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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196428/the-association-of-psychedelic-use-and-opioid-use-disorders-among-illicit-users-in-the-united-states
#1
Vincent D Pisano, Nathaniel P Putnam, Hannah M Kramer, Kevin J Franciotti, John H Halpern, Selma C Holden
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies show psychedelic compounds administered with psychotherapy are potentially effective and durable substance misuse interventions. However, little is known about the association between psychedelic use and substance misuse in the general population. This study investigated the association between psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders within illicit opioid users. METHODS: While controlling for socio-demographic covariates and the use of other substances, the relationship between classic psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders was analyzed within 44,000 illicit opioid users who completed the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2008 to 2013...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183374/experiences-of-codeine-use-misuse-and-dependence-application-of-liese-and-franz-s-cognitive-developmental-model-of-substance-abuse
#2
Marie Claire Van Hout, Ian Norman, Eileen Rich, Michael Bergin
BACKGROUND: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS: We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It illustrates a cognitive behavioural analysis of the experiences of codeine misusers - which 'surfaces' the specific beliefs, thoughts, emotions and behaviours of this group of hidden codeine dependent individuals, who are distinct and unique from other opioid-dependent cohorts...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182139/assessing-behavioral-patterns-of-internet-addiction-and-drug-abuse-among-high-school-students
#3
Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi
BACKGROUND: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents' addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. METHODS: A sectional and descriptive-analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181205/alcohol-and-other-drug-use-in-older-adults-results-from-a-community-needs-assessment
#4
Emily Loscalzo, Robert C Sterling, Stephen P Weinstein, Brooke Salzman
BACKGROUND: With the "Baby Boomer" generation reaching older adulthood, substance abuse treatment providers find themselves needing to address the unique needs of this population. Heavy drinking in adults ages 65 and over is strongly correlated with depression, anxiety, decreased social support, and poor health. However, while alcohol misuse has been shown to be predictive of a lower quality of life in older adults, the generalizability of these findings to urban dwelling, lower socioeconomic status individuals remains unclear...
February 8, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144823/abuse-and-misuse-of-pregabalin-and-gabapentin
#5
REVIEW
Kirk E Evoy, Megan D Morrison, Stephen R Saklad
BACKGROUND: Gabapentinoid (pregabalin and gabapentin) abuse is increasingly being reported. OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent of gabapentinoid abuse, characteristics of typical abusers, patterns of abuse, and potential harms in order to bring this trend to providers' attention. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and US FDA data, indexed through 28 July 2016, utilizing the following searches: pregabalin OR gabapentin OR gabapentinoid AND one of the following: abuse, misuse, overdose, or substance-related disorders[MESH], was conducted...
February 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132697/physician-practices-to-prevent-adhd-stimulant-diversion-and-misuse
#6
Natalie Colaneri, Sarah Keim, Andrew Adesman
BACKGROUND: Recent studies report that a significant number of adolescents misuse and divert prescription stimulants. As prescribers of these medications, physicians have a unique opportunity to help prevent the improper use and unlawful distribution of these medications. This study evaluates the extent to which physicians employ prevention practices with their adolescent patients with ADHD and their perceptions of the effectiveness of these practices. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and mailed to child and adolescent psychiatrists, child neurologists, and developmental-behavioral pediatricians in the US...
March 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122657/challenges-and-opportunities-to-engaging-emergency-medical-service-providers-in-substance-use-research-a-qualitative-study
#7
Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Julie C Fields, Junette McWilliams, Amy R Knowlton
: Introduction Research suggests Emergency Medical Services (EMS) over-use in urban cities is partly due to substance users with limited access to medical/social services. Recent efforts to deliver brief, motivational messages to encourage these individuals to enter treatment have not considered EMS providers. Problem Little research has been done with EMS providers who serve substance-using patients. The EMS providers were interviewed about participating in a pilot program where they would be trained to screen their patients for substance abuse and encourage them to enter drug treatment...
January 26, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120116/urine-drug-screen-findings-among-ambulatory-oncology-patients-in-a-supportive-care-clinic
#8
Sherri Rauenzahn, Adam Sima, Brian Cassel, Danielle Noreika, Teny Henry Gomez, Lynn Ryan, Carl E Wolf, Luke Legakis, Egidio Del Fabbro
PURPOSE: Professional organizations provide no guidelines regarding assessment and management of opioid abuse risk in cancer. Universal precautions (UP) developed for non-cancer pain, include assessments for aberrant behavior, screening questionnaires, and urine drug screens (UDS). The role of UDS for identifying opioid abuse risk in cancer is uncertain. Our aim is to characterize inappropriate UDS, and identify a potential role for UDS in therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: An observational retrospective chart review of 232 consecutive supportive care clinic patients were seen during the study...
January 25, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119134/erythropoietin-as-a-performance-enhancing-drug-its-mechanistic-basis-detection-and-potential-adverse-effects
#9
Olivier Salamin, Tiia Kuuranne, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormone regulating red blood cell (RBC) production. The large-scale production of a recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) by biotechnological methods has made possible its widespread therapeutic use as well as its misuse in sports. Since the marketing of the first epoetin in 1989, the development has progressed to the third-generation analogs. However, the production of rHuEPO is costly, and the frequent administration of an injectable formula is not optimal for compliance of therapeutic patients...
January 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095283/substance-use-among-european-students-east-west-comparison-between-1995-and-2011
#10
Alojz Nociar, Janusz Sierosławski, Ladislav Csémy
AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate long-term trends differences in student substance misuse between countries of former Eastern Bloc (FEB) and Western Europe (WEST). Overall data on student substance misuse gathered in five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) conducted between 1995 and 2011 were pooled and analysed. Findings were compared between FEB and WEST countries at the five time-points of data collection. METHODS: Over 396,000 of 16 years old students from thirteen FEB and thirteen WEST countries completed anonymous ESPAD questionnaires...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074563/a-time-and-motion-study-of-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-implementation-in-health-care-settings
#11
Alexander J Cowell, William N Dowd, Justin Landwehr, Carolina Barbosa, Jeremy W Bray
AIMS: Screening and brief intervention for harmful substance use in medical settings is being promoted heavily in the United States. To justify service provision fiscally, the field needs accurate estimates of the number and type of staff required to provide services, and thus the time taken to perform activities used to deliver services. This study analyzed the time spent in activities for the component services of the substance misuse Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program implemented in emergency departments, in-patient units and ambulatory clinics...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035127/medical-use-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-medication-and-risk-behaviour-among-croatian-adolescents
#12
Marina Kuzman, Marija Posavec
BACKGROUND: At the drug scene some major shifts were observed, more and more reports highlighted the abuse of prescription medication. Despite the importance of controlled medication in treatment child and adolescent disorders, this increase may be a factor which influence misuse and nonmedical use of prescribed drugs among adolescents. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Croatian data from ESPAD survey in 2003, 2007 and 2011 were used, and variables selected from the international ESPAD questionnaire...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032409/change-in-receptive-vocabulary-from-childhood-to-adulthood-associated-mental-health-education-and-employment-outcomes
#13
Rebecca Armstrong, Wendy Arnott, David A Copland, Katie McMahon, Asaduzzaman Khan, Jake M Najman, James G Scott
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that early language delays are associated with poorer long-term outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have explored the influence of change in language ability over time on adult outcomes. AIM: To examine the educational, vocational and mental health outcomes for adults accounting for different vocabulary developmental profiles over a 16-year period. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A total of 1914 participants of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) were categorized into four groups based on their vocabulary skills at 5 and 21 years: (1) persistently good (n = 1679), (2) persistently poor (n = 33), (3) improved (n = 160), and (4) deteriorated (n = 42)...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997235/familial-factors-victimization-and-psychological-health-among-sexual-minority-adolescents-in-sweden
#14
Kelly Donahue, Niklas Långström, Sebastian Lundström, Paul Lichtenstein, Mats Forsman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influences of victimization experience and familial factors on the association between sexual minority status and psychological health outcomes among adolescents. METHODS: We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, a prospective, population-based study of all twins born in Sweden since 1992. Cross-sectional analyses included individuals who completed assessments at age 18 years (n = 4898) from 2000 to 2013. We also compared psychological health among sexual minority adolescents and their nonminority co-twins...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988038/-acute-psychiatric-symptoms-during-methylphenidate-intravenous-injections-a-case-report
#15
Fabrice Vérité, Joëlle Micallef
We report the case of a 32-year-old man who developed acute psychiatric disorders after repeated intravenous injections of methylphenidate. The behavioural disorders with extreme psychomotor restlessness and delirious syndrome have resolved within 24hours. The available data highlight the fact that the prescriptions of methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like substance, are constantly increasing in Europe and Northern America. The potential of abuse and addiction to this drug, which is growingly misused, is now clearly established...
November 24, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987266/neuroimaging-of-chronic-alcohol-misuse
#16
REVIEW
Caitriona Logan, Hamed Asadi, Hong Kuan Kok, Seamus T Looby, Paul Brennan, Alan O'Hare, John Thornton
Alcohol is one of the most commonly abused substances worldwide. It results in a wide range of diseases and disorders affecting many organ systems. Alcohol-related nutritional deficiencies and electrolyte disturbance leave chronic abusers at risk of a range of demyelinating conditions to which the radiologist and clinician should always be alert. These include Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's syndrome, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and osmotic demyelination. Cerebral volume loss is also a commonly encountered neuroimaging phenomenon in chronic alcohol abusers...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980029/risk-stratification-for-opioid-misuse-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-quality-improvement-project
#17
Rachel Thienprayoon, Kelly Porter, Michelle Tate, Marshall Ashby, Mark Meyer
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Palliative and Comfort Care Team (PACT) at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) provides opioids to a large population of patients in the ambulatory setting. Before this project, PACT had no reliable system to risk stratify patients for opioid misuse. METHODS: The global aim was safe opioid prescribing by the palliative care team. The specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timely aim was as follows: "In patients who present for follow up with PACT, we will use the "opioid bundle" to increase risk stratification for opioid misuse from 0% to 90% over 5 months...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955636/effects-of-delaying-binge-drinking-on-adolescent-brain-development-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#18
Josiane Bourque, Travis E Baker, Alain Dagher, Alan C Evans, Hugh Garavan, Marco Leyton, Jean R Séguin, Robert Pihl, Patricia J Conrod
BACKGROUND: Onset of alcohol use by 14 relative to 21 years of age strongly predicts elevated risk for severe alcohol use problems, with 27% versus 4% of individuals exhibiting alcohol dependence within 10 years of onset. What remains unclear is whether this early alcohol use (i) is a marker for later problems, reflected as a pre-existing developmental predisposition, (ii) causes global neural atrophy or (iii) specifically disturbs neuro-maturational processes implicated in addiction, such as executive functions or reward processing...
December 13, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886163/alghedon-fentanyl-transdermal-system-afts
#19
Patrizia Romualdi, Patrizia Santi, Sanzio Candeletti
The efficacy of transdermal fentanyl for cancer pain and chronic non-cancer pain (chronic lower back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain) is well established. Several formulations of fentanyl transdermal systems have been developed to improve the drug delivery and prevent misuse of the active principle. The addition of a rate controlling membrane to the matrix system represented an important advance. The design and functional features of Alghedon patch are compared with other approved generic fentanyl transdermal systems, emphasizing the distinctiveness of Alghedon patch...
November 25, 2016: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883222/alcohol-misuse-and-co-occurring-mental-disorders-among-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army
#20
Murray B Stein, Laura Campbell-Sills, Joel Gelernter, Feng He, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler, Robert J Ursano
BACKGROUND: Problem drinking that predates enlistment into military service may contribute to the overall burden of alcohol misuse in the Armed Forces; however, evidence bearing on this issue is limited. This study examines prevalence and correlates of alcohol misuse among new U.S. Army soldiers. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from soldiers reporting for basic combat training. The survey retrospectively assessed lifetime alcohol consumption and substance abuse/dependence, enabling estimation of the prevalence of lifetime binge drinking and heavy drinking in a sample of 30,583 soldiers and of probable alcohol use disorder (AUD) among 26,754 soldiers with no/minimal lifetime use of other drugs...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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