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Vitor de Salles Painelli, Kleiner Márcio Nemezio, Ana Jéssica, Mariana Franchi, Isabel Andrade, Luiz Augusto Riani, Bryan Saunders, Craig Sale, Roger Charles Harris, Bruno Gualano, Guilherme Giannini Artioli
PURPOSE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that training can increase muscle carnosine (MCarn), although longitudinal studies have failed to confirm this. A lack of control for dietary β-alanine intake or muscle fibre type shifting may have hampered their conclusions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on MCarn. METHODS: Twenty vegetarian men were randomly assigned to a control (CON; n=10) or HIIT (n=10) group...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hong Zhang, Bing Qing, Jian Zheng
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis following resection of a fourth ventricle tumor has never been reported in the literature. We report a unique case of gastroparesis following resection of a fourth ventricle ependymoma in a child. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 14-year-old boy presented with 12-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor in the fourth ventricle. He underwent a posterior median craniotomy and total removal was achieved...
June 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Anthony Sclafani, Austin S Vural, Karen Ackroff
In a nutrient self-selection study, CAST/EiJ mice consumed more carbohydrate than fat while C57BL/6J (B6) mice showed the opposite preference. The present study revealed similar strain differences in preferences for isocaloric fat (Intralipid) and carbohydrate (sucrose, maltodextrin) solutions in chow-fed mice. In initial 2-day choice tests, percent fat intakes of CAST and B6 mice were 4-9% and 71-81% respectively. In subsequent nutrient vs. water tests, CAST mice consumed considerably less fat but not carbohydrate compared to B6 mice...
June 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Wauman Joris, Tavernier Jan
Hypothalamic leptin receptor (LR) signaling regulates body weight by balancing food intake and energy expenditure. It is well established that the human LR undergoes ectodomain shedding, but little is known about the fate of the remaining cytosolic domain. This study demonstrates that regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) releases the LR intracellular domain (LR ICD), which translocates to the mitochondria where it binds to SOCS6. This LR ICD-SOCS6 interaction stabilizes both proteins on the mitochondrial outer membrane and requires a functional BC box in SOCS6 for mitochondrial association and a central motif in the LR ICD for SOCS6 binding...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alex Reichenbach, Romana Stark, Mathieu Mequinion, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Randall L Mynatt, Serge Luquet, Zane B Andrews
Hunger-sensing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons ensure survival by adapting metabolism and behavior to low caloric environments. This adaption is accomplished by consolidating food intake, suppressing energy expenditure, and maximizing fat storage (nutrient partitioning) for energy preservation. The intracellular mechanisms responsible are unknown. Here we report that AgRP carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased fatty acid utilization and greater fat loss after 9 d of calorie restriction (CR)...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Philip J Ryan
Fluid satiation, or quenching of thirst, is a critical homeostatic signal to stop drinking; however, its underlying neurocircuitry is not well characterized. Cutting-edge genetically encoded tools and techniques are now enabling researchers to pinpoint discrete neuronal populations that control fluid satiation, revealing that hindbrain regions, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and parabrachial nucleus, primarily inhibit fluid intake. By contrast, forebrain regions such as the lamina terminalis, primarily stimulate thirst and fluid intake...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Fernanda G D E Silva, Lisiery N Paiatto, Aureo T Yamada, Flavia M Netto, Patrícia U Simioni, Wirla M S C Tamashiro
SCOPE: In an attempt to develop new therapeutic treatments for colitis, we evaluated the effects of phenolic compounds and protein hydrolysates fractions of flaxseed on the in vitro production of pro-inflammatory mediators created by macrophages and on the course of experimental colitis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds (Phi) and protein hydrolysates (phr-FPH) from flaxseeds were studied in RAW264.7 cells and in TNBS colitis model...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yuan Wang, Bolin Liu, Tianzhi Zhao, Binfang Zhao, Daihua Yu, Xue Jiang, Lin Ye, Lanfu Zhao, Wenhai Lv, Yufu Zhang, Tao Zheng, Yafei Xue, Lei Chen, Eric Sankey, Long Chen, Yingxi Wu, Mingjuan Li, Lin Ma, Zhengmin Li, Ruigang Li, Juan Li, Jing Yan, Shasha Wang, Hui Zhao, Xude Sun, Guodong Gao, Yan Qu, Shiming He
OBJECTIVE Although enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs have gained acceptance in various surgical specialties, no established neurosurgical ERAS protocol for patients undergoing elective craniotomy has been reported in the literature. Here, the authors describe the design, implementation, safety, and efficacy of a novel neurosurgical ERAS protocol for elective craniotomy in a tertiary care medical center located in China. METHODS A multidisciplinary neurosurgical ERAS protocol for elective craniotomy was developed based on the best available evidence...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Weinan Zhou, Elizabeth A Davis, Megan J Dailey
The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in nutrient absorption, hormone release, and barrier function. Maintenance of the epithelium is driven by continuous cell renewal by intestinal epithelial stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. Obesity affects this process and results in changes in the size and function of the tissue. Because both the amount of food intake and the composition of the diet are contributing factors to developing and maintaining obesity, it is necessary to tease apart the separate contributions of obesity versus the type/amount of diet in driving the epithelial changes...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sandra Magalhaes, Brenda Banwell, Amit Bar-Or, Isabel Fortier, Heather E Hanwell, Ming Lim, Georg E Matt, Rinze F Neuteboom, David L O'Riordan, Paul K Schneider, Maura Pugliatti, Bryna Shatenstein, Catherine M Tansey, Evangeline Wassmer, Christina Wolfson
BACKGROUND: While studying the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children has several methodological advantages over studying etiology in adults, studies are limited by small sample sizes. OBJECTIVE: Using a rigorous methodological process, we developed the Pediatric MS Tool-Kit, a measurement framework that includes a minimal set of core variables to assess etiological risk factors. METHODS: We solicited input from the International Pediatric MS Study Group to select three risk factors: environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, sun exposure, and vitamin D intake...
June 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Michael Habs, Karin Binder, Stefan Krauss, Karolina Müller, Brigitte Ernst, Luzia Valentini, Michael Koller
OBJECTIVES: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) exist ubiquitously in our environment. More than 6000 plants, about 3% of the world’s flowering plants, are known to synthesize PA. As a consequence, many herbal ingredients, including St. John’s wort (SJW), are contaminated with PA that can possess acute and subchronic toxic effects as well as mutagenic and genotoxic properties. Therefore, the possible benefits of SJW as an herbal remedy against depression need to be weighed against the possible risks of unwanted PA intake...
June 22, 2018: Nutrients
Ashley Suchomel, Helen Goeden, Julia Dady
Americans fill upward of four billion prescriptions for pharmaceuticals each year, and many of those pharmaceuticals eventually make their way into the environment. Hundreds of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are detected in ambient waters and source water used for drinking water in the U.S. Very few of these drugs have health-based guidance values that suggest a safe level for individuals exposed in the ambient environment through drinking water. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has developed a novel method to derive screening-level human health guidance values for APIs...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jussi Loponen, Michael G Gänzle
A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP diet is the reduced intake of dietary fiber. Applying sourdoughs—with specific FODMAP-targeting metabolic properties—to wholegrain bread making can help to remarkably reduce the content of FODMAPs in bread without affecting the content of the slowly fermented and well-tolerated dietary fiber...
June 22, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Hans-Christoph Diener, Dagny Holle, Thomas Dresler, Charly Gaul
BACKGROUND: The frequent or regular use of analgesics and anti-migraine drugs can make headache more frequent and induce the transformation of episodic to chronic headache. Chronic headache due to medication overuse is defined as headache that is present on ≥ 15 days per month for at least three months in a patient who previously suffered from primary headaches, and who takes analgesics on ≥ 15 days per month or anti-migraine drugs (triptans or ergot alkaloids), opioid drugs, or combined analgesics on ≥ 10 days per month...
June 1, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
M K Bean, K S Ingersoll, P Powell, M Stern, R K Evans, E P Wickham, S E Mazzeo
The aim of this study is to examine outcomes from MI Values, a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention implemented adjunctive to obesity treatment. Adolescents (n = 99; 73% African American; 74% female; mean body mass index [BMI] percentile = 98.9 ± 1.2) were randomized to receive two MI sessions or education control. All adolescents participated in structured behavioural weight management treatment. Baseline, 3- and 6-month assessments of anthropometrics, dietary intake and physical activity were obtained...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Obesity
Jinhong Wu, Tang Mengru, Xixi Cai, Shaoyun Wang
BACKGROUND: To reducing the massive marine pollution and resource waste caused by octopus scraps, we developed the novel octopus scraps protein hydrolysate (OSPH) with calcium-chelating activity, and further investigated the chelating interaction and calcium bioavailability of OSPH-Ca. RESULTS: The structural properties indicated that both amido and carboxy groups could be the reaction sites for chelation. The particle radius of OSPH increased by 32.25 nm after the calcium chelated with OSPH, indicating the intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregating...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants require high protein intake to achieve adequate growth and development. Although breast milk feeding has many benefits for this population, the protein content is highly variable, and inadequate to support rapid infant growth. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether protein-supplemented human milk compared with unsupplemented human milk, fed to preterm infants, improves growth, body composition, cardio-metabolic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes, without significant adverse effects...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sheila Vilarindo de Sousa, Marcos Jácome de Araújo, Tairon Panunzio Dias E Silva, Carlo Aldrovandi Torreão Marques, Jacira Neves da Costa Torreão, Leilson Rocha Bezerra, Isak Samir de Sousa Lima, Fernanda Patrícia Gottardi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different levels of dietary supplementation and reproductive stages on dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and mineral metabolism in Santa Inês hair ewes. Two dietary supplement levels of 0.5 and 1.5%, based on body weight, were used. A total of 12 hair ewes (six subjected to 0.5 and six subjected to 1.5% of concentrate supplementation based on body weight-BW) of the Santa Inês breed were evaluated in a completely randomized design with fixed effects of supplementation level, period, and its interactions...
June 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Marjan Mansourian, Akram Yazdani, Elham Faghihimani, Ashraf Aminorraya, Masoud Amini, Tohid Jafari-Koshki
AIMS: Pre-diabetes is a strong risk factor for type 2diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with normal glucose maintenance and pre-diabetes prevention or delay. METHODS: Data of 1016 first-degree relatives of T2D patients were retrieved from the Isfahan Diabetes Prevention Study (IDPS). Association of various variables including nutrients, serum tests and physical activity with the risk of pre-diabetes was assessed using recurrent events approach...
June 22, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Viktoria Knaze, Joseph A Rothwell, Raul Zamora-Ros, Aurelie Moskal, Cecilie Kyrø, Paula Jakszyn, Guri Skeie, Elisabete Weiderpass, Maria Santucci de Magistris, Claudia Agnoli, Susanne Westenbrink, Emily Sonestedt, Antonia Trichopoulou, Effie Vasilopoulou, Eleni Peppa, Eva Ardanaz, José María Huerta, Heiner Boeing, Francesca Romana Mancini, Augustin Scalbert, Nadia Slimani
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of polyphenol intakes is needed in epidemiologic research in order to study their health effects, and this can be particularly challenging in international study settings. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to describe the procedures to prepare a comprehensive polyphenol food-composition database that was used to calculate standardized polyphenol intakes from 24-h diet recalls (24HDRs) and dietary questionnaires (DQs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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