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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324503/visualization-of-human-telomerase-localization-by-fluorescence-microscopy-techniques
#1
Eladio Abreu, Rebecca M Terns, Michael P Terns
Human telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that synthesizes DNA repeats at the ends of chromosomes and maintains telomere length and genome stability. The enzyme is comprised of telomerase RNA (hTR) (which provides the template for telomere addition) and several protein subunits including telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) (the catalytic component). Intracellular trafficking of the enzyme has emerged as an important factor in the regulation of telomerase activity. Telomerase trafficking between nuclear Cajal bodies (proposed sites of telomerase biogenesis and regulation) and telomeres (sites of action) is regulated by the cell cycle in concordance with telomere synthesis during S phase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320287/subcellular-localization-and-detection-of-tobacco-mosaic-virus-orf6-protein-by-immunoelectron-microscopy
#2
T N Erokhina, E A Lazareva, K R Richert-Pöggeler, E V Sheval, A G Solovyev, S Y Morozov
Members of the genus Tobamovirus represent one of the best-characterized groups of plant positive, single stranded RNA viruses. Previous studies have shown that genomes of some tobamoviruses contain not only genes coding for coat protein, movement protein, and the cistron coding for different domains of RNA-polymerase, but also a gene, named ORF6, coding for a poorly conserved small protein. The amino acid sequences of ORF6 proteins encoded by different tobamoviruses are highly divergent. The potential role of ORF6 proteins in replication of tobamoviruses still needs to be elucidated...
January 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300784/the-molecular-basis-of-toxins-interactions-with-intracellular-signaling-via-discrete-portals
#3
REVIEW
Adi Lahiani, Ephraim Yavin, Philip Lazarovici
An understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial, plant or animal-secreted toxins exert their action provides the most important element for assessment of human health risks and opens new insights into therapies addressing a plethora of pathologies, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer, using toxinomimetic agents. Recently, molecular and cellular biology dissecting tools have provided a wealth of information on the action of these diverse toxins, yet, an integrated framework to explain their selective toxicity is still lacking...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300211/als-along-the-axons-expression-of-coding-and-noncoding-rna-differs-in-axons-of-als-models
#4
Nimrod Rotem, Iddo Magen, Ariel Ionescu, Noga Gershoni-Emek, Topaz Altman, Christopher J Costa, Tal Gradus, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Dianna E Willis, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Eran Hornstein, Eran Perlson
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial lethal motor neuron disease with no known treatment. Although the basic mechanism of its degenerative pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a subcellular spatial alteration in RNA metabolism is thought to play a key role. The nature of these RNAs remains elusive, and a comprehensive characterization of the axonal RNAs involved in maintaining neuronal health has yet to be described. Here, using cultured spinal cord (SC) neurons grown using a compartmented platform followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we find that RNA expression differs between the somatic and axonal compartments of the neuron, for both mRNA and microRNA (miRNA)...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296067/rna-binding-proteins-of-the-nxf-nuclear-export-factor-family-and-their-connection-with-the-cytoskeleton
#5
REVIEW
L A Mamon, V R Ginanova, S F Kliver, A O Yakimova, A A Atsapkina, E V Golubkova
The mutual relationship between mRNA and the cytoskeleton can be seen from two points of view. On the one hand, the cytoskeleton is necessary for mRNA trafficking and anchoring to subcellular domains. On the other hand, cytoskeletal growth and rearrangement require the translation of mRNAs that are connected to the cytoskeleton. β-actin mRNA localization may influence dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In the cytoplasm, long-lived mRNAs exist in the form of RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes, where they interact with RNA-binding proteins, including NXF (Nuclear eXport Factor)...
March 13, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283797/influence-of-nrf2-activators-on-subcellular-skeletal-muscle-protein-and-dna-synthesis-rates-after-6%C3%A2-weeks-of-milk-protein-feeding-in-older-adults
#6
Adam R Konopka, Jaime L Laurin, Robert V Musci, Christopher A Wolff, Justin J Reid, Laurie M Biela, Qian Zhang, Fredrick F Peelor, Christopher L Melby, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
In older adults, chronic oxidative and inflammatory stresses are associated with an impaired increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis after acute anabolic stimuli. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Protandim have been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for the antioxidant response element and anti-inflammatory pathways. This study tested the hypothesis that compared to a placebo control (CON), CLA and Protandim would increase skeletal muscle subcellular protein (myofibrillar, mitochondrial, cytoplasmic) and DNA synthesis in older adults after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding...
March 10, 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281199/unraveling-new-functions-of-superoxide-dismutase-using-yeast-model-system-beyond-its-conventional-role-in-superoxide-radical-scavenging
#7
REVIEW
Woo-Hyun Chung
To deal with chemically reactive oxygen molecules constantly threatening aerobic life, cells are readily equipped with elaborate biological antioxidant systems. Superoxide dismutase is a metalloenzyme catalytically eliminating superoxide radical as a first-line defense mechanism against oxidative stress. Multiple different SOD isoforms have been developed throughout evolution to play distinct roles in separate subcellular compartments. SOD is not essential for viability of most aerobic organisms and intriguingly found even in strictly anaerobic bacteria...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276020/localizing-mrnas-encoding-mitochondrial-proteins-in-yeast-by-fluorescence-microscopy-and-subcellular-fractionation
#8
Dmitry Zabezhinsky, Hannah Sperber, Jeffrey E Gerst
Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from ancestral proteobacteria and, as a result of symbiosis, became an indispensable organelle in all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria perform essential functions that provide the cell with ATP, amino acids, phospholipids, and both heme and iron-sulfur clusters. However, only 1% of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, while the remaining 99% are encoded in the nucleus. This raises a logistical challenge to the cell, as these nuclear-encoded proteins have to be translated, delivered to the mitochondrial surface, and translocated to its various compartments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265061/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-linked-mutations-increase-the-viscosity-of-liquid-like-tdp-43-rnp-granules-in-neurons
#9
Pallavi P Gopal, Jeffrey J Nirschl, Eva Klinman, Erika L F Holzbaur
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are enriched in specific RNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and mediate critical cellular processes. Purified RBPs form liquid droplets in vitro through liquid-liquid phase separation and liquid-like non-membrane-bound structures in cells. Mutations in the human RBPs TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and RNA-binding protein FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the biophysical properties of these proteins have not yet been studied in neurons. Here, we show that TDP-43 RNP granules in axons of rodent primary cortical neurons display liquid-like properties, including fusion with rapid relaxation to circular shape, shear stress-induced deformation, and rapid fluorescence recovery after photobleaching...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264987/nuclear-retention-of-the-lncrna-snhg1-by-doxorubicin-attenuates-hnrnpc-p53-protein-interactions
#10
Yuan Shen, Shanshan Liu, Jiao Fan, Yinghua Jin, Baolei Tian, Xiaofei Zheng, Hanjiang Fu
The protein p53 plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular responses to diverse stresses. Thus, a major priority in cell biology is to define the mechanisms that regulate p53 activity in response to stresses or maintain it at basal levels under normal conditions. Moreover, further investigation is required to establish whether RNA participates in regulating p53's interaction with other proteins. Here, by conducting systematic experiments, we discovered a p53 interactor-hnRNPC-that directly binds to p53, destabilizes it, and prevents its activation under normal conditions...
March 6, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258033/rnp-transport-in-cell-biology-the-long-and-winding-road
#11
REVIEW
Carolina Eliscovich, Robert H Singer
Regulation of gene expression is key determinant to cell structure and function. RNA localization, where specific mRNAs are transported to subcellular regions and then translated, is highly conserved in eukaryotes ranging from yeast to extremely specialized and polarized cells such as neurons. Messenger RNA and associated proteins (mRNP) move from the site of transcription in the nucleus to their final destination in the cytoplasm both passively through diffusion and actively via directed transport. Dysfunction of RNA localization, transport and translation machinery can lead to pathology...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256719/rna-whole-mount-in-situ-hybridization-proximity-ligation-assay-rish-pla-an-assay-for-detecting-rna-protein-complexes-in-intact-cells
#12
Ioannis M Roussis, Fiona A Myers, Garry P Scarlett
Techniques for studying RNA-protein interactions have lagged behind those for DNA-protein interactions as a consequence of the complexities associated with working with RNA. This unit describes a method for the adaptation of the In Situ Hybridization-Proximity Ligation Assay (ISH-PLA) to the study of RNA regulation (rISH-PLA). The rISH-PLA assay allows the identification of a given RNA-protein complex at subcellular and single-cell resolution, thus avoiding the lack of spatial resolution and sensitivity associated with assaying heterogeneous cell populations from which conventional RNA-protein interaction detection techniques suffer...
March 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256001/expression-subcellular-localisation-and-possible-roles-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-9-dpp9-in-murine-macrophages
#13
Emilija Zapletal, Barbara Cupic, Jelka Gabrilovac
Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a peptidase of the DPPIV gene family, and its role in immune responses has been reported. In this study, we compared the messenger RNA expression profile of DPP9 to that of the related DPP8 and DPPIV in murine haematopoietic and lymphatic tissues. A similar order of expression levels was observed for all 3 peptidases: peritoneal macrophages < bone marrow < spleen ≤ lymph nodes. Also, we examined the subcellular localisation of DPP9 and its possible role(s) in J774 cell line of macrophage origin...
March 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250106/parallel-analysis-of-arabidopsis-circadian-clock-mutants-reveals-different-scales-of-transcriptome-and-proteome-regulation
#14
Alexander Graf, Diana Coman, R Glen Uhrig, Sean Walsh, Anna Flis, Mark Stitt, Wilhelm Gruissem
The circadian clock regulates physiological processes central to growth and survival. To date, most plant circadian clock studies have relied on diurnal transcriptome changes to elucidate molecular connections between the circadian clock and observable phenotypes in wild-type plants. Here, we have integrated RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data to comparatively analyse the lhycca1, prr7prr9, gi and toc1 circadian clock mutant rosette at the end of day and end of night. Each mutant affects specific sets of genes and proteins, suggesting that the circadian clock regulation is modular...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244996/cellular-uptake-and-trafficking-of-antisense-oligonucleotides
#15
Stanley T Crooke, Shiyu Wang, Timothy A Vickers, Wen Shen, Xue-Hai Liang
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) modified with phosphorothioate (PS) linkages and different 2' modifications can be used either as drugs (e.g., to treat homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and spinal muscular atrophy) or as research tools to alter gene expression. PS-ASOs can enter cells without additional modification or formulation and can be designed to mediate sequence-specific cleavage of different types of RNA (including mRNA and non-coding RNA) targeted by endogenous RNase H1. Although PS-ASOs function in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, localization to different subcellular regions can affect their therapeutic potency...
March 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235562/urate-oxidase-produced-by-lucilia-sericata-medical-maggots-is-localized-in-malpighian-tubes-and-facilitates-allantoin-production
#16
Andre Baumann, Marisa Skaljac, Rüdiger Lehmann, Andreas Vilcinskas, Zdenӗk Franta
Lucilia sericata maggots are the only species currently approved for maggot debridement therapy (MDT), an alternative treatment for chronic and recalcitrant wounds. Maggots promote wound debridement, disinfection and healing by producing a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low-molecular-weight compounds in their secretions and excretions, but the individual components are not well characterized at the molecular level. Here we investigated the purine catabolism pathway in L. sericata, focusing on the production of allantoin by Urate Oxidase (UO), which is thought to promote wound healing...
February 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216671/dual-mechanisms-regulate-the-nucleocytoplasmic-localization-of-human-ddx6
#17
Jo-Hsi Huang, Wei-Chi Ku, Yen-Chun Chen, Yi-Ling Chang, Chia-Ying Chu
DDX6 is a conserved DEAD-box protein (DBP) that plays central roles in cytoplasmic RNA regulation, including processing body (P-body) assembly, mRNA decapping, and translational repression. Beyond its cytoplasmic functions, DDX6 may also have nuclear functions because its orthologues are known to localize to nuclei in several biological contexts. However, it is unclear whether DDX6 is generally present in human cell nuclei, and the molecular mechanism underlying DDX6 subcellular distribution remains elusive...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212430/a-calmodulin-like-protein-suppresses-rna-silencing-and-promotes-geminivirus-infection-by-degrading-sgs3-via-the-autophagy-pathway-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#18
Fangfang Li, Nan Zhao, Zhenghe Li, Xiongbiao Xu, Yaqin Wang, Xiuling Yang, Shu-Sheng Liu, Aiming Wang, Xueping Zhou
A recently characterized calmodulin-like protein is an endogenous RNA silencing suppressor that suppresses sense-RNA induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS) and enhances virus infection, but the mechanism underlying calmodulin-like protein-mediated S-PTGS suppression is obscure. Here, we show that a calmodulin-like protein from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbCaM) interacts with Suppressor of Gene Silencing 3 (NbSGS3). Deletion analyses showed that domains essential for the interaction between NbSGS3 and NbCaM are also required for the subcellular localization of NbSGS3 and NbCaM suppressor activity...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212420/transcriptome-using-illumina-sequencing-reveals-the-traits-of-spermatogenesis-and-developing-testes-in-eriocheir-sinensis
#19
Gen-Liang Li, Hui Qian
Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has the spermatozoa with typical aflagellate, decondensed chromatin, cup-shaped nuclei, and radial arms. However, the mechanism of spermatogenesis during which the specific spermatozoa are generated in this species is yet unclear. Here, the transcriptome of developing testis in E. sinensis was analyzed using the ways of RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis to identify candidate genes potentially involved in development of testis and spermatogenesis. The Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing of three replicons of samples produced a total of 145...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202040/subcellular-localization-and-interactions-of-infectious-salmon-anemia-virus-isav-m1-and-nep-as-well-as-host-hsc70
#20
Wenting Zhang, Chengzhi Cai, Li Lin, Yizhi Jane Tao, Meilin Jin
BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important fish pathogen that causes high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon. The ISAV genome consists of eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The six largest segments contain one open reading frame (ORF) each, and encode three polymerase proteins, nucleoprotein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin esterase protein. The two smallest segments contain more than one ORF each. The segment 7 encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear export protein (NEP), while segment 8 encodes matrix protein 1 and 2 (M1 and M2)...
February 15, 2017: Virology Journal
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