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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103595/identification-of-small-peptides-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-upon-amyloid-%C3%AE-degradation
#1
Naoki Mizuta, Kanta Yanagida, Takashi Kodama, Takeshi Tomonaga, Mako Takami, Hiroshi Oyama, Takashi Kudo, Manabu Ikeda, Masatoshi Takeda, Shinji Tagami, Masayasu Okochi
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation in brains of Alzheimer disease patients is a crucial focus for the clarification of disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying Aβ degradation in the human brain remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the levels of small C-terminal Aβ fragments generated upon Aβ degradation in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: A fraction containing small peptides was isolated and purified from human CSF by high-pressure liquid chromatography...
January 20, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103550/estimating-the-accuracy-level-among-individual-detections-in-clustered-microcalcifications
#2
Maria Sainz de Cea, Robert Nishikawa, Yongyi Yang
Computerized detection of clustered microcalcifica tions (MCs) in mammograms often suffers from the occurrence of false positives (FPs), which can vary greatly from case to case. We investigate how to apply statistical estimation to determine the number of FPs that are present in a detected MC lesion. First, we describe the number of true positives (TPs) by a Poisson-Binomial probability distribution, wherein a logistic regression model is trained to determine the probability for an individual detected MC to be a TP based on its detector output...
January 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103535/down-regulation-of-histone-deacetylase-4-5-and-6-as-a-mechanism-of-synergistic-enhancement-of-apoptosis-in-human-lung-cancer-cells-treated-with-the-combination-of-a-synthetic-retinoid-am80-and-green-tea-catechin
#3
Yukiko Oya, Anupom Mondal, Anchalee Rawangkan, Sonthaya Umsumarng, Keisuke Iida, Tatsuro Watanabe, Miki Kanno, Kaori Suzuki, Zhenghao Li, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Koichi Shudo, Hirota Fujiki, Masami Suganuma
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, acts as a synergist with various anticancer drugs, including retinoids. Am80 is a synthetic retinoid with a different structure from all-trans-retinoic acid: Am80 is now clinically utilized as a new drug for relapsed and intractable acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. Our experiments showed that the combination of EGCG and Am80 synergistically induced both apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line PC-9 and up-regulated expressions of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), death receptor 5, and p21(waf1) genes in the cells...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103533/the-readily-releasable-pool-of-synaptic-vesicles
#4
REVIEW
Pascal S Kaeser, Wade G Regehr
Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103503/sedative-hypnotic-like-effect-and-molecular-docking-of-di-naphthodiospyrol-from-diospyros-lotus-in-an-animal-model
#5
Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Ghias Uddin, José P Cerón-Carrasco, Jorge Peña-García, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, Haroon Khan, Saud Bawazeer, Seema Patel, Mohammad S Mubarak, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Yahia Nasser Mabkhot
BACKGROUND: Diospyros lotus Linn commonly known as date-plum, or Caucasian persimmon has multiple uses in folk medicine. Various parts of this plant is used for alleviating lumbago, dysponea, hemorrhage, insomnia, and hiccup. The plant extracts possess a variety of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, sedative, febrifuge, anti-microbial, vermifuge, and anti-hypertensive. AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the present work is to investigate the sedative-hypnotic effect of a rare dimeric napthoquione 1 obtained from the chloroform soluble fraction of D...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103395/influence-of-lipid-content-in-a-corn-oil-preparation-on-the-bioaccessibility-of-%C3%AE-carotene-a-comparison-of-low-fat-and-high-fat-samples
#6
Ziyuan Xia, David Julian McClements, Hang Xiao
Some individuals with fat maldigestion have compromised digestive systems, which causes the incomplete hydrolyzation of ingested lipids within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). We studied the influence of high-fat (20%) and low-fat (4%) contents on the bioaccessibility of a highly hydrophobic nutraceutical (β-carotene) through a simulated GIT model consisting of mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases. The low-fat and high-fat values were chosen to simulate low-fat and high-fat diets. The triglycerides in the low-fat system were fully digested, whereas those in the high-fat system were only partially digested, thereby mimicking the digestive systems of individuals who exhibit fat maldigestion...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103392/a-peroxygenase-from-chaetomium-globosum-catalyzes-the-selective-oxygenation-of-testosterone
#7
Jan Kiebist, Kai-Uwe Schmidtke, Jörg Zimmermann, Harald Kellner, Nico Jehmlich, René Ullrich, Daniel Zänder, Martin Hofrichter, Katrin Scheibner
Unspecific peroxygenases (UPO, EC 1.11.2.1) secreted by fungi open an efficient way to selectively oxyfunctionalize diverse organic substrates including less activated hydrocarbons by transferring peroxide-borne oxygen. Herein, we investigated a cell-free approach to incorporate epoxy and hydroxyl functionalities directly into the bulky molecule of testosterone by a novel unspecific peroxygenase that was produced by the ascomycetous fungus Chaetomium globosum in a complex medium rich in carbon and nitrogen...
January 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103324/use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-predicts-heart-failure-and-death-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Ana María Pello Lázaro, Carmen Cristóbal, Juan Antonio Franco-Peláez, Nieves Tarín, Álvaro Aceña, Rocío Carda, Ana Huelmos, María Luisa Martín-Mariscal, Jesús Fuentes-Antras, Juan Martínez-Millá, Joaquín Alonso, Óscar Lorenzo, Jesús Egido, Lorenzo López-Bescós, José Tuñón
OBJECTIVES: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) seem to increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), mainly in those using clopidogrel. We analysed the impact of PPIs on the prognosis of patients with stable CAD. METHODS: We followed 706 patients with CAD. Primary outcome was the combination of secondary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were 1) acute ischaemic events (any acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or transient ischaemic attack) and 2) heart failure (HF) or death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103296/production-of-fatty-acids-and-protein-by-nannochloropsis-in-flat-plate-photobioreactors
#9
Chris J Hulatt, René H Wijffels, Sylvie Bolla, Viswanath Kiron
Nannochloropsis is an industrially-promising microalga that may be cultivated for alternative sources of nutrition due to its high productivity, protein content and lipid composition. We studied the growth and biochemical profile of Nannochloropsis 211/78 (CCAP) in optimized flat-plate photobioreactors. Eighteen cultivations were performed at two nutrient concentrations. The fatty acid, protein content and calorific values were analyzed after 8, 12 and 16 days. Neutral lipids were separated and the changes in fatty acids in triglycerides (TAGs) during nutrient depletion were recorded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103270/cold-atmospheric-plasma-created-at-the-tip-of-an-elongated-flexible-capillary-using-low-electric-current-can-slow-the-progression-of-melanoma
#10
Y Binenbaum, G Ben-David, Z Gil, Ya Z Slutsker, M A Ryzhkov, J Felsteiner, Ya E Krasik, J T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet (CAPJ), with ion temperature close to room temperature, has tremendous potential in biomedical engineering, and can potentially offer a therapeutic option that allows cancer cell elimination without damaging healthy tissue. We developed a hand-held flexible device for the delivery of CAPJ to the treatment site, with a modified high-frequency pulse generator operating at a RMS voltage of <1.2 kV and gas flow in the range 0.3-3 l/min. The aims of our study were to characterize the CAPJ emitted from the device, and to evaluate its efficacy in elimination of cancer cells in-vitro and in-vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103230/conspicuity-of-malignant-lesions-on-pet-ct-and-simultaneous-time-of-flight-pet-mri
#11
Ryogo Minamimoto, Andrei Iagaru, Mehran Jamali, Dawn Holley, Amir Barkhodari, Shreyas Vasanawala, Greg Zaharchuk
PURPOSE: To compare the conspicuity of malignant lesions between FDG PET/CT and a new simultaneous, time-of-flight (TOF) enabled PET/MRI scanner. METHODS: All patients underwent a single-injection of FDG, followed by a dual imaging protocol consisting of PET/CT followed by TOF PET/MRI. PET/CT and PET/MRI images were evaluated by two readers independently for areas of FDG uptake compatible with malignancy, and then categorized into 5 groups (1: PET/MRI and PET/CT positive; 2: PET/MRI positive, PET/CT positive in retrospect; 3: PET/CT positive, PET/MRI positive in retrospect; 4: PET/MRI positive, PET/CT negative; 5: PET/MRI negative, PET/CT positive) by consensus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103119/iatrogenic-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-trauma-patient-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#12
Ahmad Maarouf, Colleen M McQuown, Jennifer A Frey, Rami A Ahmed, Lisa Derrick
BACKGROUND: The recommended practice for over 30 years has been to routinely immobilize patients with unstable cervical spinal injuries using cervical spinal collars. It is shown that patients with Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are four times more likely to suffer a spinal fracture compared to the general population and have an eleven-fold greater risk of spinal cord injury. Current protocols of spinal immobilization were responsible for secondary neurologic deterioration in some of these patients...
January 19, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103023/rapid-estimation-of-catalytic-efficiency-by-cumulative-atomic-multipole-moments-application-to-ketosteroid-isomerase-mutants
#13
Wiktor Beker, Marc W van der Kamp, Adrian J Mulholland, W Andrzej Sokalski
We propose a simple atomic multipole electrostatic model to rapidly evaluate the effects of mutation on enzyme activity, and test its performance on wild-type and mutant ketosteroid isomerase. The predictions of our atomic multipole model are similar to those obtained with symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), at a fraction of the computational cost. We further show that this approach is relatively insensitive to the precise amino acid side-chain conformation in mutants, and may thus be useful in computational enzyme (re)design...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102961/assessing-the-use-of-4dct-ventilation-in-pre-operative-surgical-lung-cancer-evaluation
#14
Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy, Matthew Jackson, Leah Schubert, Bernard Jones, Richard Castillo, Edward Castillo, Thomas Guerrero, John Mitchell, Chad Rusthoven, Moyed Miften, Brian Kavanagh
PURPOSE: A primary treatment option for lung cancer patients is surgical resection. Patients who have poor lung function prior to surgery are at increased risk of developing serious and life-threatening complications after surgical resection. Surgeons use nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scans along with pulmonary function test (PFT) information to assess a patient's pre-surgical lung function. The nuclear medicine images and pre-surgery PFTs are used to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung tissue that would be lost with surgical resection...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102950/quantitative-impact-of-changes-in-marrow-cellularity-skeletal-size-and-bone-mineral-density-on-active-marrow-dosimetry-based-upon-a-reference-model
#15
Amy M Geyer, Bryan C Schwarz, Robert F Hobbs, George Sgouros, Wesley E Bolch
PURPOSE: The hematopoietically active tissues of skeletal bone marrow are a prime target for computational dosimetry given potential risks of leukemia and, at higher dose levels, acute marrow toxicity. The complex three-dimensional geometry of trabecular spongiosa, however, complicates schema for dose assessment in such a way that only a few reference skeletal models have been developed to date, and which are based upon microimaging of a limited number of cadaveric bone spongiosa cores...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102933/what-if-a-tumor-is-significantly-enlarged-just-before-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Hung-Jen Chen, Ji-An Liang, Chih-Yi Chen, Yang-Hao Yu, Chun-Ru Chien
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plays an important role in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Tumor growth before radiotherapy planning (RTP) or during SBRT has been reported in lung cancer patients; however, little is known of growth during the period in-between (i.e. after RTP but before SBRT). An 83-year-old man referred to our hospital and diagnosed with medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer was noted to have significant tumor progression on day 1 of cone beam computed tomography just before the planned SBRT delivery...
November 18, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102901/risk-of-arrhythmic-death-in-ischemic-heart-disease-a-prospective-controlled-observer-blind-investigation-over-10-years
#17
Thomas Pezawas, André Diedrich, David Robertson, Robert Winker, Bernhard Richter, Li Wang, Herwig Schmidinger
BACKGROUND: Risk of arrhythmic death is considered highest in ischemic heart disease with severe left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction. Non-invasive testing should improve decision-making of prophylactic defibrillator (ICD) implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 120 patients with ischemic heart disease and LVEF <50% and 30 control subjects without ischemic heart disease and normal LVEF. An initial assessment, a second assessment after 3 years, and a final follow-up comprised of: pharmacological baroreflex testing (BRS), short-term spectral (low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) ratio) and long-term time domain analysis of heart rate variability (SDNN), exercise Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) and others...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102856/the-impact-of-integrated-evaluation-of-hemodynamics-using-targeted-neonatal-echocardiography-with-indices-of-tissue-oxygenation-a-new-approach
#18
Y N Elsayed, R Amer, M M Seshia
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of integrated evaluation of hemodynamics (IEH) using targeted neonatal echocardiography, together with regional tissue oxygenation, fractional oxygen extraction using near-infrared spectroscopy on the management of infants with compromised hemodynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort comparison of two groups of infants with compromised hemodynamics. EPOCH 1: did not undergo IEH (January 2012 to March 2014); EPOCH 2: underwent IEH (April 2014 to December 2015)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102830/can-exhaled-volatile-organic-compounds-predict-asthma-exacerbations-in-children
#19
Dillys van Vliet, Agnieszka Smolinska, Quirijn Jöbsis, Jean Muris, Philippe Rosias, Jan Dallinga, Edward Dompeling, Frederik van Schooten
Background Asthma control falls short of current goals of asthma management guidelines. Non-invasive monitoring of airway inflammation may help to improve the level of asthma control in children. Aim 1) To identify a set of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that is most predictive for an asthma exacerbation in children. 2) To determine the chemical background of predictive VOCs. Methods In an one-year prospective observational study, 96 asthmatic children were studied . At clinical visits with an interval of 2 months, asthma control, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, lung function (FEV1, FEV1/VC) and VOCs in exhaled breath were determined by means of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102826/ceramic-particle-engulfment-by-fibroblasts-does-not-alter-at-all-cell-behavior
#20
Pierre-Antoine Faye, Olivier Roualdes, Fabrice Rossignol, Daniel Jean Hartmann, Alexis Desmoulière
Despite many studies, the impact of ceramic particles on cell behavior remains still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ceramic nano-sized particles on fibroblastic cells. Fibroblasts (dermal fibroblasts freshly isolated from skin samples and WI26 fibroblastic cells) were cultured in monolayer in the presence of alumina or cerium-zirconia particles (��� 50 nm diameter) at two concentrations (100 or 500 ��g.mL-1). Fluorescent alumina particles were also used. Cell morphology, cytoplasmic ceramic incorporation using confocal and transmission electron microscopy, and migration using silicon insert, were analyzed...
January 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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