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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340259/sedative-prescriptions-are-common-at-opioid-initiation-an-observational-study-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#1
Hilary J Mosher, Kelly K Richardson, Brian C Lund
Background.:  Concurrent use of sedatives, especially anxiolytics, and opioids is associated with increased risk of medication-related harms. To the extent that multiple prescribers are involved, approaches to influence patterns of coprescribing will differ from those to influence prescribing within a single drug class. Objectives.:  Describe the proportion of new opioid recipients with concurrent sedative medications at opioid initiation and determine whether these medications were prescribed by the same prescriber...
March 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340233/increase-in-drug-overdose-deaths-involving-fentanyl-rhode-island-january-2012-march-2014
#2
Melissa C Mercado, Steven A Sumner, M Bridget Spelke, Michele K Bohm, David E Sugerman, Christina Stanley
Objective.:  This study identified sociodemographic, substance use, and multiple opioid prescriber and dispenser risk factors among drug overdose decedents in Rhode Island, in response to an increase in overdose deaths (ODs) involving fentanyl. Methods.:  This cross-sectional investigation comprised all ODs reviewed by Rhode Island's Office of the State Medical Examiners (OSME) during January 2012 to March 2014. Data for 536 decedents were abstracted from OSME's charts, death certificates, toxicology reports, and Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) databases...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340102/impact-of-unrestricted-access-to-pregabalin-on-the-use-of-opioids-and-other-cns-active-medications-a-cross-sectional-time-series-analysis
#3
Herman Kwok, Wayne Khuu, Kimberly Fernandes, Diana Martins, Mina Tadrous, Samantha Singh, David N Juurlink, Tara Gomes
Objective. : Access to pregabalin via Ontario's public drug insurance program was expanded to an unrestricted model on April 1, 2013, from a prior authorization model. This study aims to identify the effect of expanded access on the rate of pregabalin use by publicly insured persons and to assess the characteristics of new patients initiating pregabalin following this expanded access. Methods. : We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis using the linked health administrative records of residents of Ontario, Canada, with public drug coverage who were dispensed a prescription for pregabalin between April 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340060/physician-dispensing-of-oxycodone-and-other-commonly-used-opioids-2000-2015-united-states
#4
Karin Ann Mack, Christopher McCall Jones, Roderick John McClure
Objective.:  An average of 91 people in the United States die every day from an opioid-related overdose (including prescription opioids and heroin). The direct dispensing of opioids from health care practitioner offices has been linked to opioid-related harms. The objective of this study is to describe the changing nature of the volume of this type of prescribing at the state level. Methods.:  This descriptive study examines the distribution of opioids by practitioners using 1999-2015 Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System data...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340046/validation-of-a-screening-risk-index-for-serious-prescription-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-or-overdose-in-a-us-commercial-health-plan-claims-database
#5
Barbara K Zedler, William B Saunders, Andrew R Joyce, Catherine C Vick, E Lenn Murrelle
Objective.:  To validate a risk index that estimates the likelihood of overdose or serious opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) among medical users of prescription opioids. Subjects and Methods.:  A case-control analysis of 18,365,497 patients with an opioid prescription from 2009 to 2013 in the IMS PharMetrics Plus commercially insured health plan claims database (CIP). An OIRD event occurred in 7,234 cases. Four controls were selected per case. Validity of the Risk Index for Overdose or Serious Opioid-induced Respiratory Depression (RIOSORD), developed previously using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient data, was assessed...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340045/age-related-patterns-in-cancer-pain-and-its-psychosocial-impact-investigating-the-role-of-variability-in-physical-and-mental-health-quality-of-life
#6
Lynn R Gauthier, Robert H Dworkin, David Warr, Rebecca Pillai Riddell, Alison K Macpherson, Gary Rodin, Camilla Zimmermann, S Lawrence Librach, Malcolm Moore, Frances A Shepherd, Lucia Gagliese
Objective. : Age-related patterns in cancer pain remain equivocal. Most studies ignore heterogeneity across multiple domains of well-being, and the potential role of physical (PH) and mental health (MH) quality of life (QOL) in these age-related patterns is unknown. We investigated the relationships between age and cancer pain intensity, qualities, and interference, and physical and psychosocial adaptation and the interaction between age and PH and MH QOL on pain and adaptation to cancer pain...
March 3, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339965/opioid-prescriptions-by-specialty-in-ohio-2010-2014
#7
Scott G Weiner, Olesya Baker, Ann F Rodgers, Chad Garner, Lewis S Nelson, Peter W Kreiner, Jeremiah D Schuur
Background. : The current US opioid epidemic is attributed to the large volume of prescribed opioids. This study analyzed the contribution of different medical specialties to overall opioids by evaluating the pill counts and morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) of opioid prescriptions, stratified by provider specialty, and determined temporal trends. Methods. : This was an analysis of the Ohio prescription drug monitoring program database, which captures scheduled medication prescriptions filled in the state as well as prescriber specialty...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339737/a-novel-chronic-opioid-monitoring-tool-to-assess-prescription-drug-steady-state-levels-in-oral-fluid
#8
Naum Shaparin, Neel Mehta, Frank Kunkel, Richard Stripp, Damon Borg, Elizabeth Kolb
Objective. : Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels...
February 23, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339610/prescription-opioid-use-among-young-parents-in-the-united-states-results-from-the-national-longitudinal-study-of-adolescent-to-adult-health
#9
Anna E Austin, Meghan E Shanahan
Objectives.:  No estimates exist regarding the extent of prescription opioid use among US adults who are the primary caregivers to children. Methods.:  Data were from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were age 24 to 32 years. We compared the prevalence of prescription opioid use in the last four weeks and medical conditions with the potential to precipitate use among parents (i.e., one or more children living in the household) and nonparents...
January 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339555/an-item-bank-for-abuse-of-prescription-pain-medication-from-the-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis%C3%A2
#10
Paul A Pilkonis, Lan Yu, Nathan E Dodds, Kelly L Johnston, Suzanne M Lawrence, Thomas F Hilton, Dennis C Daley, Ashwin A Patkar, Dennis McCarty
Objective.:  There is a need to monitor patients receiving prescription opioids to detect possible signs of abuse. To address this need, we developed and calibrated an item bank for severity of abuse of prescription pain medication as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ). Methods.:  Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 5,310 items relevant to substance use and abuse, including abuse of prescription pain medication, from over 80 unique instruments...
October 8, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#11
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333571/screening-and-assessment-of-substance-use-in-hospice-care-examining-content-from-a-national-sample-of-psychosocial-assessments
#12
Paul Sacco, John G Cagle, Melissa L Moreland, Elizabeth A S Camlin
BACKGROUND: Quality of care provided by hospice and palliative care agencies depends on a thorough understanding of the patient, the family, their history, and current risk factors. It is therefore imperative for social workers and other providers in these settings to assess patients and caregivers for substance use disorders and potential for substance misuse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how hospice social workers in the United States screen and assess for alcohol and substance use and risk of medication diversion among patients and family caregivers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331358/pain-behavior-mediates-the-relationship-between-perceived-injustice-and-opioid-prescription-for-chronic-pain-a-collaborative-health-outcomes-information-registry-study
#13
Junie S Carriere, Marc-Olivier Martel, Ming-Chih Kao, Michael Jl Sullivan, Beth D Darnall
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perceived injustice has been defined as an appraisal regarding the severity and irreparability of loss associated with pain, blame and a sense of unfairness. Recent findings have identified perceived injustice as an important risk factor for pain-related outcomes. Studies suggest that perceived injustice is associated with opioid prescription in patients with pain conditions. However, the mechanisms by which perceived injustice is linked to opioid prescription are not well understood...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326630/addressing-the-prescription-opioid-crisis-potential-for-hospital-based-interventions
#14
EDITORIAL
Brian Kim, Seonaid Nolan, Lianping Ti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323765/misuse-of-opioids-in-orthopaedic-postoperative-patients
#15
Anup Gangavalli, Ajith Malige, George Terres, Saqib Rehman, Chinenye Nwachuku
OBJECTIVE: In light of the recent uptrend in the prescription of opioids, this study seeks to identify patterns of opioid misuse among orthopaedic postoperative patients and principal external sources in obtaining these medications. DESIGN: Ten-month survey-based study. SETTING: Two Level I trauma centers (urban and suburban). PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seven patients between the ages of 18 and 89 years who underwent surgical fixation of fractures involving the pelvis, long bones, or periarticular regions of the knee, ankle, elbow, and wrist...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320869/prescription-opioid-exposures-among-children-and-adolescents-in-the-united-states-2000-2015
#16
Jakob D Allen, Marcel J Casavant, Henry A Spiller, Thiphalak Chounthirath, Nichole L Hodges, Gary A Smith
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzes and compares exposures to prescription opioids among children and adolescents younger than 20 years old in the United States. METHODS: Data from the National Poison Data System for 2000 through 2015 were analyzed. RESULTS: Poison control centers received reports of 188 468 prescription opioid exposures among children aged <20 years old from 2000 through 2015. The annual number and rate of exposures increased early in the study period, but declined after 2009, except for buprenorphine exposures, which increased during the last 3 study years...
March 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320868/trends-in-medical-and-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-opioids-among-us-adolescents-1976-2015
#17
Sean Esteban McCabe, Brady T West, Phil Veliz, Vita V McCabe, Sarah A Stoddard, Carol J Boyd
OBJECTIVES: Most US studies of national trends in medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids have focused on adults. Given the limited understanding in these trends among adolescents, we examine national trends in the medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors between 1976 and 2015. METHODS: The data used for the study come from the Monitoring the Future study of adolescents. Forty cohorts of nationally representative samples of high school seniors (modal age 18) were used to examine self-reported medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids...
March 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315808/benzodiazepine-z-drug-and-pregabalin-prescriptions-and-mortality-among-patients-in-opioid-maintenance-treatment-a-nation-wide-register-based-open-cohort-study
#18
Tove Abrahamsson, Jonas Berge, Agneta Öjehagen, Anders Håkansson
BACKGROUND: Use of sedatives may increase risk of death in opioid users. The aim of the study was to assess whether prescription of sedatives may be associated with mortality in patients in opioid maintenance treatment. METHODS: This retrospective register-based open cohort study included nation-wide register data including all individuals who were dispensed methadone or buprenorphine as opioid maintenance treatment for opioid dependence between July, 2005 and December, 2012 (N=4501)...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301454/characteristics-of-initial-prescription-episodes-and-likelihood-of-long-term-opioid-use-united-states-2006-2015
#19
Anuj Shah, Corey J Hayes, Bradley C Martin
Because long-term opioid use often begins with treatment of acute pain (1), in March 2016, the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain included recommendations for the duration of opioid therapy for acute pain and the type of opioid to select when therapy is initiated (2). However, data quantifying the transition from acute to chronic opioid use are lacking. Patient records from the IMS Lifelink+ database were analyzed to characterize the first episode of opioid use among commercially insured, opioid-naïve, cancer-free adults and quantify the increase in probability of long-term use of opioids with each additional day supplied, day of therapy, or incremental increase in cumulative dose...
March 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298221/post-operative-opioid-pain-management-patterns-for-patients-who-receive-hip-surgery
#20
Chad E Cook, Daniel I Rhon, Brian D Lewis, Steven Z George
BACKGROUND: Identifying optimal, post-operative opioid management strategies is a priority of health providers and government agencies. At present, there are no studies we are aware of that have formally investigated opioid prescribing patterns for post-operative non-arthroplasty orthopedic conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement, nor has any study investigated the influence of opioid prescription patterns on health care costs and utilization. We aimed to investigate a subgrouping scheme associated with post-operative opioid prescription strategies and measure the subgroups' direct and indirect health care utilization and costs in individuals undergoing non-arthroplasty orthopedic hip surgery...
March 16, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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