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Paracetamol hypothalamus

Anders Hay-Schmidt, Olivia Finkielman, Benjamin Jensen, Christine Høgsbro, Jacob Bak Holm, Kristoffer Haurum Johansen, Tina Kold Jensen, Anderson Martino Andrade, Shanna Swan, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, Søren Brunak, Bernard Jegou, Karsten Kristiansen, David Møbjerg Kristensen
Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and the brain. Genitals and nervous system of male mammals are actively masculinized during foetal development and early postnatal life by the combined actions of prostaglandins and androgens, resulting in the male-typical reproductive behaviour seen in adulthood...
May 30, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Vijay L Kumar, B Guruprasad, Syed Meraj A Fatmi, Priyanka Chaudhary, Nylane Maria Nunes Alencar, José Vitor Moreira Lima-Filho, Márcio Viana Ramos
Calotropis procera latex fractions possessing anti-inflammatory property were characterized for their biochemical properties, compared for their efficacy in ameliorating fever in rats and their mechanism of action was elucidated. Aqueous fraction and methanol extract (AqDL and MeDL) were derived from the dried latex (DL) and proteins were separated from the fresh latex (LP). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis carried out under denaturing conditions showed the presence of proteins with some similarity in LP and AqDL and both of these fractions exhibited proteinase activity by gelatin zymography...
July 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Walter Lichtensteiger, Catherine Bassetti-Gaille, Oliver Faass, Marta Axelstad, Julie Boberg, Sofie Christiansen, Hubert Rehrauer, Jelena Kühn Georgijevic, Ulla Hass, Andreas Kortenkamp, Margret Schlumpf
The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E-Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestation day 7 until weaning...
April 2015: Endocrinology
Hugo Mendieta Zerón, Julio Cesar Arriaga García Rendon
After a brain injury, raised temperature may be due to a regulated readjustment in the hypothalamic 'set-point' in response to inflammation. The purpose of this report is to mention possible implications related to temperature and homeostasis of morphine treatment in a patient with brain injury. During the month previous to her hospitalization in our city she was treated for fever with paracetamol and metamizol without results. After 31 days with similar results, we changed to morphine IV considering the possibility of treating pain and fever...
January 2014: Le Journal Médical Libanais. the Lebanese Medical Journal
Melania Battistella, Cristiana Carlino, Valentina Dugo, Patrizia Ponzo, Elisabetta Franco
Thanks to vaccinations the incidence of many seriously debilitating or life threatening diseases and the resulting infant mortality or disability have been drastically reduced. In populations, who are no more aware of the risk of these infections, the attitude of suspicion and fear towards the vaccinations is expanding and in some cases reaches a worldwide media coverage as was the case for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). In 1998, a British doctor, Andrew Wakefield, and co-authors, published in "Lancet" a study in which he suggested the existence of "a new variant of autism" associated with intestinal inflammation...
September 2013: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Ilona Joniec-Maciejak, Agnieszka Piechal, Justyna Pyrzanowska, Adriana Wawer, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
In our experiment we investigated the effect of subcutaneous administration of paracetamol on the levels of amino acids in the brain structures. Male Wistar rats received for eight weeks paracetamol at two doses: 10 mg/kg b.w. (group P10, n=9) and 50 mg/kg b.w. per day s.c. (group P50, n=9). The regional brain concentrations of amino acids were determined in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum of control (Con, n=9) and paracetamol-treated groups using HPLC. Evaluation of the biochemical results indicated considerable decrease of the content of amino acids in the striatum (glutamine, glutamic acid, taurine, alanine, aspartic acid) and hypothalamus (glycine) between groups treated with paracetamol compared to the control...
January 2014: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Agnieszka Piechal, Justyna Pyrzanowska, Ilona Joniec-Maciejak, Przemysław Kiliszek, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of subcutaneous (s.c.) paracetamol administration on spatial learning, memory and neurotransmission. Three-month old male Wistar rats received for eight weeks paracetamol at two doses: 10mg/kg b.w. (group P10, n=9) or 50mg/kg b.w. per day s.c. (group P50, n=9). Control (Con, n=9) and paracetamol-treated groups have been observed for behavioral performance and learning in the modified Morris water maze task. After completion of the behavioral data, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and the striatum...
September 15, 2013: Behavioural Brain Research
H Tinwell, S Colombel, O Blanck, R Bars
Ten structurally diverse chemicals (vitamins C, B9, B6, B3, sucrose, caffeine, gingerol, xanthan gum, paracetamol, ibuprofen) deemed intrinsic to modern life but not considered as endocrine active, were tested in vitro using the human estrogen receptor transcriptional activation (hERTa) and the H295R steroidogenesis assays. All were inactive in the hERTa assay but paracetamol, gingerol, caffeine and vitamin C affected steroidogenesis in vitro from 250, 25, 500 and 750 μM respectively. One molecule, caffeine, was further tested in rat pubertal assays at the tumorigenic dose-level and at dose-levels relevant for human consumption...
July 2013: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
M Nelia Soto Ruiz, Esther Ezquerro Rodríguez, Blanca Marín Fernández
The main antipyretic drugs belong to two different therapeutic groups: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic; and analgesic and antipyretic. In some cases, both groups are included in the NSAID group (analgesics antipyretics and NSAID). Most of the chemical compounds included in this group have three actions, but the relative performance of each of them can be different, as well as the incidence of adverse effects. For this reason its clinical use will depend on effectiveness and relative toxicity...
May 2012: Revista de Enfermería
M Aydin, F M Kislal, A Ayar, M Demirol, N Kabakus, H Canatan, O Bulmus, R Ozercan, B Yilmaz, Y Sen, T K Yoldas
BACKGROUND: In the present study, the effects of fever and hyperthermia, and different anti hyperthermia treatment modalities on the brain by was investigated by using experimental animal model MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endogenous hyperthermia (41 degrees C) was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, and the signs of probable neuronal damage were evaluated by healthy, necrotic and apoptotic cells, and heat-shock proteins (HSP 27 and HSP 70) in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus...
2011: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Jagdish Chandra, Shishir Kumar Bhatnagar
Fever is an important symptom of underlying disease condition and in general is considered harmful in pediatric age group as it may lead to febrile seizures, stupor, dehydration increase work of breathing, discomfort and tachycardia. The increase metabolic demands stress the patient with marginal cardiac and cerebral vascular supply. The hypothalamus controls the body temperature. The fever results due to resetting of the hypothalamus that occur from the prostaglandins produced by the pyrogens. Fever is treated variedly by the pediatricians...
January 2002: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Jeffrey J Legos, Arduino A Mangoni, Simon J Read, Colin A Campbell, Elaine A Irving, Jenny Roberts, Frank C Barone, Andrew A Parsons
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated spontaneous and prolonged hyperthermia following stroke in both humans and rodents. However, a full characterization of these pyretic changes and the effects of anti-pyretic drugs on outcome is not available. METHODS: The aims of this study were to monitor conscious body temperature (n=10 per group) using programmable microchips for up to 24 h in rats following either permanent (p) or 90 min transient (t) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham surgery, and to evaluate the relationship to hypothalamic damage...
January 30, 2002: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
M Sandrini, P Romualdi, A Capobianco, G Vitale, G Morelli, L A Pini, S Candeletti
Male Wistar rats were administered with naloxone (1 mg/kg i.p.) or MR 2266 (5 mg/kg i.p) 15 min before paracetamol (400 mg/kg i.p.) treatment and the pain threshold was evaluated. Rats were subjected to the hot-plate and formalin tests and immunoreactive dynorphin A (ir-dynorphin A) levels were measured in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem, frontal and parietal-temporal cortex by radioimmunoassay. Pretreatment with naloxone abolished paracetamol antinociceptive activity both in hot-plate and in the first phase, but not in the second phase of the formalin test, while MR 2266 pretreatment was able to antagonise paracetamol effect either in the hot-plate test or in both phases of the formalin test...
April 2001: Neuropeptides
E Calenda
We have made a huge amount of progress over the last decade, but we must continue to clear a way through the undergrowth. Per- and postoperative pain is typical of acute pain and is characterized by an excess of nociception due to tissue injury, visceral distention or disease. It contrasts with chronic pain which has been going on for 3 to 6 months. PATHWAYS OF PAIN: We know that the spinothalamic cord is involved in nociceptive activity. Two pathways are of great interest. One ends in a nucleus of the hypothalamus and the second in the amygdala...
April 2000: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
M Johnson
Neoplastic fever, that is fever arising solely as a manifestation of malignancy, is not as common as was thought but still constitutes a troublesome symptom and is difficult to manage. The mechanism of neoplastic fever production involves cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukins 1 and 6 (IL-1, IL-6) and interferon (IFN), produced either by host macrophages in response to tumour, or sometimes by the tumour itself. The cytokines stimulate production of prostaglandins which act on the hypothalamus causing a change in the thermostatic set point...
July 1996: Palliative Medicine
W Feldberg, K P Gupta
1. In the unanaesthetized cat, rectal temperature was recorded and c.s.f. was collected from a Collison cannula implanted into the third ventricle with its opening lying in close proximity to the anterior hypothalamus. Samples of c.s.f. were collected from the same cat, during normal temperature, during fever produced by Shigella dysenteriae injected into the third ventricle and during the fall in temperature which occurred when the antipyretic paracetamol was injected intraperitoneally during the pyrogen fever...
January 1973: Journal of Physiology
S K Bhattacharya, P J Rao, S J Brumleve, S S Parmar
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of bradykinin (5, 10 and 20 micrograms) produced a dose-related increase in the concentration of serotonin in rat brain. The maximum increase was observed after 15 min of bradykinin administration. Thereafter, the augmented levels of serotonin declined and tended to come to normal value after 60 min. Bradykinin (20 micrograms) significantly increased the concentrations of serotonin specifically in cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and pons-medulla but not in cerebellum and spinal cord...
December 1986: Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
E Tal, K Mohari, L Koranyi, Z Kovacs, E Endroczi
1. The response of TSH to TRH and the TRH content of the hypothalamus, following indomethacin, ibuprofen and paracetamol treatment, was measured in male rats. 2. Daily treatment of indomethacin (3 mg/kg)) for 3 days markedly reduced T4 concentration in the serum, the TRH content of the hypothalmus gland and inhibit Pituitary TSH response to the low T4 level in the blood. 3. Ibuprofen (12 mg/kg) and paracetamol (50 mg/kg) did not influence T4 or TSH levels of the serum nor the TRH content of the hypothalmus...
1988: General Pharmacology
L S Wolfe, K Rostworowski, H M Pappius
The capacity for biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from endogenous precursors by brain tissue slices and homogenates was measured by a gas chromatography - mass fragmentography method using deuterated prostaglandins as internal standards. Mean biosynthesis in rat cerebral cortex slices incubated for 60 min was 60.2 ng PGF2alpha and 17.4 ng PGE2 per 100 mg of tissue. The corresponding values for homogenates were 78.1 ng and 28.9 ng. Synthetic capacity of cat cerebral cortex was considerably greater but that of human tissue was smaller than that found in rat brain...
July 1976: Canadian Journal of Biochemistry
I Falloon, D C Watt, K Lubbe, A MacDonald, M Shepherd
The hypothesis that schizophrenia is caused by the release of prostaglandin E into the hypothalamus and may sometimes be accompanied by an elevation of temperature was examined by a clinical trial of the prostaglandin E suppressant N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol (paracetamol, acetaminophen). Ten acute schizophrenic patients were included in a double-blind, crossover trial of paracetamol and a placebo, in which each treatment was given for a week. Regular 4-hourly temperatures were recorded in all these cases and in 5 non-schizophrenic patients for comparison...
August 1978: Psychological Medicine
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