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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241103/prevalence-and-correlates-of-benzodiazepine-use-and-misuse-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#1
Benjamin A Bouvier, Katherine M Waye, Beth Elston, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine use dramatically increases the risk of unintentional overdose among people who use opioids non-medically. However, little is known about the patterns of co-occurring benzodiazepine and opioid use among young adults in the United States. METHODS: The Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS) was a cross-sectional study from January 2015-February 2016. RAPiDS recruited 200 young adults aged 18-29 who reported past 30-day non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240853/the-evaluation-of-medical-inpatients-who-are-admitted-on-long-term-opioid-therapy-for-chronic-pain
#2
Hilary Mosher, Shoshana J Herzig, Itai Danovitch, Christina Boutsicaris, Sameer Hassamal, Karl Wittnebel, Azadeh Dashti, Teryl Nuckols
Individuals who are on long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic noncancer pain are frequently admitted to the hospital with acute pain, exacerbations of chronic pain, or comorbidities. Consequently, hospitalists find themselves faced with complex treatment decisions in the context of uncertainty about the effectiveness of LTOT as well as concerns about risks of overdose, opioid use disorders, and adverse events. Our multidisciplinary team sought to synthesize guideline recommendations and primary literature relevant to assessing medical inpatients on LTOT, with the objective of assisting practitioners in balancing effective pain treatment and opioid risk reduction...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229721/opioid-prescriptions-still-rising-but-for-smaller-quantities
#3
Lauren Vogel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228098/association-of-household-opioid-availability-and-prescription-opioid-initiation-among-household-members
#4
Marissa J Seamans, Timothy S Carey, Daniel J Westreich, Stephen R Cole, Stephanie B Wheeler, G Caleb Alexander, Virginia Pate, M Alan Brookhart
Importance: Increases in prescription opioid use in the United States have been attributed to changing prescribing guidelines and attitudes toward pain relief; however, the spread of opioid use within households through drug diversion may also be a contributing factor. Objective: To investigate whether individuals living in a household with a prescription opioid user are more likely to initiate prescription opioids themselves, compared with individuals in households with a prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) user...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227839/medical-marijuana-laws-and-adolescent-use-of-marijuana-and-other-substances-alcohol-cigarettes-prescription-drugs-and-other-illicit-drugs
#5
Magdalena Cerdá, Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie Wall, Tianshu Feng, Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Historical shifts have taken place in the last twenty years in marijuana policy. The impact of medical marijuana laws (MML) on use of substances other than marijuana is not well understood. We examined the relationship between state MML and use of marijuana, cigarettes, illicit drugs, nonmedical use of prescription opioids, amphetamines, and tranquilizers, as well as binge drinking. METHODS: Pre-post MML difference-in-difference analyses were performed on a nationally representative sample of adolescents in 48 contiguous U...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227444/the-association-between-local-economic-conditions-and-opioid-prescriptions-among-disabled-medicare-beneficiaries
#6
Chao Zhou, Ning Neil Yu, Jan L Losby
BACKGROUND: This paper concerns public health crises today-the problem of opioid prescription access and related abuse. Inspired by Case and Deaton's seminal work on increasing mortality among white Americans with lower education, this paper explores the relationship between opioid prescribing and local economic factors. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between county-level socioeconomic factors (median household income, unemployment rate, Gini index) and opioid prescribing...
January 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226863/associations-between-use-of-specific-analgesics-and-concentrations-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-or-phospho-tau-in-regions-of-human-cerebral-cortex
#7
Margaret E Flanagan, Eric B Larson, Rod L Walker, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Brenna Cholerton, Joshua A Sonnen, Sascha Dublin, Paul K Crane, Thomas J Montine
Analgesics are commonly used by older adults, raising the question of whether their use might contribute to dementia risk and neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study is a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia among people 65 years or older who are community dwelling and not demented at entry. Amyloid-β (Aβ)42 and phospho-tau were quantified using Histelide in regions of cerebral cortex from 420 brain autopsies. Total standard daily doses of prescription opioid and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during a defined 10-year exposure window were identified using automated pharmacy dispensing data and used to classify people as having no/low, intermediate, or high exposure...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225793/recent-advances-in-acute-pain-management-understanding-the-mechanisms-of-acute-pain-the-prescription-of-opioids-and-the-role-of-multimodal-pain-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Richa Wardhan, Jacques Chelly
In this review, we discuss advances in acute pain management, including the recent report of the joint American Pain Society and American Academy of Pain Medicine task force on the classification of acute pain, the role of psychosocial factors, multimodal pain management, new non-opioid therapy, and the effect of the "opioid epidemic". In this regard, we propose that a fundamental principle in acute pain management is identifying patients who are most at risk and providing an "opioid free anesthesia and postoperative analgesia"...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222361/evaluation-of-opioid-prescribing-after-rescheduling-of-hydrocodone-containing-products
#9
M Brooke Bernhardt, Ruston S Taylor, Joseph L Hagan, Nihar Patel, Corrie E Chumpitazi, Karin A Fox, Chris Glover
PURPOSE: Institutional prescribing trends of hydrocodone-containing products (HCPs) before and after the Drug Enforcement Administration's rescheduling of HCPs were evaluated. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed on 6 oral opioid analgesics on the hospital formulary that were prescribed to patients treated at Texas Children's Hospital and Pavilion for Women for the 6 months before and after the rescheduling of HCPs on October 6, 2014. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were prescribed any of the following oral agents: HCPs (e...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220668/nonmedical-prescription-opioids-and-pathways-of-drug-involvement-in-the-us-generational-differences
#10
Melanie Wall, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Mei-Chen Hu, Tianshu Feng, Pamela Griesler, Denise B Kandel
BACKGROUND: This study sought to specify (1) the position of nonmedical prescription opioids (NMPO) in drug initiation sequences among Millennials (1979-96), Generation X (1964-79), and Baby Boomers (1949-64) and (2) gender and racial/ethnic differences in sequences among Millennials. METHODS: Data are from the 2013-2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (n=73,026). We identified statistically significant drug initiation sequences involving alcohol/cigarettes, marijuana, NMPO, cocaine, and heroin using a novel method distinguishing significant sequences from patterns expected only due to correlations induced by common liability among drugs...
November 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220525/impact-of-opioid-dose-reduction-and-risk-mitigation-initiatives-on-chronic-opioid-therapy-patients-at-higher-risk-for-opioid-related-adverse-outcomes
#11
Manu Thakral, Rod L Walker, Kathleen Saunders, Susan M Shortreed, Sascha Dublin, Michael Parchman, Ryan N Hansen, Evette Ludman, Karen J Sherman, Michael Von Korff
Objective: We aimed to determine if opioid risk reduction initiatives including dose reduction and risk mitigation strategies for chronic noncancer pain patients receiving chronic opioid therapy (COT) had a differential impact on average daily opioid doses of COT patients at higher risk for opioid-related adverse outcomes compared with lower-risk patients. Design: Interrupted time series. Setting: Group Health Cooperative (GH), a health care delivery system and insurance within Washington State, between 2006 and 2014...
December 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216521/the-use-of-palliative-medications-before-death-from-prostate-cancer-swedish-population-based-study-with-a-comparative-overview-of-european-data
#12
Magdalena Lycken, Linda Drevin, Hans Garmo, Pär Stattin, Jan Adolfsson, Ingela Franck Lissbrant, Lars Holmberg, Anna Bill-Axelson
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of terminal cancer have previously been reported as undertreated. The aim of this study was to assess the use of palliative medications before death from prostate cancer. METHODS: This Swedish register study included men who died from 2009 to 2012 with prostate cancer as the underlying cause of death. We assessed the proportion who collected a prescription of androgen deprivation therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, opioids, glucocorticoids, antidepressants, anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics and the differences in treatment related to age, time since diagnosis, educational level, close relatives and comorbidities...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215508/opioid-knowledge-and-prescribing-practices-among-obstetrician-gynecologists
#13
Annetta M Madsen, Lauren M Stark, Phinnara Has, Jenna B Emerson, Jay Schulkin, Kristen A Matteson
OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) knowledge and prescribing practices regarding opioid analgesics. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a national sample of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Fellows and Junior Fellows who are part of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network. We used a sequential mixed-method approach. We collected data on opioid knowledge and typical prescribing practices, including number, type, and indication for prescriptions...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215492/postoperative-opioid-use-complications-and-costs-in-surgical-management-of-lumbar-spondylolisthesis
#14
Daniel Vail, Tej D Azad, Chloe O'Connell, Summer S Han, Anand Veeravagu, John K Ratliff
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis on a national longitudinal database (2007-2014). OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between arthrodesis and complication rates, costs, surgical revision, and postoperative opioid prescription. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Arthrodesis in patients receiving laminectomy for lumbar spondylolisthesis remains controversial. However, population-level evidence to support the use of arthrodesis remains limited...
December 5, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215370/opioid-use-after-discharge-in-postoperative-patients-a-systematic-review
#15
Adina E Feinberg, Tyler R Chesney, Sanjho Srikandarajah, Sergio A Acuna, Robin S McLeod
BACKGROUND: Over the past 2 decades, there has been an increase in opioid use and subsequently, opioid deaths. The amount of opioid prescribed to surgical patients has also increased. The aim of this systematic review was to determine postdischarge opioid consumption in surgical patients compared with the amount of opioid prescribed. Secondary outcomes included adequacy of pain control and disposal methods for unused opioids. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to characterize postdischarge opioid consumption and prescription patterns in surgical patients...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215369/from-data-to-practice-increasing-awareness-of-opioid-prescribing-data-changes-practice
#16
Cornelius A Thiels, Kristine T Hanson, Robert R Cima, Elizabeth B Habermann
: We hypothesized that the recent attention to the opioid epidemic, combined with internal dissemination of data on prescribing practices, impacted our institution's opioid prescribing at discharge from elective surgery. We reviewed our recent practice to assess whether this increasing awareness resulted in reductions of opioid prescriptions for patients with acute pain. Data on prescribing for patients undergoing elective surgery between 2016 and early 2017 demonstrated that opioid prescribing practices have improved in the recent era without an observed increase in refill rates...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214743/gc-ms-ms-detects-potential-pregabalin-abuse-in-susceptible-subjects-hair
#17
Federica Ianni, Kyriaki Aroni, Alessio Gili, Roccaldo Sardella, Mauro Bacci, Massimo Lancia, Benedetto Natalini, Cristiana Gambelunghe
Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognized as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals...
December 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207909/the-evolving-role-of-long-term-pharmacotherapy-for-opioid-induced-constipation-in-patients-being-treated-for-noncancer-pain
#18
Brandi L Bowers, Andrew J Crannage
Nationally, the prescription of opioids for acute and chronic pain is increasing. As opioid use continues to expand and become of increased concern for health-care practitioners, so do the adverse effects and long-term management of those effects. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) presents a unique challenge because tolerance does not develop to this particular adverse effect, making chronic pain management a delicate balance between relieving pain and preventing long-term adverse effects such as constipation and dependence...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206984/rational-urine-drug-monitoring-in-patients-receiving-opioids-for-chronic-pain-consensus-recommendations
#19
Charles E Argoff, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Fudin, Jeremy A Adler, Matthew J Bair, Richard C Dart, Roy Gandolfi, Bill H McCarberg, Steven P Stanos, Jeffrey A Gudin, Rosemary C Polomano, Lynn R Webster
Objective: To develop consensus recommendations on urine drug monitoring (UDM) in patients with chronic pain who are prescribed opioids. Methods: An interdisciplinary group of clinicians with expertise in pain, substance use disorders, and primary care conducted virtual meetings to review relevant literature and existing guidelines and share their clinical experience in UDM before reaching consensus recommendations. Results: Definitive (e...
December 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205415/systematic-review-human-gut-dysbiosis-induced-by-non-antibiotic-prescription-medications
#20
REVIEW
Q Le Bastard, G A Al-Ghalith, M Grégoire, G Chapelet, F Javaudin, E Dailly, E Batard, D Knights, E Montassier
BACKGROUND: Global prescription drug use has been increasing continuously for decades. The gut microbiome, a key contributor to health status, can be altered by prescription drug use, as antibiotics have been repeatedly described to have both short-term and long-standing effects on the intestinal microbiome. AIM: To summarise current findings on non-antibiotic prescription-induced gut microbiome changes, focusing on the most frequently prescribed therapeutic drug categories...
December 5, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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