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acth mechanism endocrine system

Jacques Drouin
Expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene integrates numerous inputs that reflect the developmental history of POMC-expressing cells of the pituitary and hypothalamus, as well as their critical role in the endocrine system. These inputs are integrated at specific regulatory sequences within the promoter and pituitary or hypothalamic enhancers of the POMC locus. Investigations of developmental mechanisms and transcription factors (TFs) responsible for pituitary activation of POMC transcription led to the discovery of the Pitx factors that have critical roles in pituitary development and striking patterning functions in embryonic development...
May 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Steffy W Jansen, Ferdinand Roelfsema, Abimbola A Akintola, Nicole Y Oei, Christa M Cobbaert, Bart E Ballieux, Jeroen van der Grond, Rudi G Westendorp, Hanno Pijl, Diana van Heemst
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is the most important neuro-endocrine stress response system of our body which is of critical importance for survival. Disturbances in HPA-axis activity have been associated with adverse metabolic and cognitive changes. Humans enriched for longevity have less metabolic and cognitive disturbances and therefore diminished activity of the HPA axis may be a potential candidate mechanism underlying healthy familial longevity. Here, we compared 24-h plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentration profiles and different aspects of the regulation of the HPA-axis in offspring from long-lived siblings, who are enriched for familial longevity and age-matched controls...
2015: PloS One
Yvette Tachè
Selye pioneered the stress concept that is ingrained in the vocabulary of daily life. This was originally build on experimental observations that divers noxious agents can trigger a similar triad of endocrine (adrenal enlargement), immune (involution of thymus) and gut (gastric erosion formation) responses as reported in a letter to Nature in 1936. Subsequently, he articulated the underlying mechanisms and hypothesized the existence of a "first mediator" in the hypothalamus able to orchestrate this bodily changes...
March 30, 2014: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
R V Koubassov, Yu E Barachevsky, A M Ivanov
BACKGROUND: A current etiological and pathogenic opinion about human health disturbance thereupon extreme factor effects is shown that this cause is principal mechanism of regulatory system (neuroimmunoendocrine complex) distress. In endocrine link occurs hormonal disbalance in hypothalamus-hypophysis axis, physiological interrelation disturbances in central-peripheral gland system (hypophysis-adrenal, hypophysis-thyroid) and metabolism abnormalities subsequently. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the particular content of adrenocorticotropic and thyrothrophin hormone, cortisol, thyroxin and triiodthyronine features at law order staff in dependence from professional loading...
2015: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Anjana Bali, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Ghrelin is orexigenic hormone primarily synthesized by endocrine X/A-like cells of gastric oxyntic mucosa to stimulate appetite and food intake along with regulation of growth hormone and insulin secretion; glucose and lipid metabolism; gastrointestinal motility; blood pressure, heart rate and neurogenesis. Furthermore, peripherally (after crossing the blood brain barrier) as well as centrally synthesized ghrelin (in the hypothalamus) regulates diverse functions of central nervous system including stress-associated behavioral functions...
2016: Current Drug Targets
Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors...
October 2015: European Journal of Endocrinology
Rui An, Bo Li, Li-sha You, Xin-hong Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Epimedium brevicornu Maxim (EB) and icariin could exert their protective effects on hydrocortisone induced (HCI) rats by regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and endocrine system and the possible mechanism. METHODS: Male 10-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were allotted to 6 groups (A-F) with 12 each, group A was injected normal saline (NS) 3 mL/kg day intraperitoneally, group A and B were given NS 6 mL/kg day by gastrogavage, group B-F were injected hydrocortisone 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally, group C and D were given EB 8 or 5 g/(kg day) by gastrogavage, group E and F were given icariin 25 or 50 mg/(kg day) by gastrogavage...
October 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
J Megan Gray, Haley A Vecchiarelli, Maria Morena, Tiffany T Y Lee, Daniel J Hermanson, Alexander B Kim, Ryan J McLaughlin, Kowther I Hassan, Claudia Kühne, Carsten T Wotjak, Jan M Deussing, Sachin Patel, Matthew N Hill
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central integrator in the brain of endocrine and behavioral stress responses, whereas activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor suppresses these responses. Although these systems regulate overlapping functions, few studies have investigated whether these systems interact. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism of CRH-induced anxiety that relies on modulation of endocannabinoids. Specifically, we found that CRH, through activation of the CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1), evokes a rapid induction of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which causes a reduction in the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), within the amygdala...
March 4, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ivan Jovanović, Slađana Ugrenović, Miljana Ljubomirović, Ljiljana Vasović, Rade Cukuranović, Vladisav Stefanović
Some evidence has suggested that, with age, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis becomes less resilient, leading to higher glucocorticoids nocturnal levels and a flattening of the circadian profiles. Such age-related changes in the activity of the HPA axis has overexposed the brain and peripheral organs to the effects of the glucocorticoids, increasing the morbidity and mortality rates of the elderly. Debate among scientists regarding the contributions of HPA axis age-related changes of impaired feedback regulation vs...
October 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Gino Nardocci, Cristina Navarro, Paula P Cortés, Mónica Imarai, Margarita Montoya, Beatriz Valenzuela, Pablo Jara, Claudio Acuña-Castillo, Ricardo Fernández
In the last years, the aquaculture crops have experienced an explosive and intensive growth, because of the high demand for protein. This growth has increased fish susceptibility to diseases and subsequent death. The constant biotic and abiotic changes experienced by fish species in culture are challenges that induce physiological, endocrine and immunological responses. These changes mitigate stress effects at the cellular level to maintain homeostasis. The effects of stress on the immune system have been studied for many years...
October 2014: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
R G Ismaĭlov
AIM: To examine the role of immune, biochemical and hormonal factors in the regulation of melanogenesis in patients with chromatopathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We observed 226 patients with various forms dyschromia skin. Age of the patients was in the range of 16 to 55 years. The frequency of females (n = 157) prevailed over the male sex (n = 69) 2,3 times. The disease duration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 years. For the study of melanogenesis in vitiligo, nevi and melasma were studied parameters of the immune, endocrine and lipid peroxidation--antioxidant system...
2014: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Fang Chen, Libin Zhou, Yinyang Bai, Rong Zhou, Ling Chen
Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking endocrine disrupter, when administered perinatally can affect affective behaviors in adult rodents, however the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Postnatal day (PND) 80 vehicle-injected control female rats showed more obvious depression- and anxiety-like behaviors than males, indicative of sexually dimorphic affective behaviors. When female breeders were subcutaneously injected with BPA (2µg/kg) from gestation day 10 to lactation day 7, sex difference of affective behaviors was impaired in their offspring (PND80 BPA-rats), as results that female BPA-rats showed a visible "antianxiety-like" behavior, and male BPA-rats increased depression-like behavior compared to vehicle-injected controls...
July 7, 2014: Brain Research
Roger F Haskett
Despite a range of etiological theories since the introduction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) more than 75 years ago, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. The neuroendocrine hypothesis is based on the seizure-related release of hypothalamic hormones into the blood and cerebrospinal fluid and evidence of endocrine dysfunction in many patients with severe mood disorder. The specific effect of ECT was hypothesized to result from the transverse passage of current through the brain with direct stimulation of axial structures including the diencephalon...
June 2014: Journal of ECT
Kazuyoshi Koike, Takahiro Shinozaki, Kazuhiko Hara, Noboru Noma, Akiko Okada-Ogawa, Masatake Asano, Masamichi Shinoda, Eli Eliav, Richard H Gracely, Koichi Iwata, Yoshiki Imamura
OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that varied etiologic factors are responsible for burning mouth syndrome (BMS). We examined the role of immune and endocrine function in the pathology of BMS. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate immune (lymphocyte subpopulations) and endocrine (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenomedullary system) function in 47 female BMS patients and 47 age-matched female controls presenting at an university clinic...
February 2014: Clinical Journal of Pain
Neal McNeal, Melissa-Ann L Scotti, Joshua Wardwell, Danielle L Chandler, Suzanne L Bates, Meagan Larocca, Diane M Trahanas, Angela J Grippo
The social disruption of losing a partner may have particularly strong adverse effects on psychological and physiological functioning. More specifically, social stressors may play a mediating role in the association between mood disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated the hypothesis that the disruption of established social bonds between male and female prairie voles would produce depressive behaviors and cardiac dysregulation, coupled with endocrine and autonomic nervous system dysfunction...
February 2014: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
N R Liburt, K H McKeever, K Malinowski, D N Smarsh, R J Geor
This study tested the hypotheses that age-induced alteration in cortisol, ACTH, and glucose concentrations are due to differences in the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and that exercise training would attenuate these differences. Six old (22.0±0.7 yr; mean±SE) and 6 young (7.3±0.6 yr) unfit Standardbred mares ran 3 graded exercise tests (GXT): before (GXT1), after 8 wk of training (GXT2), and at study end at 15 wk (GXT3). Mares trained 3 d/wk at 60% maximum heart rate. Each mare underwent 5 endocrine stimulation tests pre- and posttraining: 1) control (CON), 2) adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTHtest), 3) combined dexamethasone suppression/ACTH (DEX/ACTH), 4) dexamethasone suppression (DEX), and 5) combined DEX/corticotropin releasing factor (DEX/CRF)...
November 2013: Journal of Animal Science
H Lefebvre, G Prévost, E Louiset
A wide variety of autocrine/paracrine bioactive signals are able to modulate corticosteroid secretion in the human adrenal gland. These regulatory factors, released in the vicinity of adrenocortical cells by diverse cell types comprising chromaffin cells, nerve terminals, cells of the immune system, endothelial cells, and adipocytes, include neuropeptides, biogenic amines, and cytokines. A growing body of evidence now suggests that paracrine mechanisms may also play an important role in the physiopathology of adrenocortical hyperplasias and tumors responsible for primary adrenal steroid excess...
November 2013: European Journal of Endocrinology
Georges Copinschi, Anne Caufriez
Age-related sleep and endocrinometabolic alterations frequently interact with each other. For many hormones, sleep curtailment in young healthy subjects results in alterations strikingly similar to those observed in healthy old subjects not submitted to sleep restriction. Thus, recurrent sleep restriction, which is currently experienced by a substantial and rapidly growing proportion of children and young adults, might contribute to accelerate the senescence of endocrine and metabolic function. The mechanisms of sleep-hormonal interactions, and therefore the endocrinometabolic consequences of age-related sleep alterations, which markedly differ from one hormone to another, are reviewed in this article...
June 2013: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Inês Ferreira dos Santos Videira, Daniel Filipe Lima Moura, Sofia Magina
Skin pigmentation is an important human phenotypic trait whose regulation, in spite of recent advances, has not yet been fully understood. The pigment melanin is produced in melanosomes by melanocytes in a complex process called melanogenesis. The melanocyte interacts with endocrine, immune, inflammatory and central nervous systems, and its activity is also regulated by extrinsic factors such as ultraviolet radiation and drugs. We have carried out a review of the current understanding of intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulating skin pigmentation, the melanogenesis stages and related gene defects...
January 2013: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Iu I Kravtsov, K V Shevchenko, V A Chetvertnykh, E Iu Kravtsova
Thirty-three patients were studied in the acute stage of severe brain injury, 18 patients died during 24 days in a hospital, 15 patients had survived. The functional status of autonomic, hypophysis-adrenal and immune systems was followed up using variation cardiointervalography, Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol as well as cell immunity parameters were measured. In patients with a fatal outcome, the overstrain of compensatory mechanisms of autonomic supply (mode amplitude, AMo and index of strain, IS) noted in the first day was exhausted to 19-22 days...
2013: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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