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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118939/escherichia-coli-pathotypes-and-shigella-sero-groups-in-diarrheic-children-in-nairobi-city-kenya
#1
Peter Lokamar Nyanga, Jackson Onyuka, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Tom Were, Valentine Budambula
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups and their antimicrobial profiles among diarrheic children in Nairobi city, Kenya. Background: Although diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups are leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years in developing countries, their distribution and antimicrobial resistance vary from place to place and over time in a given region. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled diarrheic children (n=354) under five years seeking treatment at Mbagathi Hospital, Nairobi city, Kenya,...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091207/esgap-inventory-of-target-indicators-assessing-antibiotic-prescriptions-a-cross-sectional-survey
#2
Philip Howard, Benedikt Huttner, Bojana Beovic, Guillaume Beraud, Diamantis P Kofteridis, José Pano Pardo, Jeroen Schouten, Céline Pulcini
Background: A variety of indicators is commonly used to monitor antibiotic prescriptions as part of national antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes. Objectives: To make an inventory of indicators that assess antibiotic prescriptions and are linked to specific targets and incentives, at a national level. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (three-item questionnaire) was conducted in 2017 among all ESGAP (ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial stewardshiP) members, coming from 23 European countries and 16 non-European countries...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071048/changes-in-antimicrobial-prescribing-behavior-after-the-introduction-of-the-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-a-pre-and-post-intervention-survey
#3
Ruchir Chavada, Harry N Walker, Deborah Tong, Amy Murray
The introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program is associated with a change in antimicrobial prescribing behavior. A proposed mechanism for this change is by impacting the prescribing etiquette described in qualitative studies. This study sought to detect a change in prescribing attitudes 12 months after the introduction of AMS and gauge utility of various AMS interventions. Surveys were distributed to doctors in two regional Australian hospitals on a convenience basis 6 months before, and 12 months after, the introduction of AMS...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017750/trends-and-relationship-between-antimicrobial-resistance-and-antibiotic-use-in-xinjiang-uyghur-autonomous-region-china-based-on-a-3-year-surveillance-data-2014-2016
#4
Haishaerjiang Wushouer, Zhao-Xia Zhang, Jian-Hua Wang, Ping Ji, Qing-Fang Zhu, Renagu Aishan, Lu-Wen Shi
PURPOSES: The objective of the study was to identify the trends and relations between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antibiotic use in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Western China from 2014 to 2016. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive analysis of AMR prevalence, and trends and relations between AMR and antibiotic use during the 3-year period was performed. RESULTS: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli was the most prevalent resistant pathogen in terms of both resistance density and resistance proportion...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017424/development-of-a-statewide-antibiogram-to-assess-regional-trends-in-antibiotic-resistant-eskape-organisms
#5
Anthony J Guarascio, Laura M Brickett, Timothy J Porter, Nancy D Lee, Erin E Gorse, Jordan R Covvey
BACKGROUND: Hospitals and other facilities utilize antibiograms as tools for optimal antibiotic selection. Currently, no measures compare broad trends on the regional level, despite interest for more comprehensive data, particularly for antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE organisms. OBJECTIVE: To collect and compare regional health-care facility antibiogram data for ESKAPE organisms to form a cumulative antibiogram. METHODS: Health-care facilities were identified using the publicly accessible Pennsylvania Department of Health web site...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836656/the-impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-on-antibiotic-appropriateness-and-prescribing-behaviours-in-selected-countries-in-the-middle-east-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Ziad Nasr, Bridget Paravattil, Kyle J Wilby
Antimicrobial resistance is a global health problem and antimicrobial stewardship is an essential component of hospital policies worldwide yet little is known regarding effective implementation strategies in the Middle East. We conducted a review of studies carried out in this region that deployed different antimicrobial stewardship strategies to assess antimicrobial appropriateness and prescribing behaviours. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Google and Google Scholar was conducted...
August 20, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833324/antibacterials-dispensed-in-the-community-comprise-85-95-of-total-human-antibacterial-consumption
#7
E Duffy, S Ritchie, S Metcalfe, B Van Bakel, M G Thomas
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Interventions intended to slow the emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance through enhanced antimicrobial stewardship will be more effective if informed by an accurate knowledge of current patterns of antibacterial consumption. For example, knowledge of the relative magnitude of community antibacterial consumption in relation to hospital antibacterial consumption within each nation or region should help guide decisions about the relative importance of community and hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782704/geographical-variation-in-therapy-for-bloodstream-infections-due-to-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-increment-study
#8
Patrick N A Harris, M Diletta Pezzani, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Pierluigi Viale, Po-Ren Hsueh, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Mario Venditti, Mario Tumbarello, Carolina Navarro-Francisco, Esther Calbo, Murat Akova, Helen Giamarellou, Antonio Oliver, Benito Almirante, Oriol Gasch, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Mitchell J Schwaber, George Daikos, Johann Pitout, Carmen Peña, Alicia Hernández-Torres, Yohei Doi, Federico Pérez, Felipe Francisco Tuon, Evelina Tacconelli, Yehuda Carmeli, Robert A Bonomo, Álvaro Pascual, David L Paterson, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
We describe regional differences in therapy for bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Patients (n = 1482) in 12 countries from an observational study of BSI caused by ESBL-E or CPE were included. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for the influence of country of recruitment on empirical use of β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) or carbapenems, targeted use of BLBLIs for ESBL-E and use of targeted combination therapy for CPE...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748178/community-based-prescribing-for-impetigo-in-remote-australia-an-opportunity-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#9
Stefanie Jane Oliver, James Cush, Jeanette E Ward
BACKGROUND: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. WHAT WE DID: Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745260/implementation-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#10
Nneka I Nzegwu, Michelle R Rychalsky, Loren A Nallu, Xuemei Song, Yanhong Deng, Amber M Natusch, Robert S Baltimore, George R Paci, Matthew J Bizzarro
OBJECTIVE To evaluate antimicrobial utilization and prescription practices in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). DESIGN Quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series study. SETTING A 54-bed, level IV NICU in a regional academic and tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS All neonates prescribed antimicrobials from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016, were eligible for inclusion. INTERVENTION Implementation of a NICU-specific ASP beginning July 2012...
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727741/antimicrobial-resistance-rates-in-gram-positive-bacteria-do-not-drive-glycopeptides-use
#11
Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Andrea Cona, Parichehr Shamsrizi, Tuba Vilken, Winfred V Kern, Nisar Malek, Evelina Tacconelli
Surveillance data are considered essential to appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and stewardship. The objective of this study was to determine if a change in the rates of antibiotic resistance impacts antibiotic use in European hospitals. Glycopeptides use was selected to study the correlation between resistance rates and antibiotic use because of the restricted spectrum against resistant gram positive bacteria. PubMed, ECDC databases and national/regional surveillance systems were searched to identify glycopeptides´ consumption in defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitant-days (DID) and rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in European countries between 1997 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705665/bloodstream-infections-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-patients-with-malignancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Michail Alevizakos, Apostolos Gaitanidis, Nikolaos Andreatos, Karuppiah Arunachalam, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are an increasing cause of resistant infections among patients with malignancy. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by ESBL-PE in this population and to examine regional and temporal differences. The PubMed and EMBASE databases (to 30 April 2016) were searched to identify studies reporting ESBL-PE BSI rates among patients with malignancies. Of 593 non-duplicate reports, 22 studies providing data on 5650 BSI cases satisfied the inclusion criteria...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659026/colonization-and-infection-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-patients-with-malignancy
#13
Michail Alevizakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) constitute a global threat and are prevalent in both nosocomial and community settings. These pathogens have been associated with delays in initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and worse clinical outcomes. Patients with solid or hematologic malignancy represent a high-risk population for both colonization and infection with ESBL-PE. Areas covered: A description of the microbiology and epidemiology of the ESBL-PE is presented...
July 6, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650313/molecular-mechanisms-and-epidemiology-of-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-middle-east-region
#14
REVIEW
Grace El Moujaber, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal bacterium that normally colonizes the human nasopharyngeal cavity. Once disseminated, it can cause several diseases, ranging from non-invasive infections such as acute otitis media and sinusitis through to invasive infections with higher mortality, including meningitis and septicaemia. Since the identification of the first S. pneumoniae strain with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in the 1960s, antibiotic resistance among S. pneumoniae has increased disturbingly and the mechanisms of resistance have begun to unfold...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628930/-rational-use-of-antibiotics-data-form-a-survey-from-2014-within-the-mrdo-network-compared-to-nationwide-data-from-2009
#15
Luba Lendowski, Peter Walger, Christoph Hoeser, Martin Exner, Claudia Roesing, Steffen Engelhart
Introduction To combat multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria as the cause of life-threatening infections, antibiotic stewardship activities are of great importance. Objective To detect weaknesses when prescribing antibiotics in hospitals and compare the situation between 2009 and 2014. Methods In 2014, a questionnaire was sent to all 380 physicians employed in 7 hospitals. Primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals were included. Investigated were: demographic data, position, certified specialization, presence of antibiotic prescription rules and behavior to follow them...
June 19, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595316/developing-a-local-antimicrobial-resistance-action-plan-the-cornwall-one-health-antimicrobial-resistance-group
#16
Neil Powell, Iain Davidson, Phillip Yelling, Andrew Collinson, Adam Pollard, Lisa Johnson, Nick Gibson, Jennifer Taylor, Kathryn Wisner, William Gaze, Janice South, Diane Ashiru-Oredope
Objectives: The UK Five Year Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Strategy was published in September 2013 and recommended a One Health approach emphasizing the importance of collaboration to tackle AMR. We describe the inauguration of what we believe to be the first regional One Health group established in the UK. The purpose of the group was to ensure the implementation of a coordinated Cornwall-wide response to the UK AMR Strategy and we describe the outputs of the group to date. Methods: The Cornwall Antimicrobial Resistance Group was set up as a sub-group of the Health & Wellbeing Board's Health Protection Committee...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577933/impact-of-selective-reporting-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-test-results-on-the-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-chosen-by-french-general-practitioners-in-urinary-tract-infections-a-randomised-controlled-case-vignette-study
#17
Loic Bourdellon, Nathalie Thilly, Sébastien Fougnot, Céline Pulcini, Sandrine Henard
Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general practitioners for urinary tract infections (UTIs). A randomised controlled case-vignette study in a region of northeast France surveyed general practitioners between July and October 2015 on treatment of four clinical cases of community-acquired Escherichia coli UTIs (two cases of complicated cystitis, one of acute pyelonephritis and one male UTI)...
August 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549778/stepwise-introduction-of-the-best-care-always-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-prevention-bundle-in-a-network-of-south-african-hospitals
#18
G A Richards, A J Brink, A P Messina, C Feldman, K Swart, D van den Bergh
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) remains a major international problem. AIM: The 'Best Care Always!' (BCA) campaign was launched in South Africa to reduce preventable HCAI, including central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). METHODS: The intervention took place in 43 Netcare Private Hospitals, increasing later to 49 with 958 intensive care units (ICUs) and 439 high-care (HC) beds and 1207 ICUs and 493 HC beds, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503879/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-appropriateness-of-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-an-australian-regional-hospital
#19
Stuart E Bond, Craig S Boutlis, Wilfred W Yeo, Spiros Miyakis
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second commonest indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals and is therefore a frequent target for antimicrobial stewardship. A single-centre prospective study was conducted in a regional referral hospital comparing management of adult patients with CAP before and after an educational intervention. We demonstrated a reduction in duration of therapy and reduced inappropriate use of ceftriaxone-based regimens for non-severe CAP.
May 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480243/colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-and-risk-for-bloodstream-infection-among-patients-with-malignancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Michail Alevizakos, Apostolos Gaitanidis, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Katerina Tori, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) cause severe infections among patients with malignancy, and these infections are usually preceded by gastrointestinal colonization. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases (up to May 26, 2016) to identify studies that reported data on VRE gastrointestinal colonization among patients with solid or hematologic malignancy. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies, reporting data on 8391 patients with malignancy, were included in our analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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