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acth mechanism endocrine system

Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Thomas J Blom, Belinda E Daniel, Benjamin S McKenna, Gary S Wand
Women and men differ in their risk for developing stress-related conditions such as alcohol use and anxiety disorders and there are gender differences in the typical sequence in which these disorders co-occur. However, the neural systems underlying these gender-biased psychopathologies and clinical course modifiers in humans are poorly understood and may involve both central and peripheral mechanisms regulating the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy crossover study, we juxtaposed a centrally-acting, citalopram (2 mg/unit BMI) neuroendocrine stimulation test with a peripherally-acting, dexamethasone (Dex) (1...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Orysya O Syzon, Marianna O Dashko, Ulyana V Fedorova
OBJECTIVE: Introduction:Psoriasis affects about 2% of population. In 30-40% of occurrences arthropathic psoriasis (AP) is diagnosed and it leads to 11-19% of disability cases development. Recent studies have shown that psoriasis is often synergistically combined with herpesvirus of the 1st and 2nd type, which, according to many scientists, determines the severity, frequency of recurrences, and the course of this dermatosis. Recently, new biomarkers, i.e. a system of small ribonucleic microRNA acids, have been described...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Claudio Nieto Jimenez, Jorge Cajigal Vargas, Vjera Sofia Triantafilo Vladilo, Jose Naranjo Orellana
Introduction: The Chilean Army considers processes that can optimize physical capacities for responding to the impact of situations and given stressors. The study of the effect of hypothermia as a stressor agent (HSA) and its relationship with cardiovascular, hematological, anthropometric, endocrine, and immunological parameters has not been fully addressed experimentally in military populations. Objective: To identify the endocrine, hematological, cardiovascular, and immunological changes caused by HSA and to associate these variables with body composition and physical fitness in the military special operation courses of the Chilean Army...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Carina Rampp, Andreas Eichelkraut, Johanna Best, Darina Czamara, Monika Rex-Haffner, Manfred Uhr, Elisabeth B Binder, Andreas Menke
Although sex differences in major depression have been reported repeatedly, the underlying mechanisms are still disputed. The rapidly changing gonadal steroid concentrations of the postpartum period or during menopause have been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms and to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is implicated in depression. The sample comprised of 128 depressed in-patients (36.7% women) and 166 healthy controls (30.0% women). Blood was collected at baseline (at 6pm) and then 3 h as well as 21 h after ingestion of 1...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Alberto Loizzo, Santi M Spampinato, Gabriele Campana, Stefano Loizzo
We describe a stress-derived type-2 diabetes model in male mice, and formulate new hypotheses on how the model was induced, how diabetes-like alterations were prevented through specific pharmacological treatments, and how its possible neuroendocrine pathogenesis could be hypothesized. Pregnant females arrived in our laboratory on their 14th day of conceptional age. After birth, control mice never showed any apparent behavioral-metabolic-endocrine alterations. However, application of postnatal stress (brief mother deprivation, plus sham injection, daily from birth to weaning), was followed in adult male mice by two series of diabetes-like alterations...
March 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Nuno M Félix, Rodolfo O Leal, I Goy-Thollot, Ronald S Walton, Solange A Gil, Luísa M Mateus, Ana S Matos, Maria M R E Niza
OBJECTIVES: Buprenorphine is a common analgesic in experimental research, due to effectiveness and having few side-effects, including a limited influence in the immune and endocrine systems. However, how buprenorphine affects cytokine levels and the adrenal and thyroid response during general anesthesia and surgery is incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess whether buprenorphine modulated significantly those responses in rats submitted to general anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and surgical insertion of intravascular catheters...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Domenico Trico, Alberto Fanfani, Francesca Varocchi, Giampaolo Bernini
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at developing and validating a simple, highly repeatable computer-based tool, which could be employed to simulate the effects of an acute mental stress on endocrine and haemodynamic stress responses. METHODS: Fifteen subjects underwent a mental cognitive challenge, employing an ad hoc designed web tool (available at that proposed a series of random arithmetic operations (addictions or subtractions) between one- to three-digit numbers for 10 minutes...
July 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Patricia A Fair, Adam M Schaefer, Dorian S Houser, Gregory D Bossart, Tracy A Romano, Cory D Champagne, Jeffrey L Stott, Charles D Rice, Natasha White, John S Reif
Immune and endocrine responses play a critical role in allowing animals to adjust to environmental perturbations. We measured immune and endocrine related markers in multiple samples from individuals from two managed-care care dolphin groups (n = 82 samples from 17 dolphins and single samples collected from two wild dolphin populations: Indian River Lagoon, (IRL) FL (n = 26); and Charleston, (CHS) SC (n = 19). The immune systems of wild dolphins were more upregulated than those of managed-care-dolphins as shown by higher concentrations of IgG and increases in lysozyme, NK cell function, pathogen antibody titers and leukocyte cytokine transcript levels...
2017: PloS One
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Anna Maria Bielecka-Wajdman, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to serve a role in neurogenesis and the stress response. Although a definite link between the action of antidepressants and VEGF has not been identified, it is assumed that VEGF, as a neurotrophic factor, serves an important role in the effects of antidepressant treatment. To examine this, the present study subjected adult female rats to four weeks of social instability stress and measured the effect of antidepressant treatment on the expression of VEGF. Firstly, endocrine markers of stress and body weight were measured in parallel with behavioral tests prior to and following subjection to stress...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jacques Drouin
Expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene integrates numerous inputs that reflect the developmental history of POMC-expressing cells of the pituitary and hypothalamus, as well as their critical role in the endocrine system. These inputs are integrated at specific regulatory sequences within the promoter and pituitary or hypothalamic enhancers of the POMC locus. Investigations of developmental mechanisms and transcription factors (TFs) responsible for pituitary activation of POMC transcription led to the discovery of the Pitx factors that have critical roles in pituitary development and striking patterning functions in embryonic development...
May 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Steffy W Jansen, Ferdinand Roelfsema, Abimbola A Akintola, Nicole Y Oei, Christa M Cobbaert, Bart E Ballieux, Jeroen van der Grond, Rudi G Westendorp, Hanno Pijl, Diana van Heemst
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is the most important neuro-endocrine stress response system of our body which is of critical importance for survival. Disturbances in HPA-axis activity have been associated with adverse metabolic and cognitive changes. Humans enriched for longevity have less metabolic and cognitive disturbances and therefore diminished activity of the HPA axis may be a potential candidate mechanism underlying healthy familial longevity. Here, we compared 24-h plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentration profiles and different aspects of the regulation of the HPA-axis in offspring from long-lived siblings, who are enriched for familial longevity and age-matched controls...
2015: PloS One
Yvette Tachè
Selye pioneered the stress concept that is ingrained in the vocabulary of daily life. This was originally build on experimental observations that divers noxious agents can trigger a similar triad of endocrine (adrenal enlargement), immune (involution of thymus) and gut (gastric erosion formation) responses as reported in a letter to Nature in 1936. Subsequently, he articulated the underlying mechanisms and hypothesized the existence of a "first mediator" in the hypothalamus able to orchestrate this bodily changes...
March 30, 2014: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
R V Koubassov, Yu E Barachevsky, A M Ivanov
BACKGROUND: A current etiological and pathogenic opinion about human health disturbance thereupon extreme factor effects is shown that this cause is principal mechanism of regulatory system (neuroimmunoendocrine complex) distress. In endocrine link occurs hormonal disbalance in hypothalamus-hypophysis axis, physiological interrelation disturbances in central-peripheral gland system (hypophysis-adrenal, hypophysis-thyroid) and metabolism abnormalities subsequently. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the particular content of adrenocorticotropic and thyrothrophin hormone, cortisol, thyroxin and triiodthyronine features at law order staff in dependence from professional loading...
2015: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Anjana Bali, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Ghrelin is orexigenic hormone primarily synthesized by endocrine X/A-like cells of gastric oxyntic mucosa to stimulate appetite and food intake along with regulation of growth hormone and insulin secretion; glucose and lipid metabolism; gastrointestinal motility; blood pressure, heart rate and neurogenesis. Furthermore, peripherally (after crossing the blood brain barrier) as well as centrally synthesized ghrelin (in the hypothalamus) regulates diverse functions of central nervous system including stress-associated behavioral functions...
2016: Current Drug Targets
Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors...
October 2015: European Journal of Endocrinology
Rui An, Bo Li, Li-sha You, Xin-hong Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Epimedium brevicornu Maxim (EB) and icariin could exert their protective effects on hydrocortisone induced (HCI) rats by regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and endocrine system and the possible mechanism. METHODS: Male 10-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were allotted to 6 groups (A-F) with 12 each, group A was injected normal saline (NS) 3 mL/kg day intraperitoneally, group A and B were given NS 6 mL/kg day by gastrogavage, group B-F were injected hydrocortisone 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally, group C and D were given EB 8 or 5 g/(kg day) by gastrogavage, group E and F were given icariin 25 or 50 mg/(kg day) by gastrogavage...
October 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
J Megan Gray, Haley A Vecchiarelli, Maria Morena, Tiffany T Y Lee, Daniel J Hermanson, Alexander B Kim, Ryan J McLaughlin, Kowther I Hassan, Claudia Kühne, Carsten T Wotjak, Jan M Deussing, Sachin Patel, Matthew N Hill
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central integrator in the brain of endocrine and behavioral stress responses, whereas activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor suppresses these responses. Although these systems regulate overlapping functions, few studies have investigated whether these systems interact. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism of CRH-induced anxiety that relies on modulation of endocannabinoids. Specifically, we found that CRH, through activation of the CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1), evokes a rapid induction of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which causes a reduction in the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), within the amygdala...
March 4, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ivan Jovanović, Slađana Ugrenović, Miljana Ljubomirović, Ljiljana Vasović, Rade Cukuranović, Vladisav Stefanović
Some evidence has suggested that, with age, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis becomes less resilient, leading to higher glucocorticoids nocturnal levels and a flattening of the circadian profiles. Such age-related changes in the activity of the HPA axis has overexposed the brain and peripheral organs to the effects of the glucocorticoids, increasing the morbidity and mortality rates of the elderly. Debate among scientists regarding the contributions of HPA axis age-related changes of impaired feedback regulation vs...
October 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Gino Nardocci, Cristina Navarro, Paula P Cortés, Mónica Imarai, Margarita Montoya, Beatriz Valenzuela, Pablo Jara, Claudio Acuña-Castillo, Ricardo Fernández
In the last years, the aquaculture crops have experienced an explosive and intensive growth, because of the high demand for protein. This growth has increased fish susceptibility to diseases and subsequent death. The constant biotic and abiotic changes experienced by fish species in culture are challenges that induce physiological, endocrine and immunological responses. These changes mitigate stress effects at the cellular level to maintain homeostasis. The effects of stress on the immune system have been studied for many years...
October 2014: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
R G Ismaĭlov
AIM: To examine the role of immune, biochemical and hormonal factors in the regulation of melanogenesis in patients with chromatopathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We observed 226 patients with various forms dyschromia skin. Age of the patients was in the range of 16 to 55 years. The frequency of females (n = 157) prevailed over the male sex (n = 69) 2,3 times. The disease duration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 years. For the study of melanogenesis in vitiligo, nevi and melasma were studied parameters of the immune, endocrine and lipid peroxidation--antioxidant system...
2014: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
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