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Airway physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646647/successful-maintenance-of-key-physiological-parameters-in-preterm-lambs-treated-with-ex%C3%A2-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy-for-a-period-of-1-week
#1
Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Yuichiro Miura, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Hideyuki Ikeda, Shinichi Sato, Takushi Hanita, Tadashi Matsuda, Alan H Jobe, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants born at the border of viability (22-24 weeks' gestation) have high rates of death and lasting disability. Ex vivo uterine environment therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy that provides gas exchange using parallel membranous oxygenators connected to the umbilical vessels, sparing the extremely preterm cardiopulmonary system from ventilation-derived injury. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to refine our ex vivo uterine environment therapy platform to eliminate fetal infection and inflammation, while simultaneously extending the duration of hemodynamically stable ex vivo uterine environment therapy to 1 week...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644724/modeling-long-term-effects-attributed-to-nitrogen-dioxide-no2-and-sulfur-dioxide-so2-exposure-on-asthma-morbidity-in-a-nationwide-cohort-in-israel
#2
N Greenberg, R S Carel, E Derazne, A Tiktinsky, D Tzur, B A Portnov
Studies have provided extensive documentation that acutely elevated environmental exposures contribute to chronic health problems. However, only attention has been paid to the effects of modificate of exposure assessment methods in environmental health investigations, leading to uncertainty and gaps in our understanding of exposure- and dose-response relationships. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether average or peak concentration exerts a greater influence on asthma outcome, and which of the exposure models may better explain various physiological responses generated by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollutants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641356/-tracheal-surgery
#3
Jan Volmerig, Erich Hecker
Surgery of the trachea is a specialised field in which many disciplines work jointly due to the variety of indications and the extended topography. Not only because of its particular functional importance, but also because of its complex morphology, anatomy and physiology, this organ represents a special therapeutic challenge. A variety of diseases require surgical procedures of the trachea; the therapeutic strategy is influenced both by the disease itself as well as patient-dependent parameters. Regardless of the nature of the underlying disorder, good results require a high level of expertise in airway management, a careful diagnosis and interventional planning as well as an experienced surgical team that masters extended operative techniques...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#4
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636497/size-segregated-particulate-matter-and-its-association-with-respiratory-deposition-doses-among-outdoor-exercisers-in-dhanbad-city-india
#5
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Regular exercise improves physiological processes and yields positive health outcomes. However, it is relatively less known that PM exposure during outdoor exercises may increase several respiratory health problems depending on PM levels. In this study, the respiratory deposition doses (RDDs) in head airway (HD), tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar (AL) regions of various PM size fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were estimated in healthy males and females exercisers in urban outdoor and within house premise. The highest RDDs were found for PM during morning hour in winter compared to remaining periods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#6
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629919/comparing-pulmonary-nodule-location-during-electromagnetic-bronchoscopy-with-predicted-location-based-on-two-virtual-airway-maps-at-different-phases-of-respiration
#7
Brian S Furukawa, Nicholas J Pastis, Nichole T Tanner, Alexander Chen, Gerard A Silvestri
BACKGROUND: Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) is guided-bronchoscopy to pulmonary nodules (PN) which relies on a pre-procedural chest CT to create a 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual airway map. The CT is traditionally done at a full inspiratory breath hold (INSP) but the procedure is performed while the patient tidal breaths, where lung volumes are closer to functional residual capacity. Movement of a PN from INSP to expiration (EXP) has been shown to average 17.6 mm. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is that pre-procedural virtual maps built off a CT closer to physiological lung volumes during bronchoscopy may better represent the actual 3-D location of a PN...
June 16, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620626/tobacco-smoke-constituents-trigger-cytoplasmic-calcium-release
#8
M Flori Sassano, Arunava Ghosh, Robert Tarran
Cytosolic Ca(2+) is a universal second messenger that is involved in many processes throughout the body, including the regulation of cell growth/cell division, apoptosis, and the secretion of both ions, and macromolecules. Tobacco smoke exerts multiple effects on airway epithelia and we have previously shown that Kentucky reference cigarette smoke exposure elevated the second messenger Ca(2+), leading to dysfunctional ion secretion. In this study, we tested whether little cigar and commercial cigarette smoke exposure exerts similar effects on intracellular Ca(2+) levels...
June 1, 2017: Applied in Vitro Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614863/-anesthetic-management-in-thoracic-trauma-patients
#9
Alf Kozian, Astrid Bergmann, Thomas Hachenberg, Thomas Schilling
In daily practice, management of patients with blunt thoracic trauma is challenging for the anesthetist. Injuries of airways, lungs, diaphragm, heart and large vessels are the main difficulties.Respiratory and circulatory physiology in general is affected by general anesthesia, which may result in an increased number of perioperative complications. Therefore, anesthetic management of patients with thoracic trauma needs to address different clinical topics: management of difficult airways, intrinsic effects of anesthetics and mechanical ventilation on respiratory and cardiac function, the adequate replacement of blood loss as well as type and extent of the surgical intervention...
June 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614846/identification-of-swallowing-tasks-from-a-modified-barium-swallow-study-that-optimize-the-detection-of-physiological-impairment
#10
R Jordan Hazelwood, Kent E Armeson, Elizabeth G Hill, Heather Shaw Bonilha, Bonnie Martin-Harris
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify which swallowing task(s) yielded the worst performance during a standardized modified barium swallow study (MBSS) in order to optimize the detection of swallowing impairment. Method: This secondary data analysis of adult MBSSs estimated the probability of each swallowing task yielding the derived Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP™©; Martin-Harris et al., 2008) Overall Impression (OI; worst) scores using generalized estimating equations...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614095/the-value-of-dynamic-preload-variables-during-spontaneous-ventilation
#11
Azriel Perel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the physiological significance and clinical value of dynamic preload variables in spontaneously breathing patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Dynamic preload variables reflect the response of the cardiac output to a modification of preload and can therefore be used to assess fluid responsiveness. Continuous dynamic parameters that are calculated from the variations in the arterial and plethysmographic waveforms following a mechanical breath have been shown to predict fluid responsiveness much better than static preload parameters...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612045/lack-of-trpm5-expressing-microvillous-cells-in-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-leads-to-impaired-odor-evoked-responses-and-olfactory-guided-behavior-in-a-challenging-chemical-environment
#12
Kayla Lemons, Ziying Fu, Imad Aoudé, Tatsuya Ogura, Julianna Sun, Justin Chang, Kenechukwu Mbonu, Ichiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Weihong Lin
The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) modifies its activities in response to changes in the chemical environment. This process is essential for maintaining the functions of the olfactory system and the upper airway. However, mechanisms involved in this functional maintenance, especially those occurring via paracrine regulatory pathways within the multicellular MOE, are poorly understood. Previously, a population of non-neuronal, transient receptor potential M5-expressing microvillous cells (TRPM5-MCs) was identified in the MOE, and the initial characterization of these cells showed that they are cholinergic and responsive to various xenobiotics including odorants at high concentrations...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609480/an-automated-and-reliable-method-for-breath-detection-during-variable-mask-pressures-in-awake-and-sleeping-humans
#13
Chinh D Nguyen, Jason Amatoury, Jayne C Carberry, Danny J Eckert
Accurate breath detection is crucial in sleep and respiratory physiology research and in several clinical settings. However, this process is technically challenging due to measurement and physiological artifacts and other factors such as variable leaks in the breathing circuit. Recently developed techniques to quantify the multiple causes of obstructive sleep apnea, require intermittent changes in airway pressure applied to a breathing mask. This presents an additional unique challenge for breath detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606589/regulatory-effects-of-interleukin-il-15-on-allergen-induced-airway-obstruction
#14
Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Xiang Zhu, Priya Rajavelu, Rituraj Niranjan, Murli Manohar, Alok K Verma, Joseph A Lasky, Anil Mishra
BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction is a physiologic feature of asthma and IL-15 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that regulation of IL-15 is critical for the preservation of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway resistance and compliance in response to methacholine. METHODS: Airway inflammation, AHR, resistance and compliance were assessed in IL-15- gene deficient mice and IL-15 overexpressing mice in an allergen-induced murine model of asthma...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598919/cardiorespiratory-alterations-following-acute-normovolemic-hemodilution-in-a-pediatric-and-an-adult-porcine-model-a-prospective-interventional-study
#15
Gergely Albu, Cédric Sottas, Mirko Dolci, Magali Walesa, Ferenc Peták, Walid Habre
BACKGROUND: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is considered as a blood-sparing intervention during the perioperative management. We aimed at comparing the cardiopulmonary consequences of ANH between adult pigs and weaned piglets to establish the effects of lowering hematocrit in these age groups, and thereby testing the hypothesis that difference in the age-related physiological behavior will be reflected in the cardiorespiratory changes following ANH. METHODS: ANH was achieved in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated adult minipigs and 5-week-old weaned piglets by stepwise blood withdrawal (10 mL/kg) with crystalloids replacement...
June 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594976/patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-upper-airway-related-dyspnea-a-systematic-review
#16
Meaghan Noud, Kristen Hovis, Alexander Gelbard, Nila A Sathe, David F Penson, Irene D Feurer, Melissa L McPheeters, David O Francis
Importance: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures address the need for patient-centered data and are now used in diverse clinical, research, and policy pursuits. They are important in conditions causing upper airway-related dyspnea in which the patient's reported experience and physiological data can be discrepant. Objectives: To perform a systematic review of the literature on upper airway dyspnea-related PRO measures and to rigorously evaluate each measure's developmental properties, validation, and applicability...
June 8, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588349/distinct-roles-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Juan Shi, Feng Li, Meihui Luo, Jun Wei, Xiaoming Liu
Wnt signaling pathways are tightly controlled under a physiological condition, under which they play key roles in many biological functions, including cell fate specification and tissue regeneration. Increasing lines of evidence recently demonstrated that a dysregulated activation of Wnt signaling, particularly the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, was involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this respect, Wnt signaling interacts with other cellular signaling pathways to regulate the initiation and pathogenic procedures of airway inflammation and remodeling, pulmonary myofibroblast proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and development of emphysema...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588118/clinical-management-strategies-for-airway-pressure-release-ventilation-a-survey-of-clinical-practice
#18
Andrew G Miller, Michael A Gentile, John D Davies, Neil R MacIntyre
BACKGROUND: Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a commonly used mode of ventilation designed to increase mean airway pressure and thus oxygenation. Different strategies for clinical management have been described in the literature but are largely based on physiologic concepts, animal data, and small clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine how APRV is currently managed by surveying practicing respiratory therapists with experience using APRV. METHODS: A 15-item survey was developed by the authors and posted on the AARConnect online media platform in January 2016 after being declared exempt by our institution's institutional review board...
June 6, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587802/cytokine-filtration-modulates-pulmonary-metabolism-and-edema-formation-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion
#19
Ilker Iskender, Tugba Cosgun, Stephan Arni, Michael Trinkwitz, Stefan Fehlings, Yoshito Yamada, Nikola Cesarovic, Keke Yu, Thomas Frauenfelder, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr, Walter Weder, Ilhan Inci
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has improved the process of donor lung management. Cytokine accumulation during EVLP has been shown to correlate with worse outcome after lung transplantation. Our objective in this study was to test the safety and efficacy of cytokine filtration during EVLP in a large animal model. METHODS: Pig donor lungs were preserved for 24 hours at 4°C, followed by 12 hours of EVLP, according to the Toronto protocol. The perfusate was continuously run through an absorbent device (CytoSorb) via a veno-venous shunt from the reservoir in the filter group...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587125/equine-welfare-during-exercise-an-evaluation-of-breathing-breathlessness-and-bridles
#20
REVIEW
David J Mellor, Ngaio J Beausoleil
Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses...
May 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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