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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471523/liver-transcriptomic-and-plasma-metabolomic-profiles-of-fattening-lambs-are-modified-by-feed-restriction-during-the-suckling-period
#1
A Santos, F J Giráldez, E Trevisi, L Lucini, J Frutos, S Andrés
The increasing world population is driving demand for improved efficiency of feed resources of livestock. However, the molecular mechanisms behind various feed efficiency traits and their regulation by nutrition remain poorly understood. Here we aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes in the liver tissues of fattening Merino lambs and differences in metabolites accumulated in plasma to identify modified metabolic pathways as a consequence of milk restriction during the suckling period. Twenty-four male Merino lambs (4...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471510/moderator-s-view-low-protein-diet-in-chronic-kidney-disease-effectiveness-efficacy-and-precision-nutritional-treatments-in-nephrology
#2
Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci
Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses provide complementary information about the usefulness of therapies. While intention-to-treat analyses of trials that tested low-protein diets remain debated, per-protocol analyses of the same trials show that low protein intake actually reduces the risk of kidney failure. Per-protocol analyses are notoriously open to bias but intention-to-treat analyses are less immaculate than commonly realized because they critically depend on adherence to the treatment being tested and therefore may not be directly relevant for informing clinical decisions when different degrees of adherence to therapy occur...
February 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471469/effect-of-lemon-leaves-on-energy-and-c-n-balances-methane-emission-and-milk-performance-in-murciano-granadina-dairy-goats
#3
C Fernández, J V Marti, I Pérez-Baena, J L Palomares, C Ibáñez, J V Segarra
The objective of this experiment was to find out the effect of lemon leaves on energy and C-N balances, methane emission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Lemon leaves were used to replace alfalfa as forage in a diet for Murciano-Granadina goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (44.1 ± 4.47 kg of BW) in late lactation (185 ± 7.2 d) were selected in a crossover design experiment, where each goat received two treatments in 2 periods. One group was fed a mixed ration with 450 g of pelleted alfalfa/kg of DM (ALF diet) and, the other group replaced alfalfa with 450 g of pelleted lemon leaves/kg DM (LEM diet)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471465/effects-of-dietary-energy-level-and-intake-of-corn-by-product-based-diets-on-newly-received-growing-cattle-antibody-production-acute-phase-protein-response-stress-and-immunocompetency-of-healthy-and-morbid-animals
#4
T J Spore, S P Montgomery, E C Titgemeyer, G A Hanzlicek, C I Vahl, T G Nagaraja, K T Cavalli, W R Hollenbeck, R A Wahl, D A Blasi
Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471400/increased-dietary-protein-or-free-amino-acids-supply-for-heat-stress-pigs-effect-on-performance-and-carcass-traits
#5
A Morales, M Chávez, N Vásquez, J K Htoo, L Buenabad, S Espinoza, M Cervantes
Heat stress (HS) pigs reduce their voluntary feed intake (VFI) and ingestion of indispensable amino acids (AA). Increasing the dietary CP content may help to correct the reduced AA intake by HS pigs, but it may further increase their body heat load. Increasing the AA intake by adding free AA to the diet does not affect the heat load of HS pigs. Two 21-d experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, 30 pigs (31.1 ± 1.2 kg initial BW) were used to determine the performance depression because of HS. Treatments were: thermo neutral pigs fed a 22% CP control diet (TN-C); HS pigs fed the control diet (HS-C); HS pigs fed a 14% CP, AA supplemented diet (HS-AA)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471398/reducing-body-weight-loss-during-lactation-in-sows-a-meta-analysis-on-the-use-of-a-non-starch-polysaccharide-hydrolysing-enzyme-supplement
#6
P Cozannet, P G Lawlor, P Leterme, E Devillard, P A Geraert, F Rouffineau, A Preynat
A meta-analysis was performed on 8 trials, which included a total of 992 parity 1 to 8 lactating sows, to evaluate the effects of feeding xylanase which is the main enzyme activity present in the enzymatic complex (Rovabio® Excel, Adisseo, France) supplement throughout lactation on the following sow performance factors: body weight loss, feed intake, backfat depth and piglet growth. Even a short period of enzyme supplementation during lactation led to a reduction in body weight loss of approximately 3 kg per sow (P = 0...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471322/whole-body-nitrogen-utilization-and-tissue-protein-and-casein-synthesis-in-lactating-primiparous-sows-fed-low-and-high-protein-diets
#7
Lee-Anne Huber, Marko Rudar, Nathalie L Trottier, John P Cant, Cornelis F M de Lange
Twenty-eight lactating Yorkshire and Yorkshire × Landrace primiparous sows were used to test the hypothesis that feeding a diet with reduced CP concentration and supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAA) does not decrease milk protein yield and litter growth but improves apparent N utilization for milk protein production. Sows were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: [1] Control (CON; 16.2% CP; analyzed content) or [2] Low CP with CAA to meet estimated requirements of limiting amino acids (LCP; 12...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471240/a-multiregional-survey-of-nickel-in-outdoor-air-particulate-matter-in-china-implication-for-human-exposure
#8
Han Li, Yanjian Wan, Xiao Chen, Lu Cheng, Xueyu Yang, Wei Xia, Shunqing Xu, Hongling Zhang
Nickel is a widespread environmental contaminant, and it is toxic to humans in certain forms at high doses. Despite this, nationwide data on nickel in outdoor air particulate matter and human exposure to nickel through inhalation in China are limited. In the present study, 662 outdoor air samples from seven representative provinces such as Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Hebei, Guangdong, Yunnan, and Shanxi were collected between March 2013 and February 2014 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471136/post-weaning-piglets-fed-with-different-levels-of-fungal-mycotoxins-and-spray-dried-porcine-plasma-have-improved-weight-gain-feed-intake-and-reduced-diarrhea-incidence
#9
Lucieli Kamila Focht Müller, Diovani Paiano, Jeferson Gugel, William Raphael Lorenzetti, Janio Morais Santurio, Fernando de Castro Tavernari, Eduardo Micotti da Gloria, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva
Mycotoxins are responsible for economic losses in the swine production industry, especially during post-weaning, when piglets are physiologically immature. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), added to pig diets, may help reduce losses due to mycotoxins. This work investigates the effects of SDPP in post-weaning piglets fed with diets containing natural contaminants or with more contaminants (co-contamination by mycotoxins). Fifty-six castrated weaned piglets were used in a randomized 2 (0 and 6% of SDPP) x 2 (natural contamination or co-contamination with mycotoxin) factorial design, with seven experimental units of two piglets each...
February 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471124/methods-and-procedures-for-a-randomized-double-blind-study-investigating-dose-dependent-longitudinal-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-bone-health
#10
Lauren A Burt, Sharon Gaudet, Michelle Kan, Marianne S Rose, Emma O Billington, Steven K Boyd, David A Hanley
The optimum dose of vitamin D and corresponding serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration for bone health is still debated and some health practitioners are recommending doses well above the Canada/USA recommended Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). We designed a three-year randomized double-blind clinical trial investigating whether there are dose-dependent effects of vitamin D supplementation above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) on bone health. The primary aims of this study are to assess, whether supplementation of vitamin D3 increases 1) volumetric bone mineral density measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT); 2) bone strength assessed by finite element analysis, and 3) areal bone mineral density by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
February 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471102/high-fructose-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-pathophysiological-mechanism-and-treatment-by-traditional-chinese-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Ying Pan, Ling-Dong Kong
Fructose is a natural monosaccharide broadly used in modern society. Over the past few decades, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high fructose intake is an etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review highlights research advances on fructose-induced MetS, especially the underlying pathophysiological mechanism as well as pharmacotherapy by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal and Wanfang Data...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471076/daily-pattern-of-energy-distribution-and-weight-loss
#12
Hollie A Raynor, Fan Li, Chelsi Cardoso
Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In humans, research reports that eating a greater amount of energy early and a smaller amount of energy later in the day increases dietary induced thermogenesis, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, and enhances weight loss...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471074/do-humans-still-forage-in-an-obesogenic-environment-mechanisms-and-implications-for-weight-maintenance
#13
Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bobby K Cheon
Many people struggle to control their food intake and bodyweight. This is often interpreted as evidence that humans are generally predisposed to consume food when it is available, because adiposity offered insurance against the threat of starvation in our ancestral environment. In this paper we suggest that modern humans have actually inherited a far broader range of foraging skills that continue to influence our dietary behaviour. To evaluate this idea, we identify three challenges that would need to be addressed to achieve efficient foraging; (1) monitoring the 'procurement cost' of foods, (2) determining the energy content of foods, and (3) proactively adapting to perceived food insecurity...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471071/intragastric-preloads-of-l-tryptophan-reduce-ingestive-behavior-via-oxytocinergic-neural-mechanisms-in-male-mice
#14
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471069/what-s-technology-cooking-up-a-systematic-review-of-the-use-of-technology-in-adolescent-food-literary-programs
#15
REVIEW
Catherine A Wickham, Elena T Carbone
Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471007/risk-assessment-of-benzene-in-food-samples-of-iran-s-market
#16
Ali Heshmati, Sabah Ghadimi, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Francisco J Barba, Jose M Lorenzo, Fatemeh Nazemi, Yadolah Fakhri
The concentration of benzene in ninety-eight collected food and drink samples (carbonated beverage, fruit juice, pickle, lime juice, mayonnaise and salad dressing, 16 samples from each) from Iran local markets were investigated using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Moreover, the correlation of benzene concentration with sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid concentrations was assessed. Benzene concentration in carbonated beverages, fruit juices, pickle, lime juices, mayonnaise and salad dressing were 3...
February 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471000/relationship-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-concentrations-of-orexin-a-hypocretin-1-and-body-composition-in-humans
#17
João C P Santiago, Markus Otto, Werner Kern, Paul Christian Baier, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (hypocretin-1) is a key signal in sleep/wake regulation and promotes food intake. We investigated the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations and body composition in non-narcoleptic human subjects with a wide range of body weight to gain insight into the role of orexin A in human metabolism. We collected cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples and measured body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis in 36 subjects (16 women and 20 men) with body mass indices between 16...
February 19, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470967/a-spotlight-on-appetite
#18
Lisa R Beutler, Zachary A Knight
Remarkably few hormones have been identified that stimulate appetite. The recent discovery of asprosin, a hormone that activates AgRP neurons to increase food intake and body weight, begins to fill this gap (Duerrschmid et al., 2017; Romere et al., 2016).
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470767/the-effects-of-tramadol-administration-on-hippocampal-cell-apoptosis-learning-and-memory-in-adult-rats-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-crocin
#19
Farideh Baghishani, Abbas Mohammadipour, Hossain Hosseinzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
Tramadol, a frequently used pain reliever drug, present neurotoxic effects associated to cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, crocin has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to assess crocin's capacity to protect learning, and memory abilities on tramadol-treated rats. A total of 35 rats were divided into five groups: Control, Saline, tramadol (50 mg/kg), tramadol + crocin(30 mg/kg), crocin groups and treated orally for 28 consecutive days. Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests were done, followed by dissection of the rat's brains for toluidine blue and TUNEL staining...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470740/effect-of-supplementing-germinated-sprouts-of-pulses-on-performance-carcass-variables-immune-and-oxidative-stress-indicators-in-broiler-chickens-reared-during-tropical-summer-season
#20
S V Rama Rao, B Prakash, U Rajkumar, M V L N Raju, T Srilatha, E P K Reddy
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementing sprouts of pulses on performance, carcass variables, immune responses, and anti-oxidant variables in broiler chicken (day 1 to 6 weeks of age) reared during summer season in tropical region. Sprouts of black gram (BG, Vigna mungo), green gram (GG, Vigna radiata), and wild gram (WG, Vigna trilobata) were produced by soaking the pulses in water for 16 h and incubating at 37 °C for 24 h. Total phenolic content in sprouts of WG, BG, and GG was 102, 96...
February 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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