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Airway physiology

Yu Onodera, Ryo Akimoto, Hiroto Suzuki, Masayuki Okada, Masaki Nakane, Kaneyuki Kawamae
BACKGROUND: Although clinical studies of the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its effect on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have been done, the washout effect has not been well evaluated. Therefore, we made an experimental respiratory model to evaluate the respiratory physiological effect of HFNC. METHODS: An airway model was made by a 3D printer using the craniocervical 3D-CT data of a healthy 32-year-old male. CO2 was infused into four respiratory lung models (normal-lung, open- and closed-mouth models; restrictive- and obstructive-lung, open-mouth models) to maintain the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2 ) at 40 mmHg...
March 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Gavin D Perkins, Alain Cariou
Sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is the most time-critical medical emergency. In the second paper of this Series on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, we considered important issues in the prehospital management of cardiac arrest. Successful resuscitation relies on a strong chain of survival with the community, dispatch centre, ambulance, and hospital working together. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation has the greatest impact on survival. If the community response does not restart the heart, resuscitation is continued by emergency medical services' staff...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Ehsan Abadi, William P Segars, Gregory M Sturgeon, Justus E Roos, Carl E Ravin, Ehsan Samei
The purpose of this paper was to extend the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) series of computational phantoms to include a detailed lung architecture including airways and pulmonary vasculature. Eleven XCAT phantoms of varying anatomy were used in this paper. The lung lobes and initial branches of the airways, pulmonary arteries, and veins were previously defined in each XCAT model. These models were extended from the initial branches of the airways and vessels to the level of terminal branches using an anatomically-based volume-filling branching algorithm...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Arietta Spinou
Cough can be viewed as a continuum where extremes represent disease phenotypes. Under this unified concept, non-pharmacological treatment for the extremes of the cough spectrum includes both cough augmentation and cough control techniques. Supporting the cough motor output and exercising the cognitive control on coughing are the main directions of these techniques. Cough augmentation can be provided to patients who present low ability to generate adequate peak cough flows, with the aim to develop the sheering forces that are essential for effective airway clearance...
March 9, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Clare A Stokes, Alison M Condliffe
Defining features of chronic airway diseases include abnormal and persistent inflammatory processes, impaired airway epithelial integrity and function, and increased susceptibility to recurrent respiratory infections. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are lipid kinases, which contribute to multiple physiological and pathological processes within the airway, with abnormal PI3K signalling contributing to the pathogenesis of several respiratory diseases. Consequently, the potential benefit of targeting PI3K isoforms has received considerable attention, being viewed as a viable therapeutic option in inflammatory and infectious lung disorders...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
Metin Celiker, Yuksel Cicek, Suat Tezi, Abdulkadir Ozgur, Hatice Beyazal Polat, Engin Dursun
BACKGROUND: Nasal septum deformities (NSD) are one of the most common causes of upper airway obstruction. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiologic parameter that is affected by the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tonus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a septoplasty operation on HRV parameters as assessed by 24 hours ambulatory Holter recordings in patients with NSD. METHODS: The prospective study involved 54 consecutive patients (16 women and 38 men) who underwent septoplasty due to a marked C- or S-shaped NSD...
March 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Naserddine Hamadi, Badreldin H Ali
Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced lung toxicity, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects...
February 26, 2018: Nutrients
George A Mandelaris, Bradley S DeGroot, Robert Relle, Brian Shah, Iwei Huang, Brian S Vence
Comorbidities that negatively impact orthodontic (malocclusion), periodontal (periodontitis, deficient dentoalveolar bone volume, mucogingival), and prosthetic (structural integrity compromise from caries, attrition, and erosion) conditions can affect the general health of the patient. In addition, emerging data highlights the importance of undiagnosed airway volume deficiencies and sleep-disordered breathing conditions in the adult and pediatric population. Deficiencies in dentoalveolar bone and discrepancies in skeletal relationships can impact the volume of hard- and soft-tissue structures of the periodontium and decrease oral cavity volume...
March 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Clemens Ager, Karl Unterkofler, Paweł Mochalski, Susanne Teschl, Gerald Teschl, Christopher A Mayhew, Julian King
In a recent paper K.Unterkofler et al. (JBR 9 (2015), no. 3, 036002) we presented a simple two compartment model which describes 
 the influence of inhaled concentrations on exhaled breath concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with small Henry constants.
 In this paper we extend this investigation concerning the influence of inhaled concentrations on exhaled breath concentrations for VOCs with higher Henry constants.
 To this end we extend our model with an additional compartment which takes into account the influence of the upper airways 
 on exhaled breath VOC concentrations...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Mohammed Saeed Zayed Al-Ayed
This study aimed at investigating the potential ghrelin relaxing effect on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Using an in vitro experimental approach, the physiological role of the airway epithelium on smooth muscle relaxation has been investigated by analyzing the dose-response curves for carbachol- or histamine-induced contractions on epithelium intact versus denuded tracheal tissue. The relaxant effect of ghrelin (5-200 μmol/L) then investigated on carbachol-contracted, non-sensitized, and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pig TSM with an intact or denuded epithelium...
February 26, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Jeong-Hyun Kang, Joohon Sung, Yun-Mi Song, Young-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Inherited traits of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may have link to the heritability of the airway anatomy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of present study was to investigate heritability of the airway anatomy by comparing skeletal and soft tissue features of Korean monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). METHODS: In total, 72 participants (mean age, 41.5 ± 5.9 years; 40 males, 32 females) including 48 MZ (24 pairs) and 24 DZ (12 pairs) with same sex were participated...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Louis Deschênes, Morgan Gazzola, Katherine Lortie, Cyndi Henry, Bindi Shah Brook, Mathieu C Morissette, Ynuk Bossé
It is suggested that the frequent strain the airways undergo in asthma, due to repeated airway smooth muscle (ASM)-mediated constrictions, contributes to airway wall remodeling. However, the effects of repeated constrictions on airway remodeling, as well as the ensuing impact of this presumptive remodeling on respiratory mechanics, have never been investigated in non-asthmatic subjects. In this study, we set out to determine whether repeated constrictions lead to features that are reminiscent of asthma in non-asthmatic mice...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
David J Olvera, David F E Stuhlmiller, Allen Wolfe, Charles F Swearingen, Troy Pennington, Daniel P Davis
INTRODUCTION: Airway management is a critical skill for air medical providers, including the use of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) medications. Mediocre success rates and a high incidence of complications has challenged air medical providers to improve training and performance improvement efforts to improve clinical performance. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to describe the experience with a novel, integrated advanced airway management program across a large air medical company and explore the impact of the program on improvement in RSI success...
February 21, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Ehab Billatos, Jessica L Vick, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum E Spira
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death due to its advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection of lung cancer can be improved by better defining who should be screened radiographically, and determining which imaging-detected pulmonary nodules are malignant. Gene expression biomarkers measured in normal-appearing airway epithelium provide an opportunity to use lung cancer associated molecular changes in this tissue for early detection of lung cancer. Molecular changes in the airway may result from an etiologic field of injury and/or field cancerization...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Kenneth I Berger
The role for direct assessment of small airway function in subjects with respiratory symptoms but normal airflow by spirometry is discussed. Small airway disease syndrome is described in numerous disease states using a multidisciplinary approach. Data demonstrate that small airway disease is related to presence of respiratory symptoms, exposure to inhaled toxins, presence of local and systemic inflammation, and presence of histologic abnormalities within the distal lung. Investigation of immunological derangements associated with distal airway dysfunction in the setting of normal spirometry may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that are present at disease onset...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ewald R Weibel
In their Nobel Lectures of 1956, the two cardiopulmonary physiologists André Cournand and Dickinson Richards described the future projects that they considered important for rounding up their impressive scientific achievements. One of them called for work that brought together structure and function of the lung in a systematic way. They challenged a young anatomist to undertake this in their cardiopulmonary laboratory at Bellevue Hospital. The first steps established the need for quantitative information on the structures that form the pulmonary gas exchanger as well as the airway tree...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
S Nasreen, A Nessa, F Islam, A Khanam, R Sultana, K Alam, R Naznin, T Tajkia, R Rahman, M Hossain, M A Sultana, S T Kamal
Asthma has been defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells and the clinical development of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough. The prevalence of asthma increased steadily over the latter part of the last century, first in the developed and then in the developing world. Current estimates suggest that asthma affects 300 million people worldwide, with a predicted additional 100 million people affected by 2025. This cross sectional study was conducted from January 1999 to August 1999 on 5642 Bangladeshi people and another same study carried out from November 2009 to April 2010 on 8088 subjects...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Youngjoon Suh, Joong Yull Park
BACKGROUND: The human airway is exposed to the development of diverse flow patterns based on differences in its morphological/geometrical parameters across individuals. Although effects of the asymmetry between the right and left main bronchi on airway flows have been investigated in the past, there exists a paucity in terms of studies that focus on the role of stronger physiological asymmetric features, such as off-plane bifurcation angles of primary bronchi, in expiratory flows. METHOD: Computational fluid dynamic techniques have been used to demonstrate presence of Dean-type secondary flows and vortices in the bifurcation region...
February 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Kristoffer Ostridge, Nicholas P Williams, Viktoriya Kim, Stephen Harden, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Emmanuel Aris, Sonia Mesia-Vela, Jeanne-Marie Devaster, Andrew Tuck, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: COPD is a complex, heterogeneous disease characterised by progressive development of airflow limitation. Spirometry provides little information about key aspects of pathology and is poorly related to clinical outcome, so other tools are required to investigate the disease. We sought to explore the relationships between quantitative CT analysis with functional, inflammatory and infective assessments of disease to identify the utility of imaging to stratify disease to better predict outcomes and disease response...
February 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
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