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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223283/regulatory-aspects-of-the-human-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#1
REVIEW
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, differentiation and metabolism during prenatal and postnatal life. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis is optimized for these actions. Knowledge of this hormonal axis is derived from decades of experiments in animals and man, and more recently from spontaneous mutations in man and constructed mutations in mice. This review examines the HPT-axis in relation to 24 h TSH profiles in men in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including obesity, age, longevity, and primary as well as central hypothyroidism...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209583/what-makes-the-optimal-wound-healing-material-a-review-of-current-science-and-introduction-of-a-synthetic-nanofabricated-wound-care-scaffold
#2
REVIEW
Matthew R MacEwan, Sarah MacEwan, Tamas R Kovacs, Joel Batts
Wound matrix materials are used to improve the regeneration of dermal and epidermal layers in both acute and chronic wounds. Contemporary wound matrices are primarily composed of biologic materials such as processed xenogeneic and allogeneic tissues. Unfortunately, existing biologic wound matrices possess multiple limitations including poor longevity, durability, strength, and enzymatic resistance required for persistent support for new tissue formation. A fully-synthetic, resorbable electrospun material (Restrata Wound Matrix, Acera, St...
October 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209423/the-physiological-effects-of-slow-breathing-in-the-healthy-human
#3
Marc A Russo, Danielle M Santarelli, Dean O'Rourke
Slow breathing practices have been adopted in the modern world across the globe due to their claimed health benefits. This has piqued the interest of researchers and clinicians who have initiated investigations into the physiological (and psychological) effects of slow breathing techniques and attempted to uncover the underlying mechanisms. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of normal respiratory physiology and the documented physiological effects of slow breathing techniques according to research in healthy humans...
December 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209360/assortative-mating-by-ethnicity-in-longevous-families
#4
Paola Sebastiani, Anastasia Gurinovich, Harold Bae, Stacy L Andersen, Thomas T Perls
Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS). In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195942/protective-effect-of-mulberry-fruit-anthocyanin-on-human-hepatocyte-cells-lo2-and-caenorhabditis-elegans-under-hyperglycemic-conditions
#5
Fujie Yan, Xin'an Chen, Xiaodong Zheng
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease and hyperglycemia is important in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Exposure of LO2 cells to high glucose resulted in cellular glucose consumption and uptake decreases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anion (O2-) accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, which could be partly recovered by mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE). And these protective effects were partly associated with regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream targets...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192902/relevance-of-the-p53-mdm2-axis-to-aging
#6
REVIEW
Danyi Wu, Carol Prives
In response to varying stress signals, the p53 tumor suppressor is able to promote repair, survival, or elimination of damaged cells - processes that have great relevance to organismal aging. Although the link between p53 and cancer is well established, the contribution of p53 to the aging process is less clear. Delineating how p53 regulates distinct aging hallmarks such as cellular senescence, genomic instability, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered metabolic pathways will be critical. Mouse models have further revealed the centrality and complexity of the p53 network in aging processes...
December 1, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190879/longevity-of-protective-immune-responses-induced-by-a-split-influenza-a-h7n9-vaccine-mixed-with-mf59-adjuvant-in-balb-c-mice
#7
Huilin Ou, Wei Yao, Dongshan Yu, Tianhao Weng, Frederick X C Wang, Xiaoxin Wu, Haibo Wu, Linfang Cheng, Xiangyun Lu, Nanping Wu, Honglin Chen, Lanjuan Li, Hangping Yao
The influenza virus is a serious threat to public health worldwide. A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus with a mortality rate of approximately 30% has been identified as an unusually dangerous virus for humans by the World Health Organization. Pathogenic H7N9 continue to represent a public health concern, and several candidate vaccines are currently in development. We generated candidate H7N9 vaccine strains using reverse genetics, consisting of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes derived from a human H7N9 virus and the remaining genes from the PR8 (A/PuertoRico/8/34 (H1N1)) virus...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187632/selection-bias-in-studies-of-human-reproduction-longevity-trade-offs
#8
Samuli Helle
A shorter lifespan as a potential cost of high reproductive effort in humans has intrigued researchers for more than a century. However, the results have been inconclusive so far and despite strong theoretical expectations we do not currently have compelling evidence for the longevity costs of reproduction. Using Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown here that a common practice in human reproduction-longevity studies using historical data (the most relevant data sources for this question), the omission of women who died prior to menopausal age from the analysis, results in severe underestimation of the potential underlying trade-off between reproduction and lifespan...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184395/does-eating-less-make-you-live-longer-and-better-an-update-on-calorie-restriction
#9
REVIEW
Anna Picca, Vito Pesce, Angela Maria Serena Lezza
The complexity of aging is hard to be captured. However, apart from its tissue-specific features, a structural and functional progressive decline of the whole organism that leads to death, often preceded by a phase of chronic morbidity, characterizes the common process of aging. Therefore, the research goal of scientists in the field moved from the search for strategies able to extend longevity to those ensuring healthy aging associated with a longer lifespan referred to as "healthspan". The aging process is plastic and can be tuned by multiple mechanisms including dietary and genetic interventions...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180764/synthesis-and-implication-of-novel-poly-acrylic-acid-nanosorbent-embedded-hydrogel-composite-for-lead-ion-removal
#10
Mayuri Bhatia, Satish Babu Rajulapati, Shirish Sonawane, Amandeep Girdhar
Lead stands second among the deadly heavy metal pollutants owing to the incompetent mechanism possessed by the human body for its removal. A polymeric hydrogel in the form of composite was prepared using acrylic acid (monomer) and novel nanofiller that possess super adsorbent properties with restricted gel seepage into flowing ionic liquid. The filler used is an adsorbent which is biocompatible, biodegradable, economical, abundant, non-hazardous and easy to synthesize. The invariably porous nanofiller, the Nanobentonite(clay), was synthesized using ion exchange reaction by creating acidic environment for accelerated dispersion with exfoliation by CTAB to enhance cation exchange capacity...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170765/historical-evolution-of-old-age-mortality-and-new-approaches-to-mortality-forecasting
#11
Leonid A Gavrilov, Natalia S Gavrilova, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko
Knowledge of future mortality levels and trends is important for actuarial practice but poses a challenge to actuaries and demographers. The Lee-Carter method, currently used for mortality forecasting, is based on the assumption that the historical evolution of mortality at all age groups is driven by one factor only. This approach cannot capture an additive manner of mortality decline observed before the 1960s. To overcome the limitation of the one-factor model of mortality and to determine the true number of factors underlying mortality changes over time, we suggest a new approach to mortality analysis and forecasting based on the method of latent variable analysis...
January 2017: Living to 100 Monograph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170764/mortality-trajectories-at-exceptionally-high-ages-a-study-of-supercentenarians
#12
Natalia S Gavrilova, Leonid A Gavrilov, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko
The growing number of persons surviving to age 100 years and beyond raises questions about the shape of mortality trajectories at exceptionally high ages, and this problem may become significant for actuaries in the near future. However, such studies are scarce because of the difficulties in obtaining reliable age estimates at exceptionally high ages. The current view about mortality beyond age 110 years suggests that death rates do not grow with age and are virtually flat. The same assumption is made in the new actuarial VBT tables...
January 2017: Living to 100 Monograph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159140/debate-on-human-aging-and-lifespan
#13
EDITORIAL
Mohammad A Rafi, Abass Alavi
The issue of human lifespan has long been a matter of controversy among scientists. In spite of the recent claim by Dong et al that human lifespan is limited to 115 years, with the mounting improvements in biotechnology and scientific understanding of aging, we may be confident that aging will slow down over the course of the current century extending human longevity much longer than 115 years.
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152572/a-null-mutation-in-serpine1-protects-against-biological-aging-in-humans
#14
Sadiya S Khan, Sanjiv J Shah, Ekaterina Klyachko, Abigail S Baldridge, Mesut Eren, Aaron T Place, Abraham Aviv, Eli Puterman, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Meadow Heiman, Toshio Miyata, Sweta Gupta, Amy D Shapiro, Douglas E Vaughan
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been shown to be a key component of the senescence-related secretome and a direct mediator of cellular senescence. In murine models of accelerated aging, genetic deficiency and targeted inhibition of PAI-1 protect against aging-like pathology and prolong life span. However, the role of PAI-1 in human longevity remains unclear. We hypothesized that a rare loss-of-function mutation in SERPINE1 (c.699_700dupTA), which encodes PAI-1, could play a role in longevity and metabolism in humans...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151852/ancient-oncogenesis-infection-and-human-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Riaan F Rifkin, Marnie Potgieter, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Don A Cowan
The recent discovery that malignant neoplastic lesions date back nearly 2 million years ago not only highlights the antiquity of cancer in the human lineage, but also provides remarkable insight into ancestral hominin disease pathology. Using these Early Pleistocene examples as a point of departure, we emphasize the prominent role of viral and bacterial pathogens in oncogenesis and evaluate the impact of pathogens on human evolutionary processes in Africa. In the Shakespearean vernacular "what's past is prologue," we highlight the significance of novel information derived from ancient pathogenic DNA...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146545/werner-syndrome-wrn-gene-variants-and-their-association-with-altered-function-and-age-associated-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Michel Lebel, Raymond J Monnat
Werner syndrome (WS) is a heritable autosomal recessive human disorder characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies including cancer. The protein defective in WS patients, WRN, is encoded by a member of the human RECQ gene family that contains both a DNA exonuclease and a helicase domain. WRN has been shown to participate in several DNA metabolic pathways including DNA replication, recombination and repair, as well as telomere maintenance and transcription modulation. Here we review base pair-level genetic variation that has been documented in WRN, with an emphasis on non-synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their associations with anthropomorphic features, longevity and disease risk...
November 14, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143599/epistasis-physical-capacity-related-genes-and-exceptional-longevity-fndc5-gene-interactions-with-candidate-genes-foxoa3-and-apoe
#17
Noriyuki Fuku, Roberto Díaz-Peña, Yasumichi Arai, Yukiko Abe, Hirofumi Zempo, Hisashi Naito, Haruka Murakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Carlos Spuch, José A Serra-Rexach, Enzo Emanuele, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Alejandro Lucia
BACKGROUND: Forkhead box O3A (FOXOA3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) are arguably the strongest gene candidates to influence human exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., being a centenarian), but inconsistency exists among cohorts. Epistasis, defined as the effect of one locus being dependent on the presence of 'modifier genes', may contribute to explain the missing heritability of complex phenotypes such as EL. We assessed the potential association of epistasis among candidate polymorphisms related to physical capacity, as well as antioxidant defense and cardiometabolic traits, and EL in the Japanese population...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143441/cellular-aging-dynamics-after-acute-malaria-infection-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#18
Muhammad Asghar, Victor Yman, Manijeh Vafa Homann, Klara Sondén, Ulf Hammar, Dennis Hasselquist, Anna Färnert
Accelerated cellular aging and reduced lifespan have recently been shown in birds chronically infected with malaria parasites. Whether malaria infection also affects cellular aging in humans has not been reported. Here, we assessed the effect of a single acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on cellular aging dynamics in travelers prospectively followed over one year in Sweden. DNA and RNA were extracted from venous blood collected at the time of admission and repeatedly up to one year. Telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative PCR, while telomerase activity and CDKN2A expression were measured by reverse transcriptase (RT)-qPCR...
November 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143224/investigation-of-dna-transfer-onto-clothing-during-regular-daily-activities
#19
Travis Ruan, Mark Barash, Peter Gunn, David Bruce
Low levels of DNA from an unidentified human source, often referred to as trace DNA, are ubiquitous, can be transferred onto objects by either direct or indirect methods and have an unknown longevity in situ. Clothing items from crime scenes are often submitted for trace DNA analysis, usually in attempt to identify a person of interest. This study examined the transfer of DNA onto three 10 × 10 cm areas located on the front, back and shoulder of an individual's external clothing (n = 300) during a regular day's activity...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136142/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-foxo3-negatively-regulates-natural-killer-cell-function-and-viral-clearance-in-myocarditis
#20
Madlen Loebel, Luise Holzhauser, Jelka A Hartwig, Praphulla C Shukla, Konstantinos Savvatis, Alexander Jenke, Martina Gast, Felicitas Escher, Sonya C Becker, Sandra Bauer, Andrea Stroux, Antje Beling, Meike Kespohl, Sandra Pinkert, Henry Fechner, Uwe Kuehl, Dirk Lassner, Wolfgang Poller, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Tanja Zeller, Stefan Blankenberg, Anna-Pia Papageorgiou, Stephane Heymans, Ulf Landmesser, Carmen Scheibenbogen, Carsten Skurk
Aims: Foxo3 is a transcription factor involved in cell metabolism, survival, and inflammatory disease. However, mechanistic insight in Foxo3 effects is still limited. Here, we investigated the role of Foxo3 on natural killer (NK) cell responses and its effects in viral myocarditis. Methods and results: Effects of Foxo3 on viral load and immune responses were investigated in a model of coxsackie virus B3 myocarditis in wild-type (WT) and Foxo3 deficient mice. Reduced immune cell infiltration, viral titres, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac tissue were observed in Foxo3-/- mice 7 days post-infection (p...
November 9, 2017: European Heart Journal
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