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septic shock in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338093/longitudinal-profiles-of-metabolism-and-bioenergetics-associated-with-innate-immune-hormonal-inflammatory-responses-and-amino-acid-kinetics-in-severe-sepsis-and-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-in-children
#1
Anna Maria Spanaki, Theonymfi Tavladaki, Helen Dimitriou, Andrey V Kozlov, J Catharina Duvigneau, Eftychia Meleti, Adelheid Weidinger, Evangelos Papakonstantinou, George Briassoulis
BACKGROUND: Experimental data indicate that sepsis influences the mitochondrial function and metabolism. We aim to investigate longitudinal bioenergetic, metabolic, hormonal, amino-acid, and innate immunity changes in children with sepsis. METHODS: Sixty-eight children (sepsis, 18; systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], 23; healthy controls, 27) were enrolled. Plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); flow-cytometry expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of heat shock protein (HSP) levels from monocytes (m) and neutrophils (n); resistin, adiponectin, and extracellular (e) HSPs evaluated by ELISA; ATP levels in white blood cells by luciferase luminescent assay; lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) by colorimetric test; nitrite and nitrate levels by chemiluminescent assay; biliverdin reductase (BVR) activity by enzymatic assay; and energy-expenditure (EE) by E-COVX...
January 16, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304220/prevalence-and-outcome-of-sepsis-induced-myocardial-dysfunction-in-children-with-sepsis-with-and-without-shock-a-prospective-observational-study
#2
Aditi Jain, Jhuma Sankar, Anubhuti Anubhuti, Dinesh Kumar Yadav, M Jeeva Sankar
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and effects of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) in children with septic shock. Methodology: Enrolled children with septic shock (n = 31) and sepsis (n = 30) underwent echocardiography and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) estimation within first 3 h. SIMD was defined as presence of systolic/diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. Results: The prevalence of SIMD was 71% in 'septic shock' and 23% in 'sepsis'...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303884/the-first-episode-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-is-a-threat-event-in-children-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#3
Sandra M G Vieira, Fernando P Schwengber, Melina Melere, Marília R Ceza, Melina Souza, Carlos O Kieling
OBJECTIVE: Studies on native liver survival (NLS) after the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are rare. Our objective was to evaluate NLS in children up to 1 year after SBP. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 18 children followed after the first episode of SBP was conducted. NLS, in-hospital mortality, causes of death, and rate of multidrug-resistant organisms were reported. RESULTS: Biliary atresia was the most prevalent diagnosis (72...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290490/-suboptimal-care-and-severe-bacterial-infection-in-the-french-caribbean-area
#4
E Goisque, E Launay, B Vrignaud, E Jolivet, F Henaff, C Gras-Leguen
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency and types of suboptimal care in initial management of children suffering from a severe bacterial infection (SBI), in a French region where little is known about pediatric SBI epidemiology. METHOD: Retrospective single-center study over a 6-year period. Children between 3 months and 15 years of age, deceased or surviving and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of the university-affiliated hospital of Martinique for a community-onset SBI were included in this study...
December 28, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276597/urinary-perforation-in-spina-bifida-neurosurgical-and-infectious-consequences
#5
Deborah Callanan, Timothy Phillips, Micam Tullous
As the number of medically complex children increases, pediatricians and emergency physicians face challenges in evaluating complications from devices placed to treat their underlying conditions. We present a child with spina bifida who developed a perforation of his vesicostomy leading to peritonitis, septic shock, and urgent externalization of his ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Multiple consultants may need to be promptly involved in the management of children with underlying medical problems. Because procedural complications are often reported only in the surgical specialty literature, pediatricians and emergency physicians should seek information from their patients' specialists about potential problems...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163498/cytokine-profiles-of-severe-influenza-virus-related-complications-in-children
#6
Andrew Fiore-Gartland, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Anna A Agan, Anushay J Mistry, Paul G Thomas, Michael A Matthay, Tomer Hertz, Adrienne G Randolph
Rationale: Effective immunomodulatory therapies for children with life-threatening "cytokine storm" triggered by acute influenza infection are lacking. Understanding the immune profiles of children progressing to severe lung injury and/or septic shock could provide insight into pathogenesis. Objectives: To compare the endotracheal and serum cytokine profiles of children with influenza-related critical illness and to identify their associations with severe influenza-associated complications...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127768/diabetic-ketoacidosis-hyperuricemia-and-encephalopathy-intractable-to-regular-dose-insulin
#7
Jillian Gregory, Sonali Basu
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children less than 1 year of age is a rare occurrence. Typical presentation includes a prodrome of weight loss and polyuria with subsequent presentation to medical care when acidosis becomes symptomatic. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an unusual case of a previously healthy infant with a 3 days' history of constipation, presenting acutely with abdominal pain, lethargy, and dehydration. On initial evaluation, our patient had profound encephalopathy, with marked tachypnea and work of breathing...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091592/procalcitonin-and-pancreatic-stone-protein-function-as-biomarkers-in-early-diagnosis-of-pediatric-acute-osteomyelitis
#8
Chunmiao Cui, Muyong Fu, Boqian Gao
BACKGROUND High plasma levels of procalcitonin (PCT) are typically seen in children with severe bacterial infection, particularly in cases of septic shock or bacteremia. Similarly, pancreatic stone protein (PSP) is associated with inflammation, infection, and other disease-related stimuli. However, the prognostic value of PSP in critically ill pediatric patients is unknown. This study investigated the early diagnostic value of PCT and PSP in pediatric acute osteomyelitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 187 patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis and 80 healthy control children were enrolled...
November 1, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081854/toxic-shock-in-children-with-bone-and-joint-infections-a-review-of-seven-years-of-patients-admitted-to-one-intensive-care-unit
#9
D L Kerr, E K Loraas, A C Links, T V Brogan, G A Schmale
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of severe systemic, multi-organ involvement and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABS) bone and joint infections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients treated for septic arthritis or osteomyelitis at one children's hospital between 2002 and 2009. The rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for methicillin-sensitive SA (MSSA), methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) and GABS infections were compared, as were the lengths of stay, number of surgeries, operative procedures and cases of TSS...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062711/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-causing-fatal-meningitis-and-septicemia-by-citrobacter-koseri
#10
Felix Reyes, Navneet Singh, Nigar Anjuman-Khurram, Jihae Lee, Lillian Chow
Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillius that belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is an uncommon pathogen that typically causes meningitis and brain abscesses in children, however central nervous system (CNS) infections are rarely found in adults. We present a case of C. koseri meningitis in an immunocompetent adult secondary to intestinal micro-perforation caused by Strongyloides A 76-year-old man admitted for asthma exacerbation developed septic shock. A lumbar puncture revealed bacterial meningitis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049359/analysis-of-pd-1-expression-in-the-monocyte-subsets-from-non-septic-and-septic-preterm-neonates
#11
Magdalena Zasada, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Małgorzata Stec, Wojciech Durlak, Andrzej Grudzień, Agnieszka Krzeczkowska, Nina Mól, Marta Pilch, Maciej Siedlar, Przemko Kwinta
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor system represents a part of recently reported immunoregulatory pathway. PD-1 is an immune checkpoint molecule, which plays an important role in downregulating the immune system proinflammatory activity. Until recently, PD-1 expression was not established on immune cells of the preterm infants. The study objectives were to confirm expression of the PD-1 receptors on the monocytes isolated from very low birth weight newborns (VLBW), and to analyze their expression during the first week of life and late-onset sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046213/-changes-in-blood-oxygen-metabolism-indices-and-their-clinical-significance-in-children-with-septic-shock
#12
Ling-Yang Xu, Ding Xu
The key to the treatment of septic shock is to provide adequate oxygen supply and improve tissue perfusion. Lactate and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) are commonly used as the indices of oxygen metabolism, but tissue hypoxia may still exist even when lactate and ScvO2 are within the normal range. Arteriovenous difference in carbon dioxide partial pressure (CO2 gap) can accurately reflect oxygen delivery when ScvO2 is in the normal range. This article reviews the advantages and shortages of lactate, lactate clearance rate, ScvO2, and CO2 gap in evaluating tissue hypoxia, in order to provide a reference for treatment and severity evaluation of septic shock...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034782/the-comparative-epidemiology-of-pediatric-severe-sepsis
#13
Mary E Hartman, Mohammed J Saeed, Kimberly N Powell, Margaret A Olsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the coding strategies used to identify severe sepsis in administrative data sets could identify cases with comparable case mix, hospitalization characteristics, and outcomes as a cohort of children diagnosed with severe sepsis using strict clinical criteria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from 2005 to 2011 from the New York and Florida State Inpatient Databases, available from the US Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982610/the-prospective-evaluation-of-risk-factors-and-clinical-influence-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-children-with-gram-negative-bacteria-infection
#14
Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Nur Bekmezci, Mehmet Soylu, Semra Sen, Gulhadiye Avcu, Sohret Aydemir, Fadil Vardar
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative (CRGN) infections have been increasing in recent years and associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical risk characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of CRGN infections and to compare with carbapenem-sensitive gram-negative (CSGN) infections in children. METHODS: Newly diagnosed CRGN infections in hospitalized children younger than age 18 years were prospectively recorded and all patients infected with a CSGN pathogen in the same unit within 48 hours of diagnosis were included in a control group between April 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977099/fluid-overload-in-children-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation
#15
Clarice Laroque Sinott Lopes, Jefferson Pedro Piva
Patients admitted to an intensive care unit are prone to cumulated fluid overload and receive intravenous volumes through the aggressive resuscitation recommended for septic shock treatment, as well as other fluid sources related to medications and nutritional support. The liberal liquid supply strategy has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Although there are few prospective pediatric studies, new strategies are being proposed. This non-systematic review discusses the pathophysiology of fluid overload, its consequences, and the available therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974139/severe-vitamin-d-deficiency-at-admission-and-shock-reversal-in-children-with-septic-shock
#16
Suresh Kumar Angurana, Vishal Guglani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941540/adjunctive-steroid-therapy-for-treatment-of-pediatric-septic-shock
#17
REVIEW
Jerry J Zimmerman
Septic shock remains the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although early sepsis recognition, fluid resuscitation, timely administration of antimicrobials, and vasoactive-inotropic drug infusions are all key to achieving good sepsis outcomes, therapy using various steroid drug classes remains an attractive adjunctive intervention to minimize the duration of septic shock and transition to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. All steroid drug classes possess biological plausibility to affect a beneficial clinical effect among children with septic shock, but none has undergone rigorous, prospective assessment in a large, high-quality pediatric interventional trial...
October 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895096/palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-with-immunocompromised-conditions-or-down-syndrome-a-multicenter-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japan
#18
Tomoko Kashiwagi, Yukiko Okada, Ken Nomoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of palivizumab for the prevention of lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome. METHODS: In this multicenter, post-marketing surveillance study (December 2013 to December 2015), children aged ≤24 months with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome (without hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease) receiving palivizumab immunoprophylaxis during two RSV seasons were observed until 30 days after the final palivizumab injection...
September 11, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#19
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873333/role-of-echocardiography-in-reducing-shock-reversal-time-in-pediatric-septic-shock-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Ahmed A El-Nawawy, Aly M Abdelmohsen, Hadir M Hassouna
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock. METHODS: A prospective study conducted in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital from September 2013 to May 2016. Ninety septic shock patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio for comparing the serial echocardiography-guided therapy in the study group with the standard therapy in the control group regarding clinical course, timely treatment, and outcomes...
September 3, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
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