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substance AND misuse OR abuse

Kam Lun Hon, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Ming Him James Ng, Chi Cheung Ho, Yin Ching Kathy Tsang, Wing Hung Tam, Chung Shun Ho
OBJECTIVE: Maternal drug abuse may influence neonatal outcomes. We compared neonatal outcomes of patients with urine screened positive for commonly abused drugs (CAD) versus those who were screened negative, and reviewed the pattern of drugs detected at a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Urine samples collected from babies with suspected illicit drug exposure who were admitted to the neonatal unit were sent for comprehensive drug screen (CDS) performed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Andrew W Roberts, Joel F Farley, G Mark Holmes, Christine U Oramasionwu, Chris Ringwalt, Betsy Sleath, Asheley C Skinner
Controlled substance lock-in programs are garnering increased attention from payers and policy makers seeking to combat the epidemic of opioid misuse. These programs require high-risk patients to visit a single prescriber and pharmacy for coverage of controlled substance medication services. Despite high prevalence of the programs in Medicaid, we know little about their effects on patients' behavior and outcomes aside from reducing controlled substance-related claims. Our study was the first rigorous investigation of lock-in programs' effects on out-of-pocket controlled substance prescription fills, which circumvent the programs' restrictions and mitigate their potential public health benefits...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Thomas Stompe, Kristina Ritter, David Holzer, Andrea Topitz, Thomas Wenzel
The refugee movements of the recent years are confronting the health care with new challenges. However, it has turned out that in Austria data on the mental health of migrants are nearly not available. Especially data on the frequency and patterns of comorbid substance abuse of migrants with mental disorders do not exist even from international studies. We analyzed data from 1819 patients (1726 first generation, 93 second generation) treated in the outpatient clinic for transcultural psychiatry and migration related disorders at the Vienna General Hospital: In first-generation migrants the cultural and religious background of the region of origin has the greatest impact on the frequency and the patterns of misused substances...
September 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Jai K Das, Rehana A Salam, Ahmed Arshad, Yaron Finkelstein, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Benedict Morris
With the recent introduction of the Psychoactive Substances Bill in the United Kingdom, it is a useful time to retrospectively review the patterns of prevalence of the psychoactive products known as 'Legal Highs'. There has been emerging research and rapidly expanding political, public and media attention and awareness, yet comparatively little scientific discourse on the psychological aspects driving their consumption, beyond simply their legal status. This paper focuses on their usage patterns in the particularly vulnerable, but often-neglected period of young adulthood between the ages of 16-24, focussing on their prevalence, trends in pharmacology and psychological aspects of their usage and propensity for addiction...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
G Dorard, C Bungener, O Phan, Y Edel, M Corcos, S Berthoz
BACKGROUND: The use of illicit substances, in particular cannabis, among French adolescents and young adults has become an important public health concern. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in pathological substance use is nowadays critical. Psychiatric comorbidities have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but are less documented in adolescents, especially regarding cannabis dependence. OBJECTIVES: We investigated mental health problems in adolescents and young adults, seeking treatment for their problematic cannabis use, comparatively to healthy controls, taking into account the participant's gender and age...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Monika Wójta-Kempa, Dominik M Krzyżanowski
BACKGROUND: Almost 90% of households in Poland buy medicines on their own initiative. The most popular OTC medicines bought by Polish consumers are painkillers and non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to recognize and describe the most important predictive factors of the abuse and misuse of over-the-counter pain relievers among adults in Wrocław (Poland). The groups of users were selected and described. Some examples of misuse were analyzed...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Christine Barter, Nicky Stanley
This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Patrizia Panzani, Juliane Unterhauser, Stefania Mulas, Antonio Fanolla, Claudia Zitelli, Alessandro Briani, Giancarlo Giupponi, Icro Maremmani, Andreas Conca
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs). Despite this comorbidity being firmly established, alcohol and nicotine risky use and misuse are not routinely and systematically assessed in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of risky use of alcohol, alcohol use disorder (AUD), smoking, and nicotine use disorder in people with psychiatric diagnoses and their association with age, gender, and occupational functioning...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Imaneh Abasi, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani
CONTEXT: Recent years have produced many articles about women's addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women's taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: "women and addiction", "women addiction and family", "addiction", "substance abuse" and "family"...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Charles-Édouard Giguère, Stéphane Potvin
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are significant risk factors for psychiatric relapses and hospitalizations in psychiatric populations. Unfortunately, no instrument has been validated for the screening of SUDs in psychiatric emergency settings. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is widely used in the addiction field, but is has not been validated in that particular context. The objective of the current study is to examine the psychometric properties of the DAST administered to psychiatric populations evaluated in an emergency setting...
August 31, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Bishal Gyawali, Bishnu P Choulagai, Damaru Prasad Paneru, Meraj Ahmad, Anja Leppin, Per Kallestrup
BACKGROUND: The burden of substance misuse in developing countries is large and increasing, with negative consequences for physical and psychological health. Substance use disorders and psychological distress commonly co-exist, however few studies have examined this relationship in developing countries, including Nepal. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of psychological distress symptoms and associated factors among patients with substance use disorders attending drug rehabilitation centers in Nepal...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
David C Sheridan, Amber Laurie, Robert G Hendrickson, Rongwei Fu, Bory Kea, B Zane Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse is a public health epidemic in the United States. Much literature has focused on the prescribing practices of physicians and opioid misuse by adults. However, there are limited data on the effect of opioid prescriptions on adolescent recreational ingestion of these medications. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess for a relationship between opioid prescribing practices across the United States and adolescent opioid ingestion calls to poison centers...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Santosh Jain Passi
INTRODUCTION: Developing countries are currently afflicted with the dual burden of disease with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) becoming a major public health challenge. It is projected that in near future, NCDs will account for nearly 70% of the mortality in developing world. Caused due to lifestyle related factors, there is an upsurge in the incidence of overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancers, respiratory diseases etc. Appropriate dietary practices, increased physical activity, weight management, abstinence from tobacco/substance misuse and alcohol abuse play an important role in their prevention and management...
September 5, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Shihui Bao, Jing Zhang, Zixia Lin, Ke Su, Jingjing Mo, Lin Hong, Shuyi Qian, Lianguo Chen, Fa Sun, Congcong Wen, Qing Wu, Lufeng Hu, Guanyang Lin, Xianqin Wang
Dextromethorphan is recognized as a substance of abuse around the world. An estimated 3.1 million people between the ages of 12 to 25 years (5.3%) misused over-the-counter cough and cold medications in 2006. In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the effect of abuse of dextromethorphan on rats. The dextromethorphan treated group rats were given 12, 24 and 48 mg/kg (Low, Medium, High) of dextromethorphan by intragastric administration each day for 3 days...
August 15, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Bobbi Jo H Yarborough, Scott P Stumbo, Shannon L Janoff, Micah T Yarborough, Dennis McCarty, Howard D Chilcoat, Paul M Coplan, Carla A Green
BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse and misuse are significant public health issues. The CDC estimated 72% of pharmaceutical-related overdose deaths in the US in 2012 involved opioids. While studies of opioid overdoses have identified sociodemographic characteristics, agents used, administration routes, and medication sources associated with overdoses, we know less about the context and life circumstances of the people who experience these events. METHODS: We analyzed interviews (n=87) with survivors of opioid overdoses or family members of decedents...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Faranak Alembizar, Ayda Hosseinkhani, Alireza Salehi
BACKGROUND: Since diseases and surgeries could be very painful, the annihilation of pain has been the most important goal of physicians. The history of Iranian-Islamic medicine includes distinguished physicians that attempted to find different methods of anesthesia. This research aims at reviewing approaches for anesthesia throughout the history of the Iranian-Islamic medicine, in order to identify a variety of drugs used during that period. METHODS: In this research, the information was mainly collected from medical history, traditional literature and various search engines (e...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Asheley Cockrell Skinner, Chris Ringwalt, Rebecca B Naumann, Andrew W Roberts, Leslie A Moss, Nidhi Sachdeva, Mark A Weaver, Joel Farley
: Opioid misuse, abuse, and overdose are a rapidly growing public health epidemic. Medicaid Lock-In Programs (MLIPs) are designed to prevent overutilization of controlled substances by Medicaid patients. However, despite widespread use, there is little information on their impact. Using North Carolina (NC) Medicaid claims data from October 2008 through June 2013, we examined changes in Medicaid-reimbursed opioid prescriptions by patients enrolled in NC's MLIP. We used mixed effects models to examine the effect of MLIP enrollment on monthly opioid claims, number of pharmacies, total days' supply, total units (i...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Ming D Li, Yih-Ing Hser, Zhiwei Chen, Linda Chang
This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance misuse of amphetamine-type-stimulants and opioids, and the increasing prevalence of HIV-infection in Asian countries. The Conference Series is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the U...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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