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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456007/fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-is-covalently-associated-with-collagen-fibrils-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-body-wall
#1
Jun Wang, Yaoguang Chang, Fanxiu Wu, Xiaoqi Xu, Changhu Xue
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) is the major carbohydrate constituent of sea cucumber. However, the distribution of fCS in the sea cucumber body wall has not been fully described. We addressed this in the present study employing Apostichopus japonicus as the material, a sea cucumber species with significant commercial importance. It was found that fCS was covalently attached to collagen fibrils via O-glycosidic linkages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that fCS precipitate was present in gap regions of collagen fibrils as roughly globular or ellipsoidal dots...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455256/terrestrial-aquatic-trophic-linkages-support-fish-production-in-a-tropical-oligotrophic-river
#2
Sandra Bibiana Correa, Kirk Winemiller
Despite low in situ primary productivity, tropical oligotrophic rivers support highly diverse fish assemblages and productive fisheries. This raises the question, what energy sources support fish production in these ecosystems? We sampled fish and food resources in the floodplain of a nearly pristine, large, oligotrophic river in western Amazonia. We combined data from stomach contents and stable isotopes to test the hypothesis that floodplain forests sustain fisheries in tropical oligotrophic rivers. Analysis of stomach contents from > 800 specimens of 12 omnivorous fish species demonstrated that during the annual flood, forest plant matter dominated diets...
February 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454999/long-term-treatment-with-green-tea-polyphenols-modifies-the-gut-microbiome-of-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Jincheng Wang, Lili Tang, Hongyuan Zhou, Jun Zhou, Travis C Glenn, Chwan-Li Shen, Jia-Sheng Wang
Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been shown to exert a spectrum of health benefits to animals and humans. It is plausible that the beneficial effects of GTP are a result of its interaction with the gut microbiota. This study evaluated the effect of long-term treatment with GTP on the gut microbiota of experimental rats and the potential linkage between changes of the gut microbiota with the beneficial effects of GTP. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three dosing regimens (0, 0...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454979/variants-of-tlr1-associated-with-tuberculosis-susceptibility-in-the-chinese-tibetan-population-but-not-in-han-chinese
#4
Miaomiao Zhang, Xiaoyan Tang, Yu Wang, Shouquan Wu, Minggui Wang, Qianqian Liu, Andrew J Sandford, Jian-Qing He
Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) participates in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study mainly investigated the relationship between polymorphisms of TLR1 and tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility in the two Chinese populations. Totally, 1185 Han and 1216 Tibetan participants were enrolled. TagSNPs of TLR1 were selected and genotyped. Analyses of linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes were performed by software Haploview and SHEsis. Gene-gene interactions were evaluated using the nonparametric multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method...
February 15, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454350/application-of-four-dimension-criteria-to-assess-rigour-of-qualitative-research-in-emergency-medicine
#5
Roberto Forero, Shizar Nahidi, Josephine De Costa, Mohammed Mohsin, Gerry Fitzgerald, Nick Gibson, Sally McCarthy, Patrick Aboagye-Sarfo
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this methodological manuscript was to illustrate the role of using qualitative research in emergency settings. We outline rigorous criteria applied to a qualitative study assessing perceptions and experiences of staff working in Australian emergency departments. METHODS: We used an integrated mixed-methodology framework to identify different perspectives and experiences of emergency department staff during the implementation of a time target government policy...
February 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454195/chrna4-variant-causes-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-and-genetic-epilepsy-with-febrile-seizures-plus
#6
Yong-Li Jiang, Fang Yuan, Ying Yang, Xiao-Long Sun, Lu Song, Wen Jiang
PURPOSE: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and epilepsy are thought to have a shared genetic etiology. PRRT2 has been identified as a causative gene of both disorders. In this study, we aim to explore the potential novel causative gene in a PRRT2-negative family with three individuals diagnosed with PKD or genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). METHODS: Clinical data were collected from all the affected and unaffected members of a PKD/GEFS+ family...
February 10, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453494/population-genetic-data-of-investigator-hdplex-markers-in-han-population-from-southern-china
#7
Qiuling Liu, Hailun Nan, Xin He, Weiwei Wu, Dejian Lu
Allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters for 12 STRs contained in the Investigator HDplex Kit (D2S1360, D3S1744, D4S2366, D5S2500, SE33, D6S474, D7S1517, D8S1132, D10S2325, D12S391, D18S51, and D21S2055) were estimated from a sample of 503 unrelated individuals from the Guangdong Han population of South China. No significant departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or genetic linkage disequilibrium was observed (after Bonferroni correction). The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.6411 to 0...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453451/prevalence-and-impact-of-baseline-resistance-associated-substitutions-on-the-efficacy-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-or-simeprevir-sofosbuvir-against-gt1-hcv-infection
#8
Gary P Wang, Norah Terrault, Jacqueline D Reeves, Lin Liu, Eric Li, Lisa Zhao, Joseph K Lim, Giuseppe Morelli, Alexander Kuo, Josh Levitsky, Kenneth E Sherman, Lynn M Frazier, Ananthakrishnan Ramani, Joy Peter, Lucy Akuskevich, Michael W Fried, David R Nelson
Baseline resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) have variable impacts in clinical trials but their prevalence and impact in real-world patients remains unclear. We performed baseline resistance testing using a commercial assay (10% cutoff) for 486 patients treated with LDV/SOF or SMV/SOF, with or without ribavirin, in the multi-center, observational HCV-TARGET cohort. Linkage of RASs was evaluated in selected samples using a novel quantitative single variant sequencing assay. Our results showed that the prevalence of NS3, NS5A, NS5B RASs was 45%, 13%, and 8%, respectively, and 10% of patients harbored RASs in 2 or more drug classes...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453261/molecular-and-functional-study-of-a-branching-sucrase-like-glucansucrase-reveals-an-evolutionary-intermediate-between-two-subfamilies-of-the-gh70-enzymes
#9
Minghui Yan, Bing-Hua Wang, Xiaofen Xu, Peng Chang, Feng Hang, Zhengjun Wu, Chunping You, Zhenmin Liu
Family GH70 glucansucrases (GSs) catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans from sucrose, a reaction widely seen in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These enzymes have been implicated in many aspects of the microbial life. Products of GSs have great commercial value as food supplements and medical materials, therefore these enzymes have attracted much attention from both fields of science and industry. However, certain issues concerning the origin and evolution of GS are still to be addressed, although an increasing number of GH70 enzymes have been characterized...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453195/mutation-of-ifnlr1-an-interferon-lambda-receptor-1-is-associated-with-autosomal-dominant-non-syndromic-hearing-loss
#10
Xue Gao, Yong-Yi Yuan, Qiong-Fen Lin, Jin-Cao Xu, Wei-Qian Wang, Yue-Hua Qiao, Dong-Yang Kang, Dan Bai, Feng Xin, Sha-Sha Huang, Shi-Wei Qiu, Li-Ping Guan, Yu Su, Guo-Jian Wang, Ming-Yu Han, Yi Jiang, Han-Kui Liu, Pu Dai
Background Hereditary sensorineural hearing loss is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Objectives This study was designed to explore the genetic etiology of deafness in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant, nonsyndromic, progressive sensorineural hearing loss (ADNSHL). Methods Whole exome sequencing and linkage analysis were performed to identify pathogenic mutation. Inner ear expression of Ifnlr1 was investigated by immunostaining in mice. ifnlr1 Morpholino knockdown Zebrafish were constructed to explore the deafness mechanism...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451875/linkage-to-hiv-care-following-diagnosis-in-the-who-european-region-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-2006-2017
#11
Sara Croxford, Zheng Yin, Fiona Burns, Andrew Copas, Katy Town, Sarika Desai, Andrew Skingsley, Valerie Delpech
BACKGROUND: Timely linkage to care after HIV diagnosis is crucial as delayed access can result in poor patient outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the evidence to achieve a better understanding of what proportion of patients are linked to care and what factors impact linkage. METHODS: Systematic searches were run in six databases up to the end of February 2017. The grey literature was also reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: sample size ≥50 people (aged ≥15), from the WHO European Region, published 2006-2017 and in English...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451517/-burden-of-diverticular-disease-an-observational-analysis-based-on-italian-real-world-data
#12
Francesco Saverio Mennini, Paolo Sciattella, Andrea Marcellusi, Bernardo Toraldo, Maurizio Koch
INTRODUCTION: Diverticular disease (DD) represent a wide variety of conditions associated with the presence of diverticula in the colon. The most serious form is an acute episode of diverticulitis which can lead to hospitalization and surgery with various types of consequences. The main aim of this study was to evaluate, from both cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective, the economic burden of diverticulitis in the real practice. METHOD: A deterministic linkage was performed at individual user level between the different administrative sources of the Marche Region through anonymised ID number for a period of analysis between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2014...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450471/association-of-childhood-infection-with-iq-and-adult-nonaffective-psychosis-in-swedish-men-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-study
#13
Golam M Khandaker, Christina Dalman, Nils Kappelmann, Jan Stochl, Henrik Dal, Kyriaki Kosidou, Peter B Jones, Håkan Karlsson
Importance: Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives: To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449697/stereochemical-identification-of-glucans-by-oligothiophenes-enables-cellulose-anatomical-mapping-in-plant-tissues
#14
Ferdinand X Choong, Marcus Bäck, Anette Schulz, K Peter R Nilsson, Ulrica Edlund, Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
Efficient use of plant-derived materials requires enabling technologies for non-disruptive composition analysis. The ability to identify and spatially locate polysaccharides in native plant tissues is difficult but essential. Here, we develop an optical method for cellulose identification using the structure-responsive, heptameric oligothiophene h-FTAA as molecular fluorophore. Spectrophotometric analysis of h-FTAA interacting with closely related glucans revealed an exceptional specificity for β-linked glucans...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449187/cortical-atrophy-patterns-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-patients-using-hierarchical-cluster-analysis
#15
Carme Uribe, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Alexandra Abos, Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Anna Campabadal, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Eduard Tolosa, Carme Junque
INTRODUCTION: Cortical brain atrophy detectable with MRI in non-demented advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is well characterized, but its presence in early disease stages is still under debate. We aimed to investigate cortical atrophy patterns in a large sample of early untreated PD patients using a hypothesis-free data-driven approach. METHODS: Seventy-seven de novo PD patients and 50 controls from the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative database with T1-weighted images in a 3-tesla Siemens scanner were included in this study...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448480/quantum-thermodynamics-from-the-nonequilibrium-dynamics-of-open-systems-energy-heat-capacity-and-the-third-law
#16
J-T Hsiang, C H Chou, Y Subaşı, B L Hu
In a series of papers, we intend to take the perspective of open quantum systems and examine from their nonequilibrium dynamics the conditions when the physical quantities, their relations, and the laws of thermodynamics become well defined and viable for quantum many-body systems. We first describe how an open-system nonequilibrium dynamics (ONEq) approach is different from the closed combined system + environment in a global thermal state (CGTs) setup. Only after the open system equilibrates will it be amenable to conventional thermodynamics descriptions, thus quantum thermodynamics (QTD) comes at the end rather than assumed in the beginning...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446938/hypoglycemic-effect-of-pyrodextrins-with-different-molecular-weights-and-digestibilities-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Yan Cao, Xiaoli Chen, Ying Sun, Jialiang Shi, Xiaojuan Xu, Yong-Cheng Shi
Pyrodextrin shares some properties of resistant starch which is metabolically beneficial, and has potential applications as a functional food. In this study, we report that oral administration of pyrodextrin (50 mg/kg/d for 7 weeks) decreased the blood glucose (from 9.18±1.47 to 7.67±0.42 mmol/L), serum HbA1c, triglycerides, adipocyte size, and body weights (from 24.4±1.2 to 22.5±1.2 g) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The Western blotting analysis suggested that pyrodextrins decreased the intestinal SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression to ~70% and ~60% of the obese control to slow down glucose transportation from gut into blood, and improved the hepatic metabolism tentatively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446774/proteome-wide-identification-of-ubiquitin-interactions-using-ubia-ms
#18
Xiaofei Zhang, Arne H Smits, Gabrielle Ba van Tilburg, Huib Ovaa, Wolfgang Huber, Michiel Vermeulen
Ubiquitin-binding proteins play an important role in eukaryotes by translating differently linked polyubiquitin chains into proper cellular responses. Current knowledge about ubiquitin-binding proteins and ubiquitin linkage-selective interactions is mostly based on case-by-case studies. We have recently reported a method called ubiquitin interactor affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry (UbIA-MS), which enables comprehensive identification of ubiquitin interactors for all ubiquitin linkages from crude cell lysates...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446343/cost-utility-analysis-of-antiviral-use-under-pandemic-influenza-using-a-novel-approach-linking-pharmacology-epidemiology-and-heath-economics
#19
D B C Wu, N Chaiyakunapruk, C Pratoomsoot, K K C Lee, H Y Chong, R E Nelson, P F Smith, C M Kirkpatrick, M A Kamal, K Nieforth, G Dall, S Toovey, D C M Kong, A Kamauu, C R Rayner
Simulation models are used widely in pharmacology, epidemiology and health economics (HEs). However, there have been no attempts to incorporate models from these disciplines into a single integrated model. Accordingly, we explored this linkage to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of oseltamivir dose optimisation in supporting pandemic influenza planning in the USA. An HE decision analytic model was linked to a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) - dynamic transmission model simulating the impact of pandemic influenza with low virulence and low transmissibility and, high virulence and high transmissibility...
February 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445773/leveraging-tuberculosis-case-relative-locations-to-enhance-case-detection-and-linkage-to-care-in-swaziland
#20
Marie Brunetti, Sathyanath Rajasekharan, Piluca Ustero, Katherine Ngo, Welile Sikhondze, Buli Mzileni, Anna Mandalakas, Alexander W Kay
Background: In Swaziland, as in many high HIV/TB burden settings, there is not information available regarding the household location of TB cases for identifying areas of increased TB incidence, limiting the development of targeted interventions. Data from "Butimba", a TB REACH active case finding project, was re-analyzed to provide insight into the location of TB cases surrounding Mbabane, Swaziland. Objective: The project aimed to identify geographical areas with high TB burdens to inform active case finding efforts...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
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