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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750767/potential-for-more-rational-use-of-antibiotics-in-hospitalized-children-in-a-country-with-low-resistance-data-from-eight-point-prevalence-surveys
#1
Christian Magnus Thaulow, Dag Berild, Beate Horsberg Eriksen, Tor Åge Myklebust, Hege Salvesen Blix
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is low in Norway, but to prevent an increase the Norwegian Government has launched a National Strategy including a 30% reduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA) in hospitals within 2020. BSA are defined as second- and third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam and quinolones. There are no recent studies of antibiotic use in Norwegian hospitalized children. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the use of antibiotics with emphasis on BSA in Norwegian hospitalized children and neonates in order to detect possibilities for optimization...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704943/what-has-changed-in-canine-pyoderma-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
A Loeffler, D H Lloyd
Canine pyoderma is a common presentation in small animal practice and frequently leads to prescription of systemic antimicrobial agents. A good foundation of knowledge on pyoderma was established during the 1970s and 1980s, when treatment of infection provided relatively few challenges. However, the ability to treat canine pyoderma effectively is now limited substantially by the emergence of multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and, in some countries, by restrictions on antimicrobial prescribing for pets...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429753/perspective-of-spanish-medical-students-regarding-undergraduate-education-in-infectious-diseases-bacterial-resistance-and-antibiotic-use
#3
David Sánchez-Fabra, Oliver J Dyar, José Luis Del Pozo, Juan Antonio Amiguet, Juan de Dios Colmenero, María Del Carmen Fariñas, Francisco López-Medrano, Joaquín Portilla, Julia Praena, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Céline Pulcini, José Ramón Paño-Pardo
INTRODUCTION: One of the main tools to optimize antibiotics use is education of prescribers. The aim of this article is to study undergraduate education in the field of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship from the perspective of Spanish medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among sixth grade students using different channels in Europe, within the ESGAP Student-Prepare survey...
February 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394396/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-mdr-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-england-and-wales-between-2004-and-2015-analysis-of-annual-cross-sectional-surveillance-surveys
#4
Soazig Clifton, Hikaru Bolt, Hamish Mohammed, Katy Town, Martina Furegato, Michelle Cole, Oona Campbell, Helen Fifer, Gwenda Hughes
Objectives: To describe trends in prevalence, susceptibility profile and risk factors for MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MDR-NG) in England and Wales. Methods: Isolates from 16 242 gonorrhoea episodes at sexual health clinics within the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP) underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MDR-NG was defined as resistance to ceftriaxone, cefixime or azithromycin, plus at least two of penicillin, ciprofloxacin and spectinomycin...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102103/frequency-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-clonal-distribution-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-in-canine-clinical-samples-submitted-to-a-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratory-in-italy-a-3-year-retrospective-investigation
#5
G Ventrella, A Moodley, E Grandolfo, A Parisi, M Corrente, D Buonavoglia, L Guardabassi
In the last decade there has been a rapid global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) clones displaying multidrug resistance in dogs. We investigated prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal distribution of MRSP isolated from clinical canine samples between during 2011-2014. Following species identification by nuc PCR, MRSP were confirmed by the presence of mecA and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), SCCmec typing, and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of a few isolates having distinct PFGE profiles...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091200/patterns-of-dispensed-non-medical-prescriber-prescriptions-for-antibiotics-in-primary-care-across-england-a-retrospective-analysis
#6
Molly Courtenay, David Gillespie, Rosemary Lim
Objectives: To describe the patterns of dispensed non-medical prescriber (NMP) prescriptions for antibiotics in primary care across England between 2011 and 2015. Methods: A retrospective analysis of dispensed antibiotic prescriptions, written by NMPs and medical prescribers between 2011 and 2015 in primary care in England, obtained from the National Health Service Business Services Authority. Results: Between 2011 and 2015, the number of NMPs (mainly nurses but also pharmacists and small numbers of allied health professionals) in England, who have independent prescribing capability, has risen by over one-third to nearly 30000...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970405/retrospective-evaluation-of-pharmacist-interventions-on-use-of-antimicrobials-using-a-clinical-surveillance-software-in-a-small-community-hospital
#7
Samuel R Huber, Fekadu Fullas, Kristel R Nelson, Lesleigh B Ailts, James M Stratton, Michael T Padomek
The Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America "Guidelines for Developing an Institutional Program to Enhance Antimicrobial Stewardship" recommend the use of computer-based surveillance programs for efficient and thorough identification of potential interventions as part of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). This retrospective study examined the benefit of utilizing a clinical surveillance software program to help guide antimicrobial therapy in an inpatient setting, in a small community hospital, without a formal ASP...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842518/formalization-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-small-community-hospital
#8
Alexa R Lockwood, Nicole S Bolton, Mark D Winton, Jean T Carter
PURPOSE: Results of a study to formalize an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a small community hospital are presented. METHODS: The formalization process began with a gap analysis of the hospital's antimicrobial services, followed by the development of a fully integrated, multipharmacist ASP. The impact was studied with an institutional review board-approved study design. Retrospective pre-ASP data were pulled from March 1 to June 30, 2012 and 2013 patient records; prospective post-ASP data were collected for March 1 to June 30, 2015...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480231/an-interprofessional-curriculum-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-improves-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-appropriate-antimicrobial-use-and-collaboration
#9
Conan MacDougall, Brian S Schwartz, Lisa Kim, Mari Nanamori, Sharmin Shekarchian, Peter V Chin-Hong
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial use can threaten patient safety and is the focus of collaborative physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship teams. However, antimicrobial stewardship is not comprehensively taught in medical or pharmacy school curricula. Addressing this deficiency can teach an important concept as well as model interprofessional healthcare. METHODS: We created an antimicrobial stewardship curriculum consisting of an online learning module and workshop session that combined medical and pharmacy students, with faculty from both professions...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472293/implementation-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-in-small-community-hospitals-recognizing-the-barriers-and-meeting-the-challenge
#10
Daniel J Sexton, Rebekah W Moehring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333409/missed-opportunities-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-pre-school-children-admitted-to-hospital-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#11
Tony Walls, Erika Stark, Philip Pattemore, Lance Jennings
AIM: To describe the usage of multiplex polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples in pre-school children presenting with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) at Christchurch Hospital, and its impact on the use of antibiotics empirically and at discharge. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 237 children, ages 3 months to 5 years, admitted to hospital during the winter months of 2012-2015 with a diagnosis of community-acquired LRTI...
June 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182774/benefits-and-unintended-consequences-of-antimicrobial-de-escalation-implications-for-stewardship-programs
#12
Josie Hughes, Xi Huo, Lindsey Falk, Amy Hurford, Kunquan Lan, Bryan Coburn, Andrew Morris, Jianhong Wu
Sequential antimicrobial de-escalation aims to minimize resistance to high-value broad-spectrum empiric antimicrobials by switching to alternative drugs when testing confirms susceptibility. Though widely practiced, the effects de-escalation are not well understood. Definitions of interventions and outcomes differ among studies. We use mathematical models of the transmission and evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an intensive care unit to assess the effect of de-escalation on a broad range of outcomes, and clarify expectations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133869/diagnostic-microbiology-in-veterinary-dermatology-present-and-future
#13
REVIEW
Luca Guardabassi, Peter Damborg, Ivonne Stamm, Peter A Kopp, Els M Broens, Pierre-Louis Toutain
BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. METHODS: The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories...
February 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807211/a-survey-of-veterinary-antimicrobial-prescribing-practices-washington-state-2015
#14
H Fowler, M A Davis, A Perkins, S Trufan, C Joy, M Buswell, T F McElwain, D Moore, R Worhle, P M Rabinowitz
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health issue. It is also a recognised problem in veterinary medicine. Between September and December 2015 the authors administered a cross-sectional survey to licensed veterinarians in Washington State to assess factors affecting antimicrobial prescribing practices among veterinarians in Washington State. Two hundred and three veterinarians completed the survey. The majority of respondents (166, 82 per cent) were engaged in small animal or exotic animal practice...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798214/rasch-analysis-of-the-antimicrobial-self-assessment-toolkit-for-national-health-service-nhs-trusts-asat-v17
#15
Chantelle Bailey, Mary P Tully, Maria Pampaka, Jonathan Cooke
OBJECTIVES: The Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for National Health Service (NHS) Trusts (ASAT) was developed to evaluate hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Iterative validity investigations of the ASAT were used to produce a 91-item ASAT v17 utilizing qualitative methodology. Rasch analysis was used to generate question (item) behaviour estimates and to investigate the validity of ASAT v17. METHODS: In 2012, the partial credit model (PCM) was used to analyse ASAT responses from 33 NHS Trusts within England...
February 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727031/the-projected-effectiveness-of-clostridium-difficile-vaccination-as-part-of-an-integrated-infection-control-strategy
#16
Esther van Kleef, Sarah R Deeny, Mark Jit, Barry Cookson, Simon D Goldenberg, W John Edmunds, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed...
November 4, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694483/antibiotic-use-in-small-community-hospitals
#17
Edward Stenehjem, Adam L Hersh, Xiaoming Sheng, Peter Jones, Whitney R Buckel, James F Lloyd, Stephen Howe, R Scott Evans, Tom Greene, Andrew T Pavia
BACKGROUND:  Antibiotic use and misuse is driving drug resistance. Much of US healthcare takes place in small community hospitals (SCHs); 70% of all US hospitals have <200 beds. Antibiotic use in SCHs is poorly described. We evaluated antibiotic use using data from the National Healthcare and Safety Network antimicrobial use option from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS:  We used Intermountain Healthcare's monthly antibiotic use reports for 19 hospitals from 2011 to 2013...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556897/epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-diabetic-foot-infections-in-a-large-academic-hospital-implications-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#18
Kelly R Reveles, Bryson M Duhon, Robert J Moore, Elizabeth O Hand, Crystal K Howell
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521583/restrictive-antibiotic-stewardship-associated-with-reduced-hospital-mortality-in-gram-negative-infection
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
N D Ritchie, S C Irvine, A Helps, F Robb, B L Jones, R A Seaton
Introduction: : Antimicrobial stewardship has an important role in the control of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and antibiotic resistance. An important component of UK stewardship interventions is the restriction of broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics and promotion of agents associated with a lower risk of CDI such as gentamicin. While the introduction of restrictive antibiotic guidance has been associated with improvements in CDI and antimicrobial resistance, evidence of the effect on outcome following severe infection is lacking...
March 1, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507842/use-of-cefovecin-in-a-uk-population-of-cats-attending-first-opinion-practices-as-recorded-in-electronic-health-records
#20
Sara Burke, Vicki Black, Fernando Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Alan Radford, Angie Hibbert, Séverine Tasker
Objectives The objective was to use electronic health records to describe the use of cefovecin (Convenia; Zoetis UK), a third-generation long-acting injectable antimicrobial, in a UK population of cats attending first-opinion practices, and to compare the use of Convenia with the licensed uses described on the UK Convenia datasheet. Methods Data were obtained as an Excel database from the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network for all feline consultations containing the word Convenia and/or cefovecin from 1 September 2012 to 23 September 2013 inclusive...
June 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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