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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442785/hunter-gatherer-social-networks-and-reproductive-success
#1
Abigail E Page, Nikhil Chaudhary, Sylvain Viguier, Mark Dyble, James Thompson, Daniel Smith, Gul D Salali, Ruth Mace, Andrea Bamberg Migliano
Individuals' centrality in their social network (who they and their social ties are connected to) has been associated with fertility, longevity, disease and information transmission in a range of taxa. Here, we present the first exploration in humans of the relationship between reproductive success and different measures of network centrality of 39 Agta and 38 BaYaka mothers. We collected three-meter contact ('proximity') networks and reproductive histories to test the prediction that individual centrality is positively associated with reproductive fitness (number of living offspring)...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440679/cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-preventable-noncommunicable-disease
#2
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Thierry Prazuck, Thérèse Lethu, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-François Meye, Laurent Bélec
Infections caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for 7.7% of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. This disease is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths yearly, further increased by HIV infection. Areas covered: The current status of cervical cancer associated with HPV in sub-Saharan Africa has been systematically revised. The main issues discussed here are related to the public health burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and predictions for the coming decades, including molecular epidemiology and determinants of HPV infection in Africa, and promising prevention measures currently being evaluated in Africa...
April 25, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438050/exploring-proxy-measures-of-mutuality-for-strategic-partnership-development-a-case-study
#3
Tilicia L Mayo-Gamble, Priscilla A Barnes, Catherine M Sherwood-Laughlin, Michael Reece, Sandy DeWeese, Carol Weiss Kennedy, Mary Ann Valenta
Partnerships between academic and clinical-based health organizations are becoming increasingly important in improving health outcomes. Mutuality is recognized as a vital component of these partnerships. If partnerships are to achieve mutuality, there is a need to define what it means to partnering organizations. Few studies have described the elements contributing to mutuality, particularly in new relationships between academic and clinical partners. This study seeks to identify how mutuality is expressed and to explore potential proxy measures of mutuality for an alliance consisting of a hospital system and a School of Public Health...
April 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435840/microbial-flora-probiotics-bacillus-subtilis-and-the-search-for-a-long-and-healthy-human-longevity
#4
COMMENT
Facundo Rodriguez Ayala, Carlos Bauman, Sebastián Cogliati, Cecilia Leñini, Marco Bartolini, Roberto Grau
Probiotics are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on host health, including extended lifespan, when they are administered or present in adequate quantities. However, the mechanisms by which probiotics stimulate host longevity remain unclear and very poorly understood. In a recent study (Nat. Commun. 8, 14332 (2017) doi: 10.1038/ncomms14332), we used the spore-forming probiotic bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to study the mechanism by which a probiotic bacterium affects host longevity...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430387/age-related-reduction-in-the-expression-of-foxo-transcription-factors-and-correlations-with-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#5
Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Tokio Matsuzaki, Merissa Olmer, Koichi Masuda, Martin K Lotz
Aging is a main risk factor for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the main cause of low back pain. FOXO transcription factors are important regulators of tissue homeostasis and longevity. Here, we determined the expression pattern of FOXO in healthy and degenerated human IVD and the associations with IVD degeneration during mouse aging. FOXO expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal and degenerated human IVD samples and in cervical and lumbar IVD from 6, 12, 24, and 36-month-old C57BL/6J mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423308/how-a-mutation-that-slows-aging-can-also-disproportionately-extend-end-of-life-decrepitude
#6
Katie Podshivalova, Rex A Kerr, Cynthia Kenyon
The goal of aging research is to extend healthy, active life. For decades, C. elegans daf-2 insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor mutants have served as a model for extended lifespan and youthfulness. However, a recent report suggested that their longevity is associated with an undesirable phenotype: a disproportionately long period of decrepitude at the end of life. In the human population, such an outcome would be a burden to society, bringing into question the relevance of daf-2 mutants as a model for life extension...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421666/genetic-interplay-between-human-longevity-and-metabolic-pathways-a-large-scale-eqtl-study
#7
Robert Häsler, Geetha Venkatesh, Qihua Tan, Friederike Flachsbart, Anupam Sinha, Philip Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Kaare Christensen, Lene Christiansen, Almut Nebel
Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental components. Unraveling the contribution of genetic vs. nongenetic factors to longevity is a challenging task. Here, we conducted a large-scale RNA-sequencing-based expression quantitative trait loci study (eQTL) with subsequent heritability analysis. The investigation was performed on blood samples from 244 individuals from Germany and Denmark, representing various age groups including long-lived subjects up to the age of 104 years...
April 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419216/lav-bpifb4-isoform-modulates-enos-signaling-through-ca2-pkc-alpha-dependent-mechanism
#8
Chiara Carmela Spinelli, Albino Carrizzo, Anna Ferrario, Francesco Villa, Antonio Damato, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Michele Madonna, Giacomo Frati, Sergio Fucile, Miriam Sciaccalunga, Mario Capunzo, Gaetano Calì, Luciano Milanesi, Anna Maciag, Annibale Alessandro Puca, Carmine Vecchione
Aims: Aging is associated with impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and progressive reduction in endothelial function. A genetic study on long-living individuals - who are characterized by delays in aging and in the onset of cardiovascular disease - previously revealed I229V ( rs2070325 ) in BPIFB4 as a longevity-associated variant (LAV); the LAV protein enhanced endothelial NO production and vasorelaxation through a PERK/14-3-3/HSP90 signal. Here, we further characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying LAV-BPIFB4-dependent enhancement of vascular function...
April 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419109/polymorphisms-in-the-selectin-gene-cluster-are-associated-with-fertility-and-survival-time-in-a-population-of-holstein-friesian-cows
#9
Xing Chen, Shujun Zhang, Zhangrui Cheng, Jessica S Cooke, Dirk Werling, D Claire Wathes, Geoffrey E Pollott
Selectins are adhesion molecules, which mediate attachment between leucocytes and endothelium. They aid extravasation of leucocytes from blood into inflamed tissue during the mammary gland's response to infection. Selectins are also involved in attachment of the conceptus to the endometrium and subsequent placental development. Poor fertility and udder health are major causes for culling dairy cows. The three identified bovine selectin genes SELP, SELL and SELE are located in a gene cluster. SELP is the most polymorphic of these genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413328/effect-of-korean-red-ginseng-intake-on-the-survival-duration-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-patients
#10
Young-Keol Cho, Jung-Eun Kim
BACKGROUND: Long-term ginseng intake can increase longevity in healthy individuals. Here, we examined if long-term treatment with Panax ginseng Meyer (Korean Red Ginseng, KRG) can also enhance survival duration (SD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 252 HIV-1 patients diagnosed from 1986 to 2013 prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Overall, 162 patients were treated with KRG (3,947 ± 4,943 g) for 86 ± 63 mo...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406406/cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-emerging-and-preventable-disease-associated-with-oncogenic-human-papillomavirus
#11
R S Mboumba Bouassa, T Prazuck, T Lethu, J F Meye, L Bélec
Highly oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are responsible for 7.7 % of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. The incidence of this emerging cancer is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and close to 50,000 deaths a year, a toll further increased by HIV infection. According to the World Health Organization, cervical cancer will kill more than 443,000 women per year worldwide by 2030, nearly 90 % of them in sub-Saharan Africa. This increase in cervical cancer incidence in Africa is now counteracting the progress made by African women in reducing maternal mortality and increasing longevity...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401731/impact-of-early-personal-history-characteristics-on-the-pace-of-aging-implications-for-clinical-trials-of-therapies-to-slow-aging-and-extend-healthspan
#12
Daniel W Belsky, Avshalom Caspi, Harvey J Cohen, William E Kraus, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E Moffitt
Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954)...
April 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401650/caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-differentially-expressed-with-age-are-enriched-for-determinants-of-longevity
#13
George L Sutphin, Grant Backer, Susan Sheehan, Shannon Bean, Caroline Corban, Teresa Liu, Marjolein J Peters, Joyce B J van Meurs, Joanne M Murabito, Andrew D Johnson, Ron Korstanje
We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported...
April 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397803/tomatidine-enhances-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-c-elegans-through-mitophagy-induction-via-the-skn-1-nrf2-pathway
#14
Evandro F Fang, Tyler B Waltz, Henok Kassahun, Qiping Lu, Jesse S Kerr, Marya Morevati, Elayne M Fivenson, Bradley N Wollman, Krisztina Marosi, Mark A Wilson, Wendy B Iser, D Mark Eckley, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Ilya G Goldberg, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Mark P Mattson, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Kevin G Becker
Aging is a major international concern that brings formidable socioeconomic and healthcare challenges. Small molecules capable of improving the health of older individuals are being explored. Small molecules that enhance cellular stress resistance are a promising avenue to alleviate declines seen in human aging. Tomatidine, a natural compound abundant in unripe tomatoes, inhibits age-related skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Here we show that tomatidine extends lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans, an animal model of aging which shares many major longevity pathways with mammals...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394764/telomeres-and-the-natural-lifespan-limit-in-humans
#15
Troels Steenstrup, Jeremy D Kark, Simon Verhulst, Mikael Thinggaard, Jacob V B Hjelmborg, Christine Dalgård, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Lene Christiansen, Massimo Mangino, Timothy D Spector, Inge Petersen, Masayuki Kimura, Athanase Benetos, Carlos Labat, Ronit Sinnreich, Shih-Jen Hwang, Daniel Levy, Steven C Hunt, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Wei Chen, Gerald S Berenson, Michelangela Barbieri, Giuseppe Paolisso, Shahinaz M Gadalla, Sharon A Savage, Kaare Christensen, Anatoliy I Yashin, Konstantin G Arbeev, Abraham Aviv
An ongoing debate in demography has focused on whether the human lifespan has a maximal natural limit. Taking a mechanistic perspective, and knowing that short telomeres are associated with diminished longevity, we examined whether telomere length dynamics during adult life could set a maximal natural lifespan limit. We define leukocyte telomere length of 5 kb as the 'telomeric brink', which denotes a high risk of imminent death. We show that a subset of adults may reach the telomeric brink within the current life expectancy and more so for a 100-year life expectancy...
April 6, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390822/the-genetics-of-human-longevity-an-intricacy-of-genes-environment-culture-and-microbiome
#16
REVIEW
Serena Dato, Giuseppina Rose, Paolina Crocco, Daniela Monti, Paolo Garagnani, Claudio Franceschi, Giuseppe Passarino
Approximately one-quarter of the variation in lifespan in developed countries can be attributed to genetic factors. However, even large population based studies investigating genetic influence on human lifespan have been disappointing, identifying only a few genes accounting for genetic susceptibility to longevity. Some environmental and lifestyle determinants associated with longevity have been identified, which interplay with genetic factors in an intricate way. The study of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions can significantly improve our chance to disentangle this complex scenario...
April 5, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389512/theoretical-and-biological-evaluation-of-the-link-between-low-exercise-capacity-and-disease-risk
#17
Lauren Gerard Koch, Steven L Britton
Large-scale epidemiological studies show that low exercise capacity is the highest risk factor for all-cause morbidity and mortality relative to other conditions including diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. This led us to formulate the energy transfer hypothesis (ETH): Variation in capacity for energy transfer is the central mechanistic determinant of the divide between disease and health. As a test of this hypothesis, we predicted that two-way selective breeding of genetically heterogeneous rats for low and high intrinsic treadmill running capacity (a surrogate for energy transfer) would also produce rats that differ for disease risks...
April 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380383/using-dna-methylation-profiling-to-evaluate-biological-age-and-longevity-interventions
#18
Daniel A Petkovich, Dmitriy I Podolskiy, Alexei V Lobanov, Sang-Goo Lee, Richard A Miller, Vadim N Gladyshev
The DNA methylation levels of certain CpG sites are thought to reflect the pace of human aging. Here, we developed a robust predictor of mouse biological age based on 90 CpG sites derived from partial blood DNA methylation profiles. The resulting clock correctly determines the age of mouse cohorts, detects the longevity effects of calorie restriction and gene knockouts, and reports rejuvenation of fibroblast-derived iPSCs. The data show that mammalian DNA methylomes are characterized by CpG sites that may represent the organism's biological age...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377521/prenatal-loss-of-father-during-world-war-one-is-predictive-of-a-reduced-lifespan-in-adulthood
#19
Nicolas Todd, Alain-Jacques Valleron, Pierre Bougnères
Although early-life stress is known to alter health, its long-term consequences on mortality remain largely unknown. Thanks to unique French legislation established in 1917 for war orphans and children of disabled soldiers, we were able to study the adult mortality of individuals born in 1914-1916 whose fathers were killed during World War 1. Vital information and socio-demographic characteristics were extracted manually from historical civil registers for 5,671 children born between 1 August 1914 and 31 December 1916 who were granted the status of "pupille de la Nation" (orphan of the Nation)...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367810/-autophagy-fitness-and-longevity
#20
Lorenzo Galluzzi, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guido Kroemer
Autophagy is a key mechanism for the maintenance of intracellular and organismal homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in core components of the autophagic machinery are etiologically associated with a variety of human pathologies, including infectious disorders, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative conditions, and cancer. Intriguingly, several maneuvers that increase the lifespan of model organisms in the laboratory, like caloric restriction, do so in an autophagy-dependent manner. Here, we briefly discuss the intimate relationship between the autophagic preservation of intracellular and organismal fitness and healthy aging...
March 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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