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Haematemesis & melaena

Omar Nasher, David Devadason, Richard J Stewart
The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) at a tertiary children's unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years) who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females) were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32) of patients presented as an emergency...
November 3, 2017: Children
Bernadette S de Bakker, Saffire S K S Phoa, Mohammed Kara, Sabaa Al-Eryani, Marieke E Gielen, Cyriel I J Ponsioen, Henri M de Bakker, Thomas M van Gulik
Duodenal polypoid masses are an uncommon finding mainly diagnosed incidentally at endoscopy or surgery. We report a 39-year-old female patient with symptoms of intermittent stabbing pain in the upper right abdominal quadrant and an iron deficiency anaemia, without complaints of weight loss, haematemesis or melaena. A duodenal polyp and acute duodenitis have been described during endoscopic examinations and CT and ultrasound. Surgical excision of the polyp was advised. Intraoperatively, an elongated duodenum was remarkable; however, at duodenotomy, no polyp was found, nor during intraoperative endoscopy...
May 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
E Fitzgerald, D Barfield, K C L Lee, C R Lamb
OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical and imaging findings in dogs with confirmed gastrointestinal ulceration, to compare findings in dogs with perforated and non-perforated ulcers and to estimate the sensitivities of radiography, ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for gastrointestinal ulceration and perforation. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of 82 dogs that had a macroscopic ulcer in the gastric or intestinal mucosa diagnosed directly at endoscopy, surgery or necropsy and had survey radiography, ultrasonography or a CT scan of the abdomen during the same period of hospitalisation...
April 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
A Rukewe, J A Otegbayo, A Fatiregun
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially life threatening condition with multiple causes. There is scarcity of health data depicting the clinical characteristics of the condition in African countries. This study was designed to describe the demographic, clinical characteristics and outcome of the patients who presented to our Emergency Department. METHOD: The records of cohort of all patients admitted with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed from admission to discharge or death...
December 2015: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Alexandra Zaborowski, Siun M Walsh, Narayanasamy Ravi, John V Reynolds
We present herein what we believe is the first reported case of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in pregnancy due to a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour causing left sided portal hypertension. A 37-year-old 27-week pregnant female presented with massive haematemesis and melaena requiring transfusion of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Gastric varices were evident at endoscopy. An MRI revealed a large mass infiltrating the pancreatic tail and spleen with massive upper abdominal varix formation secondary to splenic vein invasion...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Said Al-Mammari, Richard Owen, John Findlay, Andreas Koutsoumpas, Richard Gillies, Robert Marshall, Adam A Bailey, Nick Maynard, Bruno Sgromo, Barbara Braden
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has become the standard treatment for early oesophageal neoplasia. The mucosal defect caused by EMR usually takes several weeks to heal. Despite guidelines on high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients on anticoagulation, evidence is lacking whether EMR is safe in such patients. We investigated the immediate and delayed bleeding risk in patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic oesophageal EMR comparing patients requiring warfarin anticoagulation with a control group...
June 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Mike A Thomson, Neme Leton, Dalia Belsha
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in childhood. In adults with UGIB, validated scoring systems exist, but these are not applicable to children. The aim of this study was to construct a clinical scoring system to accurately predict the need for endoscopic haemostatic intervention. METHODS: A retrospective data collection occurred during a 3-year period at a tertiary children's hospital. A total of 69 patients who had had endoscopic assessment were divided into group 1 (no intervention required) and group 2 (intervention required)...
May 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Olusegun I Alatise, Adeniyi S Aderibigbe, Adewale O Adisa, Olusegun Adekanle, Augustine E Agbakwuru, Anthony O Arigbabu
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a common medical problem worldwide that has significant associated morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use. This study outlines the aetiology, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes of patients with UGIB in a Nigerian low resource health facility. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of consecutive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy for upper GI bleeding in the endoscopy unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria from January 2007 to December 2013...
2014: BMC Gastroenterology
Marek Tagowski, Hendryk Vieweg, Christian Wissgott, Reimer Andresen
The paper intends to present a review of imaging characteristics of secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF). Mechanical injury, infection, and adherence of a bowel segment to the aorta or aortic graft are major etiologic factors of AEF after open aortic repair. The pathogenesis of AEF formation after endovascular abdominal aortic repair is related to mechanical failure of the stent-graft, to stent graft infection, and to persistent pressurization of the aneurysmal sac. The major clinical manifestations of AEF comprise haematemesis, melaena, abdominal pain, sepsis, and fever...
2014: Radiology Research and Practice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1951: Edinburgh Medical Journal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
0: Edinburgh Medical Journal
William Lee, Keith Siau, Gurjit Singh
A 64-year-old man without any significant medical history presented to accident and emergency department with haematemesis and melaena, quite similar to an upper gastrointestinal bleed. However, the unexplained left-sided neck pain with a history of overnight vomiting prompted further imaging. Air was visible in the soft tissues on a lateral X-ray of the neck, which led to a CT scan and this showed a proximal-mid oesophageal rupture. The patient was stabilised and transferred to a cardiothoracic unit for observation...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
Marinos Pericleous, Charles Murray, Mark Hamilton, Owen Epstein, Rupert Negus, Tim Peachey, Arvind Kaul, James O'Beirne
BACKGROUND: We studied the management of patients with acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (AUGIB) at the Royal Free Hospital. The aim was to compare our performance with the national standard and determine ways of improving the delivery of care in accordance with the recently published 'Scope for improvement' report. METHODS: We randomly selected patients who presented with haematemesis, melaena, or both, and had an oesophageogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) between April and October 2009...
November 2013: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Luke F Arnot, Neil M Duncan, Heleen Coetzer, Christo J Botha
Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed...
2012: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
A Barnabas, G Greywoode, N Maynard, B Braden
A 60-year-old woman initially presented with a history of mild haematemesis. The patient denied any dysphagia, weight loss, or fever, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or excessive alcohol consumption. She did not have abdominal pain and had not observed blood in her stools or melaena. At upper endoscopy, a potential source of bleeding could not be detected, but a subepithelial mass in the mid-oesophagus was revealed. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to subepithelial oesophageal lesions is discussed...
October 2012: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Goher Rahbour, Mohammad Rehan Ullah, Muhammed Siddiqui, Riaz Agha, Rajab Kerwat
Dieulafoy lesion is a rare cause of massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage that can be fatal. We report a case of a sixty-year-old lady who presented to the emergency department with haematemesis and melaena. During oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), an active bleeding vessel was seen on the lesser curvature of the stomach, near the gastro-oesophageal junction and a diagnosis of Dieulafoy's lesion made. The lesion was managed with the application of two rubber bands. Our patient re-presented to the emergency department ten days later with severe haematemesis requiring an emergency laparotomy...
2011: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Andrew D Hopper, David S Sanders
Upper GI bleeding is a common medical emergency with an incidence in the UK of 103 cases per 100,000 adults per year and is much more common in the elderly. The most common presenting signs are haematemesis (bright red or 'coffee ground') and melaena. About 30% of patients with bleeding ulcers present with haematemesis, 20% with melaena, and 50% with both. Up to 5% of patients with bleeding ulcers have haematochezia and this indicates heavy bleeding into the upper GI tract. An upper GI bleeding source should be considered when haematochezia presents with signs and symptoms of haemodynamic compromise...
July 2011: Practitioner
Lakshmanan Sekaran, John Ho
A 79-year-old woman presented to the accident and emergency department with a short history of central chest pain radiating to the arm and epigastrum, associated with vomiting. There was no history of haematemesis and no recent change of bowel habit or melaena. She had a myocardial infarction 4 months previously and had a metal prosthetic mitral valve replacement for which she was anticoagulated with warfarin, maintaining an INR between 2.5- 3.5. On examination she appeared pale, but there were no other abnormal findings; the liver was not enlarged or tender...
2007: Acute Medicine
A J Kent, J O'Beirne, Rupert Negus
Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common medical emergency, with an incidence of between 50-150 cases per 100,000 per year.1 A recent audit by the British Society of Gastroenterology showed the mortality rate from upper GI bleeds has fallen from 14%2 in 1993 to 10% in 2007.3 However, despite the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), admission rates for peptic ulcer haemorrhage have increased in older age groups,4 probably related to increased use of antiplatelet agents such as aspirin and clopidogrel and anticoagulants in acute coronary syndromes, stroke and atrial fibrillation...
2011: Acute Medicine
Jan H Elderman, Tom M H De Jaegere, Jolanda M L G Gehlen
A primary aortoduodenal fistula is a life-threatening cause of haematemesis. Early recognition is essential for the prevention of complications and death. We describe the case of an 82-year-old man with acute haematemesis and melaena resulting from this condition. The diagnostic procedures included a gastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography angiography (CTA). The fistula was surgically removed, with neighbouring parts of the duodenum and aorta. The duodenum was closed by a simple anastomosis; the aorta by the introduction of a Dacron graft...
2011: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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