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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163151/ongoing-initiatives-to-improve-the-quality-and-efficiency-of-medicine-use-within-the-public-healthcare-system-in-south-africa-a-preliminary-study
#1
Johanna C Meyer, Natalie Schellack, Jacobus Stokes, Ruth Lancaster, Helecine Zeeman, Douglas Defty, Brian Godman, Gavin Steel
Introduction: South Africa has an appreciable burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as high maternal, neonatal, and child morbidity. In recent years there have been significant strides with improving the public health system, and addressing current inequalities, with the right to health a constitutional provision in South Africa. Initiatives include the introduction of National Health Insurance, programmes to enhance access to medicines for patients with chronic diseases, as well as activities to improve care in hospitals, including improving pharmacovigilance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983991/neonatal-overfeeding-by-small-litter-rearing-sensitizes-hippocampal-microglial-responses-to-immune-challenge-reversal-with-neonatal-repeated-injections-of-saline-as-well-as-minocycline
#2
Simone N De Luca, Ilvana Ziko, Kshitija Dhuna, Luba Sominsky, Mary Tolcos, Leanne Stokes, Sarah J Spencer
The early life period is extremely vulnerable to programming effects from the environment, many of which persist into adulthood. We have previously demonstrated that adult rats that were overfed as neonates have hypothalamic microglia that are hyper-responsive to an immune challenge and hippocampal microglia that respond less efficiently to learning. We therefore hypothesized that neonatal overfeeding would alter the ability of hippocampal microglia to respond to an immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and that concomitant minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic that suppresses microglial activity, could restore these responses...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929527/music-exposure-and-maturation-of-late-preterm-sleep-wake-cycles-a-randomised-crossover-trial
#3
Adia Stokes, Alexander G Agthe, Dina El Metwally
AIM: To determine the effect of music on sleep-wake cycle (SWC) patterns in late preterm neonates. METHODS: In a masked crossover study, infants between 32 and 36 6/7 weeks gestation were randomised to music exposure either during the first six or last six hours of a 12-hour observation period. SWC characteristics were determined by continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) read by two coders masked to exposure sequence. Analysis was performed in paired comparisons...
September 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914984/hypercalcemic-disorders-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Victoria J Stokes, Morten F Nielsen, Fadil M Hannan, Rajesh V Thakker
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than two standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive, and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms...
November 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102852/anthropometric-trends-from-1997-to-2012-in-infants-born-at-%C3%A2-28-weeks-gestation-or-less
#5
N Wells, T A Stokes, K Ottolini, C H Olsen, A R Spitzer, C E Hunt
OBJECTIVE: Postnatal growth failure is common after preterm birth, in particular for infants born at ⩽28 weeks' gestation, but it is unknown if growth-to-term equivalent age has improved over the years as neonatal intensive care in general, and infant nutrition in particular, have improved. The objective of the study was to evaluate anthropometric trends at NICU discharge for infants born at ⩽28 weeks' gestation using a large national database. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of growth in weight, length, head circumference and body mass index (kg m(2)) in 23 005 infants born in 1997 to 2012 who survived to neonatal intensive care unit discharge at ⩽41 weeks' postmenstrual age...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099701/a-systematic-review-of-implementation-strategies-to-deliver-guidelines-on-obstetric-care-practice-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
REVIEW
Mari Imamura, Lovney Kanguru, Suzanne Penfold, Tim Stokes, Janette Camosso-Stefinovic, Beth Shaw, Julia Hussein
BACKGROUND: Healthcare measures to prevent maternal deaths are well known. However, effective implementation of this knowledge to change practice remains a challenge. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether strategies to promote the use of guidelines can improve obstetric practices in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic databases were searched up to February 7, 2014, using relevant terms for implementation strategies (e...
January 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986905/sweet-solutions-to-reduce-procedural-pain-in-neonates-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Denise Harrison, Catherine Larocque, Mariana Bueno, Yehudis Stokes, Lucy Turner, Brian Hutton, Bonnie Stevens
CONTEXT: Abundant evidence of sweet taste analgesia in neonates exists, yet placebo-controlled trials continue to be conducted. OBJECTIVE: To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes. DATA SOURCES: (1) Data from 2 systematic reviews of sweet solutions for newborns; (2) searches ending 2015 of CINAHL, Medline, Embase, and psychINFO. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors screened studies for inclusion, conducted risk-of-bias ratings, and extracted behavioral outcome data for CMAs...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26153292/late-neonatal-presentation-of-reduced-arm-movement-due-to-painful-infective-lymphadenopathy
#8
Victoria Stokes, Caroline Fertleman
We report two cases of 21-day-old male infants, Baloo and Bagheera, both admitted with unilateral reduced arm movement secondary to painful lymphadenopathy, which is a presentation previously unreported in the paediatric literature. The only abnormal finding following investigations in both neonates was infective lymphadenopathy; we hypothesise that the inflamed lymph nodes were tender when the surrounding muscles, fascia or skin were moved, so that the infants learnt to reduce arm movement to minimise pain...
July 7, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25640881/neonatology-consultations-for-preterm-labour-beyond-the-grey-zone-reconceptualising-our-goals
#9
Katie Watson, Theophil A Stokes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25128162/intimate-partner-violence-increases-adverse-outcomes-at-birth-and-in-early-infancy
#10
Ashleigh R Pavey, Gregory H Gorman, Devon Kuehn, Theophil A Stokes, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) on birth outcomes and infant hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: Hospitalization records for the first 4 months of life for infants born in the Military Health System in 2006-2007 were linked to Family Advocacy Program-substantiated cases of IPV among military parents. Adverse outcomes were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Logistic regression modeling calculated the OR of children exposed to IPV experiencing adverse outcomes...
November 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24975592/neonatal-overfeeding-alters-hypothalamic-microglial-profiles-and-central-responses-to-immune-challenge-long-term
#11
Ilvana Ziko, Simone De Luca, Tara Dinan, Joanne M Barwood, Luba Sominsky, Guohui Cai, Rachel Kenny, Leanne Stokes, Trisha A Jenkins, Sarah J Spencer
The early life period is one of significant vulnerability to programming effects from the environment. Given the sensitivity of microglial cells to early life programming and to adult diet, we hypothesized overfeeding during the neonatal period would acutely alter microglial profiles within the developing brain, predisposing the individual to a lasting central pro-inflammatory profile that contributes to overactive immune responses long-term. We tested this idea by manipulating litter sizes in which Wistar rat pups were raised, so the pups were suckled in litters of 4 (neonatally overfed) or 12 (control)...
October 2014: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24468569/teaching-antenatal-counseling-skills-to-neonatal-providers
#12
REVIEW
Theophil A Stokes, Katie L Watson, Renee D Boss
Counseling a family confronted with the birth of a periviable neonate is one of the most difficult tasks that a neonatologist must perform. The neonatologist's goal is to facilitate an informed, collaborative decision about whether life-sustaining therapies are in the best interest of this baby. Neonatologists are trained to provide families with a detailed account of the morbidity and mortality data they believe are necessary to facilitate a truly informed decision. Yet these complicated and intensely emotional conversations require advanced communication and counseling skills that our current fellowship-training strategies are not adequately providing...
February 2014: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24366996/is-treatment-futile-for-an-extremely-premature-infant-with-giant-omphalocele
#13
Dalia Feltman, Theophil Stokes, Jennifer Kett, John D Lantos
Doctors have no ethical obligation to provide futile treatment. This has been true since the time of Hippocrates who warned physicians not to treat patients who were "overmastered by their disease." This principle remains valid today but, as the Society for Critical Care Medicine notes, it is difficult to identify treatment as absolutely futile in all but a few clinical situations. Far more common, they note, are "treatments that are extremely unlikely to be beneficial, are extremely costly, or are of uncertain benefit...
January 2014: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24278330/hdac4-does-not-act-as-a-protein-deacetylase-in-the-postnatal-murine-brain-in-vivo
#14
Michal Mielcarek, Tamara Seredenina, Matthew P Stokes, Georgina F Osborne, Christian Landles, Linda Inuabasi, Sophie A Franklin, Jeffrey C Silva, Ruth Luthi-Carter, Vahri Beaumont, Gillian P Bates
Reversible protein acetylation provides a central mechanism for controlling gene expression and cellular signaling events. It is governed by the antagonistic commitment of two enzymes families: the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDAC4, like its class IIa counterparts, is a potent transcriptional repressor through interactions with tissue specific transcription factors via its N-terminal domain. Whilst the lysine deacetylase activity of the class IIa HDACs is much less potent than that of the class I enzymes, HDAC4 has been reported to influence protein deacetylation through its interaction with HDAC3...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23924730/protective-effect-of-detoxified-rhus-verniciflua-stokes-on-human-keratinocytes-and-dermal-fibroblasts-against-oxidative-stress-and-identification-of-the-bioactive-phenolics
#15
Chun-Shan Liu, Tae-Gyu Nam, Min-Woo Han, Soo-mi Ahn, Han Seok Choi, Tae Young Kim, Ock K Chun, Sung I Koo, Dae-Ok Kim
Oxidative stress due to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with human skin aging. This study was designed to identify the bioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS) that may protect human skin against oxidative stress. Under oxidative stress caused by H₂O₂, the 40% (v/v) aqueous methanol extract of DRVS protected human keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was also inhibited by the DRVS extract in human dermal fibroblasts-neonatal cells exposed to ultraviolet A...
2013: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23130124/tafazzin-knockdown-in-mice-leads-to-a-developmental-cardiomyopathy-with-early-diastolic-dysfunction-preceding-myocardial-noncompaction
#16
Colin K L Phoon, Devrim Acehan, Michael Schlame, David L Stokes, Irit Edelman-Novemsky, Dawen Yu, Yang Xu, Nitya Viswanathan, Mindong Ren
BACKGROUND: Barth syndrome is a rare, multisystem disorder caused by mutations in tafazzin that lead to cardiolipin deficiency and mitochondrial abnormalities. Patients most commonly develop an early-onset cardiomyopathy in infancy or fetal life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Knockdown of tafazzin (TAZKD) in a mouse model was induced from the start of gestation via a doxycycline-inducible shRNA transgenic approach. All liveborn TAZKD mice died within the neonatal period, and in vivo echocardiography revealed prenatal loss of TAZKD embryos at E12...
April 2012: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22829272/stroke-recurrence-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#17
Lance Rodan, Brian W McCrindle, Cedric Manlhiot, Daune L MacGregor, Rand Askalan, Mahendra Moharir, Gabrielle deVeber
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) carries an important morbidity and mortality burden. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is among the most important risk factors for pediatric AIS. Data on stroke recurrence in childhood CHD are lacking, resulting in uncertainty regarding optimal strategies for preventing recurrence. METHODS: In the Canadian Pediatric Ischemic Stroke Registry-Toronto site, we identified children (birth to 18 years) with CHD diagnosed with AIS during 1992-2008...
July 2012: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22792355/stimulation-of-immature-lung-macrophages-with-intranasal-interferon-gamma-in-a-novel-neonatal-mouse-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#18
Kerry M Empey, Jacob G Orend, R Stokes Peebles, Loreto Egaña, Karen A Norris, Tim D Oury, Jay K Kolls
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and viral death in infants. Reduced CD8 T-cells and negligible interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the airway are associated with severe infant RSV disease, yet there is an abundance of alveolar macrophages (AM) and neutrophils. However, it is unclear, based on our current understanding of macrophage functional heterogeneity, if immature AM improve viral clearance or contribute to inflammation and airway obstruction in the IFNγ-deficient neonatal lung environment...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22339112/myocardial-infarction-in-a-newborn-heterozygous-for-the-mthfr-c677t-mutation
#19
Amy B Clark, Theophil A Stokes, Henry F Krous, Douglas N Carbine
Neonatal myocardial infarction secondary to congenital heart disease, anomalous coronary artery anatomy, thromboembolism, coagulopathy, birth asphyxia, and unknown causes has been previously reported. We now report an infant who suffered a massive myocardial infarction during birth, requiring extensive resuscitation and aggressive management. A thrombus, the origin of which was not detected on autopsy, was found occluding the proximal left coronary artery several hours after birth. Genetic studies revealed a single copy variant of the MTHFR C677T mutation that we speculate may have predisposed the infant to coronary thrombosis...
May 2012: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22300455/direct-experimental-evidence-that-early-life-farm-environment-influences-regulation-of-immune-responses
#20
Marie C Lewis, Charlotte F Inman, Dilip Patel, Bettina Schmidt, Imke Mulder, Bevis Miller, Bhupinder P Gill, John Pluske, Denise Kelly, Christopher R Stokes, Michael Bailey
BACKGROUND:   In mammals, early-life environmental variations appear to affect microbial colonization and therefore competent immune development, and exposure to farm environments in infants has been inversely correlated with allergy development. Modelling these effects using manipulation of neonatal rodents is difficult due to their dependency on the mother, but the relatively independent piglet is increasingly identified as a valuable translational model for humans. This study was designed to correlate immune regulation in piglets with early-life environment...
May 2012: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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