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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#1
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103133/role-of-choline-in-the-modulation-of-degenerative-processes-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#2
Tania Merinas-Amo, Inmaculada Tasset-Cuevas, Antonio M Díaz-Carretero, Ángeles Alonso-Moraga, Fernando Calahorro
The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutraceutical potential of choline as an added value to its well-known brain nutrient role. Several toxicity, antitoxicity, genotoxicity, antigenotoxicity, and longevity endpoints were checked in the somatic mutation and recombination test in in vivo Drosophila animal model. Cytotoxicity in human leukemia-60 cell line (HL-60) promyelocytic and NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, proapoptotic DNA fragmentation, comet assay, methylation status, and macroautophagy (MA) activity were tested in in vitro assays...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101820/insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signalling-iis-based-regulation-of-lifespan-across-species
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca Mathew, Manika Pal Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra
An organism's well-being is facilitated by numerous molecular and biochemical pathways that ensure homeostasis within cells and tissues. Aging causes a gradual let-down in the maintenance of homeostasis due to various endogenous and environmental challenges, leading to amassing of damages, functional deterioration of different tissues and vulnerability to ailments. Nutrient sensing pathways that maintain glucose homeostasis in body are involved in regulation of aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) pathway was the first nutrient sensing pathway discovered to affect the aging process...
January 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100865/investigation-of-the-5q33-3-longevity-locus-and-age-related-phenotypes
#4
Marianne Nygaard, Mikael Thinggaard, Kaare Christensen, Lene Christiansen
A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown...
January 13, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092073/erratum-to-quantifying-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-contributions-to-human-longevity-application-of-a-two-process-vitality-model-to-the-human-mortality-database
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#6
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086968/microbiota-fingerprints-lose-individually-identifying-features-over-time
#7
David Wilkins, Marcus H Y Leung, Patrick K H Lee
BACKGROUND: Humans host individually unique skin microbiota, suggesting that microbiota traces transferred from skin to surfaces could serve as forensic markers analogous to fingerprints. While it is known that individuals leave identifiable microbiota traces on surfaces, it is not clear for how long these traces persist. Moreover, as skin and surface microbiota change with time, even persistent traces may lose their forensic potential as they would cease to resemble the microbiota of the person who left them...
January 9, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072517/arthropod-innate-immune-systems-and-vector-borne-diseases
#8
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue and Zika. Yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization and agglutination...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070015/inhaled-resveratrol-treatments-slow-ageing-related-degenerative-changes-in-mouse-lung
#9
Barbara Driscoll, Sonia Navarro, Raghava Reddy, Jooeun Lee, David Warburton
BACKGROUND: Lung ageing, a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases such as COPD and emphysema, is characterised by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function. Likewise, in prematurely ageing telomerase null (terc-/-) mice, p53 stabilisation within diminishing numbers of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2) accompanies reduced lung function. Resveratrol (RSL) is a plant phytoalexin that has previously showed efficacy in enhancing invertebrate longevity and supporting mammalian muscle metabolism when delivered orally...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069988/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-pm2-5-shortens-lifespan-and-induces-inflammation-associated-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-drosophila
#10
Xiaoke Wang, Minjie Chen, Mianhua Zhong, Ziying Hu, Lianglin Qiu, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Nancy G Fossett, Lung-Chi Chen, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with human premature mortality. However, it has not yet been toxicologically replicated, likely due to the lack of suitable animal models. Drosophila is frequently used in longevity research due to many incomparable merits. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to validate Drosophila models for PM2.5 toxicity study through characterizing their biological responses to exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP). RESULTS: The survivorship curve demonstrated that exposure to CAP markedly reduced lifespan of Drosophila...
January 9, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065845/the-effects-of-ppar%C3%AE-on-the-regulation-of-the-tomm40-apoe-c1-genes-cluster
#11
Shobana Subramanian, William K Gottschalk, So Young Kim, Allen D Roses, Ornit Chiba-Falek
Chromosome 19q13.32 is a gene rich region, and has been implicated in multiple human phenotypes in adulthood including lipids traits, Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor that plays a role in human complex traits that are also genetically associated with the chromosome 19q13.32 region. Here, we study the effects of PPARγ on the regional expression regulation of the genes clustered within chromosome 19q13...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064146/chronic-exposure-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-causes-deviant-phenotype-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Avnika Singh Anand, Dipti N Prasad, Shashi Bala Singh, Ekta Kohli
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are commonly used nanomaterials (NMs) with versatile applications from high-end technologies to household products. This pervasive utilisation has brought human in the close interface with nanoparticles (NPs), hence questioning their safety prior to usage is a must. In this study, we have assessed the effects of chronic exposure to ZnO NPs (<50nm) on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Potential toxic effects were studied by evaluating longevity, climbing ability, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060797/t-memory-stem-cells-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Luca Gattinoni, Daniel E Speiser, Mathias Lichterfeld, Chiara Bonini
T memory stem (TSCM) cells are a rare subset of memory lymphocytes endowed with the stem cell-like ability to self-renew and the multipotent capacity to reconstitute the entire spectrum of memory and effector T cell subsets. Cumulative evidence in mice, nonhuman primates and humans indicates that TSCM cells are minimally differentiated cells at the apex of the hierarchical system of memory T lymphocytes. Here we describe emerging findings demonstrating that TSCM cells, owing to their extreme longevity and robust potential for immune reconstitution, are central players in many physiological and pathological human processes...
January 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057834/intergenerational-transmission-of-sociality-the-role-of-parents-in-shaping-social-behavior-in-monogamous-and-non-monogamous-species
#14
REVIEW
Allison M Perkeybile, Karen L Bales
Social bonds are necessary for many mammals to survive and reproduce successfully. These bonds (i.e. pair-bonds, friendships, filial bonds) are characterized by different periods of development, longevity and strength. Socially monogamous species display certain behaviors not seen in many other mammals, such as adult pair-bonding and male parenting. In our studies of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), we have examined the neurohormonal basis of these bonds. Here, we discuss the evidence from voles that aspects of adolescent and adult social behavior are shaped by early experience, including changes to sensory systems and connections, neuropeptide systems such as oxytocin and vasopressin, and alterations in stress responses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050582/data-on-the-phosphorylation-state-of-the-catalytic-serine-of-enzymes-in-the-%C3%AE-d-phosphohexomutase-superfamily
#15
Yingying Lee, Cristina Furdui, Lesa J Beamer
Most enzymes in the α-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily catalyze the reversible conversion of 1- to 6-phosphosugars. They play important roles in carbohydrate and sugar nucleotide metabolism, and participate in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides, glycolipids, and other exoproducts. Mutations in genes encoding these enzymes are associated with inherited metabolic diseases in humans, including glycogen storage disease and congenital disorders of glycosylation. Enzymes in the superfamily share a highly conserved active site serine that participates in the multi-step phosphoryl transfer reaction...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049008/the-gut-microbiota-of-centenarians-signatures-of-longevity-in-the-gut-microbiota-profile
#16
REVIEW
Biagi Elena, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Sara Quercia, Marco Candela, Patrizia Brigidi
The changing physiology and lifestyle of elderly people affect the gut microbiota composition, the changes of which can, in turn, affect the health maintenance of the ageing host. In a co-evolutionary vision of the relationship between gut microbiota and ageing as an adaptive process of the human superorganism, long-living individuals who get to "successfully" age might be the ones whose microbiota manages to continuously re-establish a mutualistic relationship with the host, adapting to the progressive endogenous and environmental changes...
December 31, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046129/isolation-culture-and-characterization-of-hirsutella-sinensis-mycelium-from-caterpillar-fungus-fruiting-body
#17
Yun-Fei Ko, Jian-Ching Liau, Chien-Sheng Lee, Chen-Yaw Chiu, Jan Martel, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Shun-Fu Tseng, David M Ojcius, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044220/social-implications-of-fission-in-wild-formosan-macaques-at-mount-longevity-taiwan
#18
Minna J Hsu, Jin-Fu Lin, Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
Group fission in non-human primates has long been proposed to result from interactions between ecological and social factors. Several studies have documented possible causes for group fission, but its proximate causes and ultimate adaptive values are not yet fully understood. We have examined the existing hypotheses on fission from long-term demographic data of Formosan macaques inhabiting the lowland rainforest at Mt Longevity, Taiwan. Five cases of fission occurred in four social groups. We have recorded two types of fission: one involving the separation of a high-ranking adult male and multiple adult females, the other initiated by adult females from main groups...
January 2, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039083/2-3-dehydrosilybin-a-b-as-a-pro-longevity-and-anti-aggregation-compound
#19
Konstantina Filippopoulou, Nikoletta Papaevgeniou, Maria Lefaki, Anna Paraskevopoulou, David Biedermann, Vladimír Křen, Niki Chondrogianni
Aging is an unavoidable process characterized by gradual failure of homeostasis that constitutes a critical risk factor for several age-related disorders. It has been unveiled that manipulation of various key pathways may decelerate the aging progression and the triggering of age-related diseases. As a consequence, the identification of compounds, preferably natural-occurring, administered through diet, with lifespan-extending, anti-aggregation and anti-oxidation properties that in parallel exhibit negligible side-effects is the main goal in the battle against aging...
December 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039025/common-variants-of-human-tert-and-terc-genes-and-susceptibility-to-sporadic-alzheimers-disease
#20
D Scarabino, E Broggio, G Gambina, F Pelliccia, R M Corbo
Studies investigating telomere length in association with cognitive decline, dementia, and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) have frequently found shorter telomeres to be associated with the development of AD and telomerase expression with pathological processes in AD. Human telomerase is constituted by two components: the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the telomerase RNA component (TERC). Genetic variation at the two loci has been investigated in relation to telomere length, longevity, and common diseases of advanced age, but not in relation to AD...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
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