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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432996/toxicological-effects-of-phenol-on-four-marine-microalgae
#1
Weiyan Duan, Fanping Meng, Yufei Lin, Guoshan Wang
The toxic effects of phenol on four marine microalgae (Dunaliella salina, Platymonas subcordiformis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and Skeletonema costatum) were evaluated. The 96h EC50 values were 72.29, 92.97, 27.32, and 27.32mgL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those values of freshwater microalgae reported in the literature. During a 96-h exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of phenol (1/2 96h EC50) with green alga (D. salina) and diatom (S. costatum), reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content decrease were simultaneously observed in diatom cells after 48h treatment...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432768/the-fate-of-recently-fixed-carbon-after-drought-release-towards-unravelling-c-storage-regulation-in-tilia-platyphyllos-and-pinus-sylvestris
#2
Lucía Galiano Pérez, Galina Timofeeva, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Robert Hommel, Arthur Gessler
Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos, Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~ 10 weeks and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C-label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated to drought effects and subsequent drought release...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432521/intermittent-food-restriction-initiated-late-in-life-prolongs-lifespan-and-retards-the-onset-of-age-related-markers-in-the-annual-fish-nothobranchius-guentheri
#3
Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Yang Zhou, Su Wang, Feng Su, Shicui Zhang
Two of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures on possible aging mechanisms are the oxidative stress hypothesis and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway. Intermittent fasting (IF) is known to modulate aging and to prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms are still under debate. In this study, we first demonstrated that late-onset two consecutive days a week fasting, a form of IF, termed intermittent food restriction (IFR), exhibited a time-dependent effect, and long-term late-onset IFR extended the mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 3...
April 21, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#4
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430962/ulk1-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity-through-autophagy-meditated-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#5
Minae An, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Jang Won Park, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Minna Woo, Minsuk Kim
Aims: Autophagy is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, particularly in long-lived cells such as cardiomyocytes. Whereas many studies support the importance of autophagy in the mechanisms underlying obesity-related cardiac dysfunction, the role of autophagy in cardiac lipid metabolism remains unclear. In the heart, lipotoxicity is exacerbated by cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which mediates accumulation of fatty acids to the heart through intravascular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430144/a-systems-biology-approach-using-transcriptomic-data-reveals-genes-and-pathways-in-porcine-skeletal-muscle-affected-by-dietary-lysine
#6
Taiji Wang, Jean M Feugang, Mark A Crenshaw, Naresh Regmi, John R Blanton, Shengfa F Liao
Nine crossbred finishing barrows (body weight 94.4 ± 6.7 kg) randomly assigned to three dietary treatments were used to investigate the effects of dietary lysine on muscle growth related metabolic and signaling pathways. Muscle samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi of individual pigs after feeding the lysine-deficient (4.30 g/kg), lysine-adequate (7.10 g/kg), or lysine-excess (9.80 g/kg) diet for five weeks, and the total RNA was extracted afterwards. Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.0 ST Array was used to quantify the expression levels of 19,211 genes...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429330/growth-kinetics-fatty-acid-composition-and-metabolic-activity-changes-of-crypthecodinium-cohnii-under-different-nitrogen-source-and-concentration
#7
Waseem Safdar, Muhammad Shamoon, Xinyi Zan, Junaid Haider, Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Muhammad Shoaib, Yuanda Song
The effect of varying concentrations of the nitrogen source on the growth kinetics, lipid accumulation, lipid and DHA productivity, and fatty acid composition of C. cohnii was elucidated. Growth of C. cohnii was in three distinct growth stages: cell growth, lipid accumulation and a final lipid turnover stage. Most of lipids were accumulated in lipid accumulation stage (48-120 h) though, slow growth rate was observed during this stage. NaNO3 supported significantly higher lipid content (26.9% of DCW), DHA content (0...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429309/%C3%AE-ketoadipic-acid-and-%C3%AE-aminoadipic-acid-cause-disturbance-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-and-induction-of-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-in-brain-of-adolescent-rats
#8
Janaína Camacho da Silva, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Cristiane Cecatto, Alessandro Wajner, Kálita Dos Santos Godoy, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Aline de Mello Gonçalves, Ângela Zanatta, Mateus Struecker da Rosa, Samanta Oliveira Loureiro, Carmen Regla Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner
Tissue accumulation of α-ketoadipic (KAA) and α-aminoadipic (AAA) acids is the biochemical hallmark of α-ketoadipic aciduria. This inborn error of metabolism is currently considered a biochemical phenotype with uncertain clinical significance. Considering that KAA and AAA are structurally similar to α-ketoglutarate and glutamate, respectively, we investigated the in vitro effects of these compounds on glutamatergic neurotransmission in the brain of adolescent rats. Bioenergetics and redox homeostasis were also investigated because they represent fundamental systems for brain development and functioning...
April 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429080/effect-of-gpr84-deletion-on-obesity-and-diabetes-development-in-mice-fed-long-chain-or-medium-chain-fatty-acid-rich-diets
#9
Eugene Du Toit, Liam Browne, Helen Irving-Rodgers, Helen M Massa, Nicolette Fozzard, Michael P Jennings, Ian R Peak
PURPOSE: Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428821/genome-wide-search-for-candidate-genes-for-yeast-robustness-improvement-against-formic-acid-reveals-novel-susceptibility-trk1-and-positive-regulators-and-resistance-haa1-regulon-determinants
#10
Sílvia F Henriques, Nuno P Mira, Isabel Sá-Correia
BACKGROUND: Formic acid is an inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to this weak acid at the system level is instrumental to guide synthetic pathway engineering for robustness improvement of industrial strains envisaging their use in lignocellulosic biorefineries. RESULTS: This study was performed to identify, at a genome-wide scale, genes whose expression confers protection or susceptibility to formic acid, based on the screening of a haploid deletion mutant collection to search for these phenotypes in the presence of 60, 70 and 80 mM of this acid, at pH 4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428819/lipid-production-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-for-regulation-of-accd-gene-in-cyanobacteria-under-different-n-and-p-regimes
#11
Roshan Kumar, Koushik Biswas, Puneet Kumar Singh, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Sanniyasi Elumalai, Pratyoosh Shukla, Sunil Pabbi
BACKGROUND: Microalgae grown under different nutrient deficient conditions present a good source of natural lipids with applications for several types of biofuels. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene can further provide an insight to the mechanisms leading to enhanced lipid production under such stresses. In this study, two nutrients viz. nitrogen and phosphorus were modulated to see its effect on lipid productivity in selected cyanobacteria and its correlation with Accase followed by molecular dynamics simulation...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428777/lactobacillus-fermentum-postbiotic-induced-autophagy-as-potential-approach-for-treatment-of-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity
#12
Miroslav Dinić, Jovanka Lukić, Jelena Djokić, Marina Milenković, Ivana Strahinić, Nataša Golić, Jelena Begović
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of postbiotics originated from Lactobacillus fermentum BGHV110 strain (HV110) to counteract acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This strain was selected according to its autophagy inducing potential, based on previous studies reporting protective role of autophagy in APAP caused cellular damage. Cell viability was assessed using MTT and LDH assays, while autophagy was monitored by qPCR analysis of BECN1, Atg5, p62/SQSTM1, and PINK1 mRNA expression and by Western blot analysis of p62/SQSTM1 and lipidated LC3 accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428634/lipid-droplets-and-liver-disease-from-basic-biology-to-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Nina L Gluchowski, Michel Becuwe, Tobias C Walther, Robert V Farese
Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that store neutral lipids during times of energy excess and serve as an energy reservoir during deprivation. Many prevalent metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome or obesity, often result in abnormal lipid accumulation in lipid droplets in the liver, also called hepatic steatosis. Obesity-related steatosis, or NAFLD in particular, is a major public health concern worldwide and is frequently associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we review the latest insights into the biology of lipid droplets and their role in maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428430/collagen-beta-1-o-galactosyltransferase-1-glt25d1-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-and-affects-lipid-accumulation
#14
Julie A Webster, Zhe Yang, Yu-Hee Kim, Dorothy Loo, Rasha M Mosa, Hongzhuo Li, Chen Chen
Secretion of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is dependent on post-translational modification (PTM) of conserved lysines in the collagenous domain. This work aims to characterize the enzymes responsible for the PTM of conserved lysines which leads to HMW adiponectin secretion, and to define its significance in relation to obesity.  Collagen beta (1- O ) galactosyltransferase 1 (GLT25D1) was knocked down in HEK cells modified for the stable expression of adiponectin (Adipo-HEK cells) as well as in Simpson Golabi-Behmel-Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes...
April 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428362/hepatic-lipid-accumulation-cause-and-consequence-of-dysregulated-glucoregulatory-hormones
#15
Caroline E Geisler, Benjamin Jennings Renquist
Fatty liver can be diet, endocrine, genetic, viral, or drug induced. Independent of cause, hepatic lipid accumulation promotes systemic metabolic dysfunction. By acting as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands, hepatic non-esterified fatty acids upregulate expression of gluconeogenic, beta-oxidative, lipogenic, and ketogenic genes, promoting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and ketosis. The typical hormonal environment in fatty liver disease consists of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone deficiency, and elevated sympathetic tone...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428350/targeted-inactivation-of-copper-transporter-atp7b-in-hepatocytes-causes-liver-steatosis-and-obesity-in-mice
#16
Abigael Muchenditsi, Haojun Yang, James P Hamilton, Lahari Koganti, Franck Housseau, Lisa Aronov, Hongni Fan, Hannah Pierson, Ashima Bhattacharjee, Robert C Murphy, Cynthia L Sears, James J Potter, Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee, Svetlana Lutsenko
The copper transporter ATP7B is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Mutations in ATP7B result in copper accumulation, especially in the liver, and cause Wilson disease (WD). The major role of hepatocytes in WD pathology is firmly established. It is less certain whether the excess Cu in hepatocytes is solely responsible for development of WD. To address this issue, we generated a mouse strain for Cre-mediated deletion of Atp7b and inactivated Atp7b selectively in hepatocytes. Atp7bΔ(Hep) mice accumulate copper in the liver, have elevated urinary copper, lack holo-ceruloplasmin, but show no liver disease for up to 30 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428217/microrna-33-regulates-macrophage-autophagy-in-atherosclerosis
#17
Mireille Ouimet, Hasini Ediriweera, Milessa Silva Afonso, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Ragunath Singaravelu, Xianghai Liao, Rachel C Bandler, Karishma Rahman, Edward A Fisher, Katey J Rayner, John P Pezacki, Ira Tabas, Kathryn J Moore
OBJECTIVE: Defective autophagy in macrophages leads to pathological processes that contribute to atherosclerosis, including impaired cholesterol metabolism and defective efferocytosis. Autophagy promotes the degradation of cytoplasmic components in lysosomes and plays a key role in the catabolism of stored lipids to maintain cellular homeostasis. microRNA-33 (miR-33) is a post-transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, yet the complete mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428116/cycloastragenol-improves-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor-signalling
#18
Ming Gu, Shiying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Shengjie Fan, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Qingchun Tong, Cheng Huang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a global health problem. However, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a potential drug target for treatment of NAFLD. In an attempt to screen FXR agonists, we found that cycloastragenol (CAG), a natural occurring compound in Astragali Radix, stimulated FXR transcription activity. In animal studies, we demonstrated that CAG treatment resulted in obvious reduction of high-fat diet induced lipid accumulation in liver accompanied by lowered blood glucose, serum triglyceride levels and hepatic bile acid pool size...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427316/a-multiscale-modelling-approach-to-understand-atherosclerosis-formation-a-patient-specific-case-study-in-the-aortic-bifurcation
#19
Mona Alimohammadi, Cesar Pichardo-Almarza, Obiekezie Agu, Vanessa Díaz-Zuccarini
Atherogenesis, the formation of plaques in the wall of blood vessels, starts as a result of lipid accumulation (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in the vessel wall. Such accumulation is related to the site of endothelial mechanotransduction, the endothelial response to mechanical stimuli and haemodynamics, which determines biochemical processes regulating the vessel wall permeability. This interaction between biomechanical and biochemical phenomena is complex, spanning different biological scales and is patient-specific, requiring tools able to capture such mathematical and biological complexity in a unified framework...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427235/catan-ionic-hybrid-lipidic-nano-carriers-for-enhanced-bioavailability-and-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-chemodrugs
#20
Bilin Liu, Dan He, Jianyong Wu, Quan Sun, Mi Zhang, Qunyou Tan, Yao Li, Jingqing Zhang
To date there has not been any report on catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers, let alone a report on applying them to deliver insoluble anti-tumor drugs. Catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers containing curcumin (CUR-C-HLN) inherit the merits of catan-ionic systems, hybrid lipidic systems and nano-structured carriers (the second-generation substitute of solid lipidic nano-systems). Catan-ionic surfactants increased microvesicle stabilization by producing unordered isometric clusters, enhanced absorptive amount as an inhibitor of enzyme and protein, improved tumor accumulation by cellular endocytosis and membranous fusion; hybrid lipids helped to obtain high drug content and low leakage by forming a less-organized matrix arrangement...
March 6, 2017: Oncotarget
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