Read by QxMD icon Read

Antimicrobial stewardship small

Esther van Kleef, Sarah R Deeny, Mark Jit, Barry Cookson, Simon D Goldenberg, W John Edmunds, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Edward Stenehjem, Adam L Hersh, Xiaoming Sheng, Peter Jones, Whitney R Buckel, James F Lloyd, Stephen Howe, R Scott Evans, Tom Greene, Andrew T Pavia
BACKGROUND:  Antibiotic use and misuse is driving drug resistance. Much of US healthcare takes place in small community hospitals (SCHs); 70% of all US hospitals have <200 beds. Antibiotic use in SCHs is poorly described. We evaluated antibiotic use using data from the National Healthcare and Safety Network antimicrobial use option from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS:  We used Intermountain Healthcare's monthly antibiotic use reports for 19 hospitals from 2011 to 2013...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kelly R Reveles, Bryson M Duhon, Robert J Moore, Elizabeth O Hand, Crystal K Howell
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed...
2016: PloS One
Neil D Ritchie, Sharon C Irvine, Helps Alieen, Robb Fiona, Brian L Jones, R Andrew Seaton
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial stewardship has an important role in the control of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and antibiotic resistance. An important component of UK stewardship interventions is the restriction of broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics and promotion of agents associated with a lower risk of CDI such as gentamicin. Whilst the introduction of restrictive antibiotic guidance has been associated with improvements in CDI and antimicrobial resistance evidence of the effect on outcome following severe infection is lacking...
August 13, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Sara Burke, Vicki Black, Fernando Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Alan Radford, Angie Hibbert, Séverine Tasker
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to use electronic health records to describe the use of cefovecin (Convenia; Zoetis UK), a third-generation long-acting injectable antimicrobial, in a UK population of cats attending first-opinion practices, and to compare the use of Convenia to the licensed uses described on the UK Convenia datasheet. METHODS: Data were obtained as an Excel database from the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network for all feline consultations containing the word Convenia and/or cefovecin from 1 September 2012 to 23 September 2013 inclusive...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Nathan G Schoepp, Eugenia M Khorosheva, Travis S Schlappi, Matthew S Curtis, Romney M Humphries, Janet A Hindler, Rustem F Ismagilov
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) would decrease misuse and overuse of antibiotics. The "holy grail" of AST is a phenotype-based test that can be performed within a doctor visit. Such a test requires the ability to determine a pathogen's susceptibility after only a short antibiotic exposure. Herein, digital PCR (dPCR) was employed to test whether measuring DNA replication of the target pathogen through digital single-molecule counting would shorten the required time of antibiotic exposure. Partitioning bacterial chromosomal DNA into many small volumes during dPCR enabled AST results after short exposure times by 1) precise quantification and 2) a measurement of how antibiotics affect the states of macromolecular assembly of bacterial chromosomes...
August 8, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Kari E Kurtzhalts, John A Sellick, Christine A Ruh, James F Carbo, Michael C Ott, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on outcomes for inpatients with pneumonia, including length of stay, treatment duration, and 30-day readmission rates. METHODS: A retrospective chart review comparing outcomes of veterans admitted with pneumonia before (2005-2006) and after (2013-2014) implementation of an ASP was conducted; pneumonia was defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes...
July 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
J Ugalde-Espiñeira, J Bilbao-Aguirregomezcorta, A Z Sanjuan-López, C Floristán-Imízcoz, L Elorduy-Otazua, M Viciola-García
OBJECTIVE: Programs for optimizing the use of antibiotics (PROA) or antimicrobial stewardship programs are multidisciplinary programs developed in response to the increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria, the objective of which are to improve clinical results, to minimize adverse events and to reduce costs associated with the use of antimicrobials. The implementation of a PROA program in a 128-bed general hospital and the results obtained at 6 months are here reported. METHODS: An intervention quasi-experimental study with historical control group was designed with the objective of assessing the impact of a PROA program with a non-restrictive intervention model to help prescription, with a direct and bidirectional intervention...
August 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Tomasz A Leski, Chris R Taitt, Umaru Bangura, Michael G Stockelman, Rashid Ansumana, William H Cooper, David A Stenger, Gary J Vora
BACKGROUND: The rising level of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens is one of the most significant public health problems globally. While the antibiotic resistance of clinically important bacteria is closely tracked in many developed countries, the types and levels of resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogens currently circulating in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa are virtually unknown. METHODS: From December 2013 to April 2014, we collected 93 urine specimens from all outpatients showing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) and 189 fomite swabs from a small hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nan Ren, Pengcheng Zhou, Ximao Wen, Chunhui Li, Xun Huang, Yanhong Guo, Li Meng, Ruie Gong, Li Feng, Chenchao Fu, Anhua Wu
BACKGROUND: In China, several measures have been adopted to decrease unnecessary antimicrobial overuse since 2010. This study aimed to identify characteristics of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals after implementing these measures and to explore additional targets for future antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: In 2012, point prevalence surveys conducted in Chinese hospitals included inpatients who were admitted for at least 24 hours. Details regarding infection, antimicrobial use, and bacterial cultures were recorded...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
S E Ross, M Duz, D I Rendle
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Antimicrobial stewardship within the veterinary profession is recognised by governing and professional bodies as being important; the attitudes and behaviour of veterinary surgeons merit investigation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate levels of protected antimicrobial use and accuracy of antimicrobial dosing in a common clinical scenario in equine practice. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Antimicrobial use was evaluated retrospectively in 113 cases subsequently referred to a single referral hospital for the treatment of limb wounds over a 20-month period...
December 25, 2015: Equine Veterinary Journal
Michael J Smith, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh
BACKGROUND: The clinical and economic outcomes associated with pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and other supplemental antimicrobial stewardship (AS) interventions have not been well described or reviewed. METHODS: We performed a systematic review using PubMed to identify studies with any of the following terms in the title or abstract: "antimicrobial stewardship," "antimicrobial control," "antibiotic control," or "antibiotic stewardship." Studies were further limited to inpatient studies in the United States that contained the terms: "child," "children," "pediatric*" ("*" includes all terms with the same stem), "paediatric,*" "newborn," "infant," or "neonat,*" in the title or abstract...
December 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Jihye Kim, David W Craft, Michael Katzman
Efforts to optimize the use of antimicrobial agents, referred to as antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), are increasingly becoming part of the clinical enterprise at big and small hospitals. Such programs aim to achieve the synergistic goals of improving patient outcomes, limiting the unintended consequences of drug resistance and superinfections, and reducing health care expenditures. This article will review the need for antimicrobial stewardship and the key components of setting up a program; then, it will describe the ASP at one medical center to underscore how attention to acceptance by the clinical staff is crucial to changing the culture of antimicrobial use...
2015: Laboratory Medicine
David F Léger, Nathalie C Newby, Richard Reid-Smith, Neil Anderson, David L Pearl, Kerry D Lissemore, David F Kelton
This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was designed to capture the demographics of dairy practitioners in Ontario and to describe aspects of antimicrobial dispensing on-farm and over-the-counter by these veterinarians. The information collected revealed that the prescription status of a drug and the level of veterinary-client-patient relationship were important elements of dispensing policies. Over-the-counter dispensing records were incomplete, while only a small proportion of on-farm dispensing records contained pertinent information and directions as required by the Veterinarians Act...
July 2015: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Shandra R Day, Dennis Smith, Karen Harris, Heather L Cox, Amy J Mathers
The importance of antimicrobial stewardship is increasingly recognized, yet data from community hospitals are limited. Despite an initially low acceptance rate, an Infectious Diseases physician-led program at a 70-bed rural hospital was associated with a 42% decrease in anti-infective expenditures and susceptibility improvement in Pseudomonas aeruginosa over 3 years.
April 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Luca Guardabassi, John F Prescott
Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements for establishing stewardship programs at the clinic level. The authors provide suggestions and approaches to overcome constraints and to move from theoretic concepts toward implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs in small animal clinics...
March 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Jason W Stull, J Scott Weese
Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) occur in veterinary hospitals of all types and sizes, and their frequency is likely to increase. Urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, surgical site infections, and infectious diarrhea are the HAIs most frequently identified in veterinary medicine. A hospital infection control program, consisting of an infectious disease control officer, written protocols, and staff training, is critical to reducing HAIs and promoting patient, staff, and client health...
March 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
With multidrug resistant bacteria on the rise, new antibiotic approaches are required. Although a number of new small molecule antibiotics are currently in the development pipeline with many more in preclinical development, the clinical options and practices for infection control must be expanded. Biologics and non-antibiotic adjuvants offer this opportunity for expansion. Nevertheless, to avoid known mechanisms of resistance, intelligent combination approaches for multiple simultaneous and complimentary therapies must be designed...
November 30, 2014: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
James M Bartlett, Patricia L Siola
PURPOSE: The implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) at a small community hospital affiliated with an accountable care organization (ACO) is described, including a report on first-year program outcomes. SUMMARY: With no infectious diseases (ID)-trained pharmacists on staff, a 155-bed hospital formed an ASP by restructuring its clinical pharmacy services. One full-time pharmacist led the program; nine full- or part-time pharmacists-none of whom had residency training-shared ASP responsibilities on a weekly rotation...
June 1, 2014: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Nina Tuite, Kate Reddington, Thomas Barry, Alimuddin Zumla, Virve Enne
A key component for tackling the ever more serious antimicrobial resistance problem in Gram-negative bacteria is the introduction of rapid nucleic acid diagnostics. Successful incorporation of new diagnostic technologies has the potential benefit of improving not only patient treatment but also infection control and antimicrobial stewardship. However, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the complexity of resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria, the discrepancy between phenotype and genotype and the difficulty in distinguishing pathogens from background commensals...
July 2014: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"