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lipid accumulation

Jie Meng, Wen-Xiong Wang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Pranjul Mishra, Na-Rae Lee, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Minsuk Kim, Byung-Gee Kim, Dong-Yup Lee
BACKGROUND: Recently, there have been several attempts to produce long-chain dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) in various microbial hosts. Of these, Yarrowia lipolytica has great potential due to its oleaginous characteristics and unique ability to utilize hydrophobic substrates. However, Y. lipolytica should be further engineered to make it more competitive: the current approaches are mostly intuitive and cumbersome, thus limiting its industrial application. RESULTS: In this study, we proposed model-guided metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of DCAs in Y...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Guiying Tang, Pingli Xu, Wenhua Ma, Fang Wang, Zhanji Liu, Shubo Wan, Lei Shan
Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the major oil crops and is the fifth largest source of plant oils in the world. Numerous genes participate in regulating the biosynthesis and accumulation of the storage lipids in seeds or other reservoir organs, among which several transcription factors, such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 ( AtLEC1 ), LEC2 , and WRINKLED1 ( WRI1 ), involved in embryo development also control the lipid reservoir in seeds. In this study, the AtLEC1 gene was transferred into the peanut genome and expressed in a seed-specific manner driven by the NapinA full-length promoter or its truncated 230-bp promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chien-Liang Fang, Yiwei Wang, Kevin H-Y Tsai, Hsin-I Chang
The dermis of human skin contains large numbers of fibroblasts that are responsible for the production of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supporting skin integrity, elasticity and wound healing. Previously, an in vivo study demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts siting in the lower dermis are capable to convert into skin adipose layer and hence fibroblast lipogenesis may vary the structure and elasticity of dermis. In the present study, Hs68 human dermal fibroblasts were utilized as an in vitro model to study the lipogenesis via using adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) bilayer of Gram-negative bacteria is biologically unique in its asymmetrical organization of lipids, with an inner leaflet composed of glycerophospholipids (PLs) and a surface-exposed outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This lipid organization is integral to the OM's barrier properties. Perturbations of the outer leaflet by antimicrobial peptides or defects in LPS biosynthesis or transport to the OM cause a compensatory flipping of PLs to the outer leaflet. As a result, lipid asymmetry is disrupted and OM integrity is compromised...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Christos Gournas, Stelios Gkionis, Mélanie Carquin, Laure Twyffels, Donatienne Tyteca, Bruno André
The eukaryotic plasma membrane is compartmentalized into domains enriched in specific lipids and proteins. However, our understanding of the molecular bases and biological roles of this partitioning remains incomplete. The best-studied domain in yeast is the membrane compartment containing the arginine permease Can1 (MCC) and later found to cluster additional transporters. MCCs correspond to static, furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane and associate with subcortical structures named "eisosomes" that include upstream regulators of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) in the sensing of sphingolipids and membrane stress...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dina A Schneider, Soo-Ho Choi, Colin Agatisa-Boyle, Laurence Zhu, Jungsu Kim, Jennifer Pattison, Dorothy D Sears, Philip L S M Gordts, Longhou Fang, Yury I Miller
Apolipoprotein A-I Binding Protein (AIBP) has been shown to augment cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells and macrophages. In zebrafish and mice, AIBP-mediated regulation of cholesterol levels in the plasma membrane of endothelial cells controls angiogenesis. The goal of this work was to evaluate metabolic changes and atherosclerosis in AIBP loss-of-function and gain-of-function animal studies. Here we show that Apoa1bp-/-Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat diet had exacerbated weight gain, liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and larger atherosclerotic lesions compared to Ldlr-/- mice...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Asokan Devarajan
The prevalence of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing throughout the world. Both diseases are chronic and characterized by accumulation of oxidized proteins and lipids in the renal tissue and arterial wall, respectively. Emerging studies have revealed a positive association between nephrolithiasis and CVDs. Based on preclinical and clinical evidences, this review discusses: (i) stone forming risk factors, crystal nucleation, aggregation, injury-induced crystal retention, and stone formation, (ii) CVD risk factors such as dyslipidemia, perturbation of gut microbiome, obesity, free radical-induced lipoprotein oxidation, and retention in the arterial wall, subsequent foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis, (iii) mechanism by which stone forming risk factors such as oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and infection contribute toward CVDs, and (iv) how CVD risk factors, such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and uric acid, contribute to kidney stone formation are described...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Ying Huang, Fang Liu, Fang Zhang, Pingsheng Liu, Tao Xu, Wenjun Ding
Numerous studies have demonstrated that vanadium compounds are able to improve lipemia and triglyceridemia in both humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of vanadium(IV) complex with 4-chlorodipicolinic acid (VOdipic-Cl)-induced autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. To explore the possible underlying mechanisms, primary rat hepatocytes, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and liver tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were used...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Yoonha Kim, Bong-Gyu Mun, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Hyun-Ho Kim, Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Imran, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
This study investigated the regulatory role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in rice and its effects on toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during short-term salinity stress. SA application (0.5 and 1.0 mM) during salinity-induced stress (100 mM NaCl) resulted in significantly longer shoot length and higher chlorophyll and biomass accumulation than with salinity stress alone. NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species production led to increased levels of lipid peroxidation in rice plants, which were significantly reduced following SA application...
2018: PloS One
Frederick A Rubino, Sujeet Kumar, Natividad Ruiz, Suzanne Walker, Daniel Kahne
MurJ, the flippase that exports the bacterial cell wall mon-omer Lipid II to the periplasm, is a target for new antibiot-ics, which are desperately needed to treat Gram-negative infections. Quantitative methods to monitor MurJ activity are required to characterize inhibitors but are challenging to develop because the lipid-linked substrate is not chemi-cally altered in a flippase reaction. Here we show that MurJ inhibition can be quantified by measuring the accu-mulation of intracellular Lipid II using a biotin-tagging strategy...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Csaba András Dézsi
Background In patients with stable coronary artery disease, aspirin, a statin, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor are recommended as first-line agents for secondary prevention. Subgroup analyses of the previously published Hungarian Perindopril plus Amlodipine in PAtients with Coronary Artery Disease (PAPA-CAD) non-interventional trial demonstrated that the addition of the metabolically beneficial, fixed combination of perindopril + amlodipine to atorvastatin further improves the patient's lipid profile...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Fei Yan, Yu Sun, Yang Mao, Meiying Wu, Zhiting Deng, Shuai Li, Xin Liu, Li Xue, Hairong Zheng
Cardiovascular diseases resulting from atherosclerosis have become a serious threat to human health. It is well-known that an ongoing inflammatory response is involved during atherosclerosis progression that ultimately results in the accumulation of lipids and formation of plaques. Monitoring the pathological changes during the inflammatory response will be of great significance for early diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of atherosclerosis. Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has been shown to be a promising noninvasive imaging technique for evaluating the degree of atherosclerosis and may potentially be translated to clinical imaging in the future...
2018: Theranostics
Yujia You, Xiaolong Liang, Tinghui Yin, Min Chen, Chen Qiu, Chuang Gao, Xiaoyou Wang, Yongjiang Mao, Enze Qu, Zhifei Dai, Rongqin Zheng
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) holds promise for focal therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the therapeutic efficacy needs improvement, and further development of PDT for PCa has challenges, including uncertainty of photosensitizers (PSs) accumulation at the tumor site and difficulty in visualizing lesions using conventional ultrasound (US) imaging. We have developed novel porphyrin-grafted lipid (PGL) microbubbles (MBs; PGL-MBs) and propose a strategy to integrate PGL-MBs with US imaging to address these limitations and enhance PDT efficacy...
2018: Theranostics
Yuan Luo, Parinaz Abiri, Shell Zhang, Chih-Chiang Chang, Amir H Kaboodrangi, Rongsong Li, Ashish K Sahib, Alex Bui, Rajesh Kumar, Mary Woo, Zhaoping Li, René R Sevag Packard, Yu-Chong Tai, Tzung K Hsiai
Introduction: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive gold standard to detect fatty liver, we demonstrate a low-cost and portable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach with circumferential abdominal electrodes for liver conductivity measurements. Methods and Results: A finite element model (FEM) was established to simulate decremental liver conductivity in response to incremental liver lipid content...
2018: Theranostics
Naiqian Zhao, Xiaoyan Li, Ying Feng, Jinxiang Han, Ziling Feng, Xifeng Li, Yanfang Wen
Excessive triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes is the hallmark of obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated levels of the saturated free fatty acid palmitate in obesity are a major contributor to excessive hepatic lipid accumulation. The nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 is a transcriptional regulator and a lipotoxicity sensor. Using human HepG2 hepatoma cells, this study aimed to investigate the functional role of Nur77 in palmitate-induced hepatic steatosis. The results revealed that palmitate significantly induced lipid accumulation and suppressed lipolysis in hepatocytes...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuhiro Ayabe, Rena Ohya, Keiji Kondo, Yasuhisa Ano
Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD)...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liping Huang, Surapun Tepaamorndech, Catherine P Kirschke, John W Newman, William R Keyes, Theresa L Pedersen, Jureeporn Dumnil
ZnT7 (Slc30a7) is a widely expressed zinc transporter involved in sequestration of zinc into the Golgi apparatus and vesicular compartments. Znt7-knockout (KO) mice are mildly zinc deficient and lean. Despite their lean phenotype, adult male Znt7-KO mice are prone to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat partitioning from adipose to non-adipose tissues causes insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice. Here, we used biological and biochemical methods including fatty acid and oxylipin profiling, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis to identify the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Johan Edqvist, Kristina Blomqvist, Jeroen Nieuwland, Tiina A Salminen
The nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small, compact proteins folded around a tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity, making them suitable for lipid binding and transport. LTPs are encoded by large gene families in all land plants, but they have not been identified in algae or any other organisms. Thus, LTPs are considered key proteins for plant survival on and colonization of land. LTPs are abundantly expressed in most plant tissues, both above and below ground. They are usually localized to extracellular spaces outside the plasma membrane...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Meiting Yang, Hanhan Zhao, Huihan Ai, Hongbin Zhu, Shuyue Wang, Yongli Bao, Yuxin Li
A high level of APOC3 expression is an independent risk factor for some lipid metabolism-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis (AS). This suggests that down-regulating APOC3 expression is a potential way of regulating lipid levels. In this study, we used luciferase reporter screening to identify a natural compound, alantolactone (ALA), that can inhibit the promoter activity of APOC3. ALA decreased APOC3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
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