, Christopher C Jensen, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Alan L James, John G Elliot, Francis H Green, Jeffrey C Liu, Chun Y Seow, Jin-Ah Park, Mary C Beckerle, Peter D Paré, Jeffrey J Fredberg, Mark A Smith
Bronchospasm induced in non-asthmatic human subjects can be easily reversed by a deep inspiration (DI) whereas bronchospasm that occurs spontaneously in asthmatic subjects cannot. This physiological effect of a DI has been attributed to the manner in which a DI causes airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells to stretch, but underlying molecular mechanisms-and their failure in asthma-remain obscure. Using cells and tissues from wild type and zyxin-/- mice we report responses to a transient stretch of physiologic magnitude and duration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274525/epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-plasticity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#11
REVIEW
Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is mainly caused by smoking and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and irreversible. It is a worldwide health problem and the fourth most common cause of chronic disability and mortality (even in developed countries). It is a complex disease involving both the airway and lung parenchyma. Small-airway fibrosis is the main contributor to physiological airway dysfunction in COPD. One potential mechanism contributing to small-airway fibrosis is epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
March 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260811/a-4dct-imaging-based-breathing-lung-model-with-relative-hysteresis
#12
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Sanghun Choi, Eric A Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Computational Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260749/body-mass-index-in-adult-asthmatic-patients
#13
S Nasreen, A Nessa, M F Islam, R Sultana, R Akter
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. Asthma is one of the most common diseases globally and currently affects 300 million people. Asthma and obesity have an enormous impact on public health. Since the 1990s, various studies have shown a correlation between an increase in body mass index (BMI) and asthma prevalence. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was done to find the levels of BMI in adult asthmatic patients and carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to January 2016...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258595/transgenic-expression-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-e-attenuates-galko-hcd46-porcine-lung-xenograft-injury
#14
Christopher T Laird, Lars Burdorf, Beth M French, Natalia Kubicki, Xiangfei Cheng, Gheorghe Braileanu, Wenji Sun, Natalie A O'Neill, Arielle Cimeno, Dawn Parsell, Edward So, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Carol J Phelps, David Ayares, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Richard N Pierson
BACKGROUND: Lung xenografts remain susceptible to loss of vascular barrier function within hours in spite of significant incremental advances based on genetic engineering to remove the Gal 1,3-αGal antigen (GalTKO) and express human membrane cofactor protein (hCD46). Natural killer cells rapidly disappear from the blood during perfusion of GalTKO.hCD46 porcine lungs with human blood and presumably are sequestered within the lung vasculature. Here we asked whether porcine expression of the human NK cell inhibitory ligand HLA-E and β2 microglobulin inhibits GalTKO...
March 3, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258569/aquaporins-in-respiratory-system
#15
Yuanlin Song, Linlin Wang, Jian Wang, Chunxue Bai
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are water channel proteins supposed to facilitating fluid transport in alveolar space, airway humidification, pleural fluid absorption, and submucosal gland secretion . In this chapter, we mainly focus on the expression of 4 AQPs in the lungs which include AQP1, AQP2 , AQP4 and AQP5 in normal and disease status, and the experience of AQPs function from various model and transgenic mice were summarized in detail to improve our understanding of the role of AQPs in fluid balance of respiratory system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244680/dysphagia-in-infants-with-single-ventricle-anatomy-following-stage-1-palliation-physiologic-correlates-and-response-to-treatment
#16
Katlyn Elizabeth McGrattan, Heather McGhee, Allan DeToma, Elizabeth G Hill, Sinai C Zyblewski, Maureen Lefton-Greif, Lucinda Halstead, Scott M Bradley, Bonnie Martin-Harris
BACKGROUND: Deficits in swallowing physiology are a leading morbidity for infants with functional single ventricles and systemic outflow tract obstruction following stage 1 palliation. Despite the high prevalence of this condition, the underlying deficits that cause this post-operative impairment remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Identify the physiologic correlates of dysphagia in infants with functional single ventricles and systemic outflow tract obstruction following stage 1 palliative surgery...
February 28, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239691/wood-combustion-particles-induce-adverse-effects-to-normal-and-diseased-airway-epithelia
#17
Manuel Krapf, Lisa Künzi, Sandrine Allenbach, Emily A Bruns, Ilaria Gavarini, Imad El-Haddad, Jay G Slowik, André S H Prévôt, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Lutz Dümbgen, Matthias Salathe, Nathalie Baumlin, Constantinos Sioutas, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Marianne Geiser
Residential wood burning is a major source of poorly characterized, deleterious particulate matter, whose composition and toxicity may vary with wood type, burning condition and photochemical age. The causative link between ambient wood particle constituents and observed adverse health effects is currently lacking. Here we investigate the relationship between chemical properties of primary and atmospherically aged wood combustion particles and acute toxicity in human airway epithelial cells. Emissions from a log wood burner were diluted and injected into a smog chamber for photochemical aging...
February 27, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239574/do-nasal-surgeries-affect-mucociliary-clearance
#18
Rajeshwary Aroor, Zainab Sunu Ali, K S Gangadhara Somayaji
The study was conducted to assess the impact of different nasal surgeries on the nasal mucociliary clearance mechanism. Mucociliary function of the nasal mucosa of patients who were undergoing various nasal surgeries was assessed by the Saccharin test by placing 5 mg saccharin granule on the anterior end of the inferior turbinate 1 day prior to the surgery. The time required for the test subject to experience a sweet taste was measured in minutes. Post-operatively the test was repeated 6 weeks after the surgery and the test times were compared...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236617/an-innovative-approach-to-overcome-gagging-through-acupressure-for-an-edentulous-patient-a-case-report
#19
Saravanan Thirumalai Thangarajan, Ramasamy Chidambaram, Padmanabhan Thallam Veeravalli, Kasim Mohamed
The gag reflex is a physiological reaction, which safeguards the airway from foreign bodies. In some people, this response is exaggerated to the extent that the acceptance/provision of dental treatment becomes impossible. Management of patients with gagging involves many different approaches. The aim of this report is to illustrate the role of acupressure in controlling gagging, because it is a safe, affordable, quick, and relatively noninvasive technique.
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236369/patients-hospitalized-with-an-infective-exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-unrelated-to-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-physiological-and-sputum-characteristics
#20
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett, Lata Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is a growing health burden both globally and in Australasia. Associated with repeated respiratory infections, the disease often results in hospital admission, impaired quality of life, reduced lung function and shortened life expectancy. We describe the local clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics in patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study examined the medical records of all 61 adults admitted to a metropolitan Australian hospital with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a calendar year...
February 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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