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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970405/retrospective-evaluation-of-pharmacist-interventions-on-use-of-antimicrobials-using-a-clinical-surveillance-software-in-a-small-community-hospital
#1
Samuel R Huber, Fekadu Fullas, Kristel R Nelson, Lesleigh B Ailts, James M Stratton, Michael T Padomek
The Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America "Guidelines for Developing an Institutional Program to Enhance Antimicrobial Stewardship" recommend the use of computer-based surveillance programs for efficient and thorough identification of potential interventions as part of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). This retrospective study examined the benefit of utilizing a clinical surveillance software program to help guide antimicrobial therapy in an inpatient setting, in a small community hospital, without a formal ASP...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842518/formalization-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-small-community-hospital
#2
Alexa R Lockwood, Nicole S Bolton, Mark D Winton, Jean T Carter
PURPOSE: Results of a study to formalize an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a small community hospital are presented. METHODS: The formalization process began with a gap analysis of the hospital's antimicrobial services, followed by the development of a fully integrated, multipharmacist ASP. The impact was studied with an institutional review board-approved study design. Retrospective pre-ASP data were pulled from March 1 to June 30, 2012 and 2013 patient records; prospective post-ASP data were collected for March 1 to June 30, 2015...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480231/an-interprofessional-curriculum-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-improves-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-appropriate-antimicrobial-use-and-collaboration
#3
Conan MacDougall, Brian S Schwartz, Lisa Kim, Mari Nanamori, Sharmin Shekarchian, Peter V Chin-Hong
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial use can threaten patient safety and is the focus of collaborative physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship teams. However, antimicrobial stewardship is not comprehensively taught in medical or pharmacy school curricula. Addressing this deficiency can teach an important concept as well as model interprofessional healthcare. METHODS: We created an antimicrobial stewardship curriculum consisting of an online learning module and workshop session that combined medical and pharmacy students, with faculty from both professions...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472293/implementation-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-in-small-community-hospitals-recognizing-the-barriers-and-meeting-the-challenge
#4
Daniel J Sexton, Rebekah W Moehring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333409/missed-opportunities-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-pre-school-children-admitted-to-hospital-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#5
Tony Walls, Erika Stark, Philip Pattemore, Lance Jennings
AIM: To describe the usage of multiplex polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples in pre-school children presenting with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) at Christchurch Hospital, and its impact on the use of antibiotics empirically and at discharge. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 237 children, ages 3 months to 5 years, admitted to hospital during the winter months of 2012-2015 with a diagnosis of community-acquired LRTI...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182774/benefits-and-unintended-consequences-of-antimicrobial-de-escalation-implications-for-stewardship-programs
#6
Josie Hughes, Xi Huo, Lindsey Falk, Amy Hurford, Kunquan Lan, Bryan Coburn, Andrew Morris, Jianhong Wu
Sequential antimicrobial de-escalation aims to minimize resistance to high-value broad-spectrum empiric antimicrobials by switching to alternative drugs when testing confirms susceptibility. Though widely practiced, the effects de-escalation are not well understood. Definitions of interventions and outcomes differ among studies. We use mathematical models of the transmission and evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an intensive care unit to assess the effect of de-escalation on a broad range of outcomes, and clarify expectations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133869/diagnostic-microbiology-in-veterinary-dermatology-present-and-future
#7
REVIEW
Luca Guardabassi, Peter Damborg, Ivonne Stamm, Peter A Kopp, Els M Broens, Pierre-Louis Toutain
BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. METHODS: The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories...
February 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807211/a-survey-of-veterinary-antimicrobial-prescribing-practices-washington-state-2015
#8
H Fowler, M A Davis, A Perkins, S Trufan, C Joy, M Buswell, T F McElwain, D Moore, R Worhle, P M Rabinowitz
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health issue. It is also a recognised problem in veterinary medicine. Between September and December 2015 the authors administered a cross-sectional survey to licensed veterinarians in Washington State to assess factors affecting antimicrobial prescribing practices among veterinarians in Washington State. Two hundred and three veterinarians completed the survey. The majority of respondents (166, 82 per cent) were engaged in small animal or exotic animal practice...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798214/rasch-analysis-of-the-antimicrobial-self-assessment-toolkit-for-national-health-service-nhs-trusts-asat-v17
#9
Chantelle Bailey, Mary P Tully, Maria Pampaka, Jonathan Cooke
OBJECTIVES: The Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for National Health Service (NHS) Trusts (ASAT) was developed to evaluate hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Iterative validity investigations of the ASAT were used to produce a 91-item ASAT v17 utilizing qualitative methodology. Rasch analysis was used to generate question (item) behaviour estimates and to investigate the validity of ASAT v17. METHODS: In 2012, the partial credit model (PCM) was used to analyse ASAT responses from 33 NHS Trusts within England...
February 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727031/the-projected-effectiveness-of-clostridium-difficile-vaccination-as-part-of-an-integrated-infection-control-strategy
#10
Esther van Kleef, Sarah R Deeny, Mark Jit, Barry Cookson, Simon D Goldenberg, W John Edmunds, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed...
November 4, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694483/antibiotic-use-in-small-community-hospitals
#11
Edward Stenehjem, Adam L Hersh, Xiaoming Sheng, Peter Jones, Whitney R Buckel, James F Lloyd, Stephen Howe, R Scott Evans, Tom Greene, Andrew T Pavia
BACKGROUND:  Antibiotic use and misuse is driving drug resistance. Much of US healthcare takes place in small community hospitals (SCHs); 70% of all US hospitals have <200 beds. Antibiotic use in SCHs is poorly described. We evaluated antibiotic use using data from the National Healthcare and Safety Network antimicrobial use option from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS:  We used Intermountain Healthcare's monthly antibiotic use reports for 19 hospitals from 2011 to 2013...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556897/epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-diabetic-foot-infections-in-a-large-academic-hospital-implications-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#12
Kelly R Reveles, Bryson M Duhon, Robert J Moore, Elizabeth O Hand, Crystal K Howell
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521583/restrictive-antibiotic-stewardship-associated-with-reduced-hospital-mortality-in-gram-negative-infection
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
N D Ritchie, S C Irvine, A Helps, F Robb, B L Jones, R A Seaton
Introduction: : Antimicrobial stewardship has an important role in the control of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and antibiotic resistance. An important component of UK stewardship interventions is the restriction of broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics and promotion of agents associated with a lower risk of CDI such as gentamicin. While the introduction of restrictive antibiotic guidance has been associated with improvements in CDI and antimicrobial resistance, evidence of the effect on outcome following severe infection is lacking...
March 1, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507842/use-of-cefovecin-in-a-uk-population-of-cats-attending-first-opinion-practices-as-recorded-in-electronic-health-records
#14
Sara Burke, Vicki Black, Fernando Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Alan Radford, Angie Hibbert, Séverine Tasker
Objectives The objective was to use electronic health records to describe the use of cefovecin (Convenia; Zoetis UK), a third-generation long-acting injectable antimicrobial, in a UK population of cats attending first-opinion practices, and to compare the use of Convenia with the licensed uses described on the UK Convenia datasheet. Methods Data were obtained as an Excel database from the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network for all feline consultations containing the word Convenia and/or cefovecin from 1 September 2012 to 23 September 2013 inclusive...
June 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357747/digital-quantification-of-dna-replication-and-chromosome-segregation-enables-determination-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-after-only-15%C3%A2-minutes-of-antibiotic-exposure
#15
Nathan G Schoepp, Eugenia M Khorosheva, Travis S Schlappi, Matthew S Curtis, Romney M Humphries, Janet A Hindler, Rustem F Ismagilov
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) would decrease misuse and overuse of antibiotics. The "holy grail" of AST is a phenotype-based test that can be performed within a doctor visit. Such a test requires the ability to determine a pathogen's susceptibility after only a short antibiotic exposure. Herein, digital PCR (dPCR) was employed to test whether measuring DNA replication of the target pathogen through digital single-molecule counting would shorten the required time of antibiotic exposure. Partitioning bacterial chromosomal DNA into many small volumes during dPCR enabled AST results after short exposure times by 1) precise quantification and 2) a measurement of how antibiotics affect the states of macromolecular assembly of bacterial chromosomes...
August 8, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349712/impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-on-outcomes-in-hospitalized-veterans-with-pneumonia
#16
Kari E Kurtzhalts, John A Sellick, Christine A Ruh, James F Carbo, Michael C Ott, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on outcomes for inpatients with pneumonia, including length of stay, treatment duration, and 30-day readmission rates. METHODS: A retrospective chart review comparing outcomes of veterans admitted with pneumonia before (2005-2006) and after (2013-2014) implementation of an ASP was conducted; pneumonia was defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes...
July 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318457/-a-program-for-optimizing-the-use-of-antimicrobials-proa-experience-in-a-regional-hospital
#17
J Ugalde-Espiñeira, J Bilbao-Aguirregomezcorta, A Z Sanjuan-López, C Floristán-Imízcoz, L Elorduy-Otazua, M Viciola-García
OBJECTIVE: Programs for optimizing the use of antibiotics (PROA) or antimicrobial stewardship programs are multidisciplinary programs developed in response to the increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria, the objective of which are to improve clinical results, to minimize adverse events and to reduce costs associated with the use of antimicrobials. The implementation of a PROA program in a 128-bed general hospital and the results obtained at 6 months are here reported. METHODS: An intervention quasi-experimental study with historical control group was designed with the objective of assessing the impact of a PROA program with a non-restrictive intervention model to help prescription, with a direct and bidirectional intervention...
August 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090787/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-outpatient-urine-samples-but-not-the-hospital-environment-in-bo-sierra-leone
#18
Tomasz A Leski, Chris R Taitt, Umaru Bangura, Michael G Stockelman, Rashid Ansumana, William H Cooper, David A Stenger, Gary J Vora
BACKGROUND: The rising level of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens is one of the most significant public health problems globally. While the antibiotic resistance of clinically important bacteria is closely tracked in many developed countries, the types and levels of resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogens currently circulating in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa are virtually unknown. METHODS: From December 2013 to April 2014, we collected 93 urine specimens from all outpatients showing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) and 189 fomite swabs from a small hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone...
April 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717869/point-prevalence-survey-of-antimicrobial-use-in-chinese-hospitals-in-2012
#19
Nan Ren, Pengcheng Zhou, Ximao Wen, Chunhui Li, Xun Huang, Yanhong Guo, Li Meng, Ruie Gong, Li Feng, Chenchao Fu, Anhua Wu
BACKGROUND: In China, several measures have been adopted to decrease unnecessary antimicrobial overuse since 2010. This study aimed to identify characteristics of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals after implementing these measures and to explore additional targets for future antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: In 2012, point prevalence surveys conducted in Chinese hospitals included inpatients who were admitted for at least 24 hours. Details regarding infection, antimicrobial use, and bacterial cultures were recorded...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26706711/antimicrobial-selection-and-dosing-in-the-treatment-of-wounds-in-the-united-kingdom
#20
S E Ross, M Duz, D I Rendle
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Antimicrobial stewardship within the veterinary profession is recognised by governing and professional bodies as being important; the attitudes and behaviour of veterinary surgeons merit investigation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate levels of protected antimicrobial use and accuracy of antimicrobial dosing in a common clinical scenario in equine practice. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Antimicrobial use was evaluated retrospectively in 113 cases subsequently referred to a single referral hospital for the treatment of limb wounds over a 20-month period...
November 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
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