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human longevity

Anatoliy I Yashin, Konstantin G Arbeev, Deqing Wu, Liubov Arbeeva, Alexander Kulminski, Irina Kulminskaya, Igor Akushevich, Svetlana V Ukraintseva
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To clarify mechanisms of genetic regulation of human aging and longevity traits, a number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these traits have been performed. However, the results of these analyses did not meet expectations of the researchers. Most detected genetic associations have not reached a genome-wide level of statistical significance, and suffered from the lack of replication in the studies of independent populations. The reasons for slow progress in this research area include low efficiency of statistical methods used in data analyses, genetic heterogeneity of aging and longevity related traits, possibility of pleiotropic (e...
2016: North American Actuarial Journal: NAAJ
Sainath S Kasar, Kiran R Marathe, Amey J Bhide, Abhijeet P Herwade, Ashok P Giri, Vijay L Maheshwari, Pankaj K Pawar
BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of plant defensive molecules enrich our resources to design crop protection strategies. In particular, plant derived proteinaceous inhibitor(s) of insect digestive enzymes appear to be a safe, sustainable and attractive option. RESULTS: A glycoprotein having non-competitive α-amylase inhibitory activity with molecular weight 8.3 kDa was isolated and purified from seeds of Withania somnifera (WSAI). Its mass spectrometry analysis revealed 59% sequence coverage with Wrightide II type α-AI from Wrightia religiosa...
October 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Qiong Liu, Wen Wen, Liang Tang, Chen-Jie Qin, Yan Lin, Hui-Lu Zhang, Han Wu, Charles Ashton, Hong-Ping Wu, Jin Ding, Wei Dong, Le-Xing Yu, Wen Yang, Dan-Dan Huang, Meng-Chao Wu, Hong-Yang Wang, He-Xin Yan
Despite their central function in tumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) can respond to inhibitory signals and become tolerogenic, curtailing T cell responses in vivo. Here, we provide the evidence for an inhibitory function of signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α in DC survival and activation. In tumors from human liver cancer patients, infiltrative DCs expressed elevated levels of SIRPα, which is correlated with the induction of immune tolerance within the tumors. Silencing of SIRPα resulted in a significant increase in the longevity of antigen-pulsed DCs in the draining lymph nodes...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Hirokazu Muraoka, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Shu Wakino
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) cooperates with a longevity gene, Sirt1, to exert the potentiation of stress resistance. We have reported that the high expression level of Nampt in PTs contributes to the sufficient supply of NMN to glomeruli. We also showed that downregulation of Nampt and NMN in PT in DN leads to glomerular damages (Nature Medicine 2013). However, the regulation mechanisms of Nampt expression remain unknown. DESIGN AND METHOD: We investigated how Nampt expression is consistently retained at high levels in PTs under normal conditions and how Nampt levels are decreased in DN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Leland Perice, Nir Barzilai, Joe Verghese, Erica F Weiss, Roee Holtzer, Pinchas Cohen, Sofiya Milman
Mutations that reduce somatotropic signaling result in improved lifespan and health-span in model organisms and humans. However, whether reduced circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level is detrimental to cognitive and muscle function in older adults remains understudied. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in Ashkenazi Jews with exceptional longevity (age ≥95 years). Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and muscle function with the chair rise test, grip-strength, and gait speed...
October 14, 2016: Aging
Vitaly K Koltover
There are two generally known concepts in biology of aging. Accordingly to the first one, there is a program of aging. The alternative concept advocates that aging proceeds stochastically. In this area of research, free radical-theory of aging, which was put forward by Denham Harman in fifties of XXth century, has determined the most heuristic line. The goal of this review is to demonstrate how the aging program and the aging stochastics are united on the basis of the systems theory of reliability. On this basis, universal features of aging, such as the exponential growth of mortality rate with time and correlation of longevity with the species-specific resting metabolism, are naturally explained...
October 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
M B Huante, S Gupta, V C Calderon, S J Koo, M Sinha, B A Luxon, N J Garg, J J Endsley
Pathogens frequently exploit or evade inflammasome activation in order to survive and proliferate. Alternatively, inadequate inflammasome activation by attenuated microorganisms or adjuvanted subunit vaccines may contribute to poor longevity of protection. To further understand these pathways, we determined the differential inflammasome transcriptome of human THP monocyte-derived macrophages in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG, as compared to LPS or Trypanosoma cruzi. The results identify the highly specific innate recognition programs associated with inflammasome activation by human macrophages exposed to these microbial stimuli...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Riia K Junnila, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Ozan Suer, Elahu G Sustarsic, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) are important for a variety of physiological processes including growth, development and aging. Mice with reduced levels of GH and IGF-I have been shown to live longer than wild type controls. Our laboratory has previously found that mice with aGHreceptor gene knockout (GHRKO) from conception exhibit low rates of cancer, resistance to diet-induced diabetes, and extension of lifespan. The GHRKO mouse as well as other mouse lines with reduced GH action display low IGF-I levels, smaller body size, increased adiposity and increased longevity...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
Pamela Dakik, Vladimir I Titorenko
Studies employing the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism have provided deep insights into molecular mechanisms of cellular and organismal aging in multicellular eukaryotes and have demonstrated that the main features of biological aging are evolutionarily conserved. Aging in S. cerevisiae is studied by measuring replicative or chronological lifespan. Yeast replicative aging is likely to model aging of mitotically competent human cell types, while yeast chronological aging is believed to mimic aging of post-mitotic human cell types...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Jennifer S Yokoyama, Gabe Marx, Jesse A Brown, Luke W Bonham, Dan Wang, Giovanni Coppola, William W Seeley, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Dena B Dubal
Cognitive decline is a major biomedical challenge as the global population ages. Elevated levels of the longevity factor klotho suppress aging, enhance cognition, and promote synaptic plasticity and neural resilience against aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathogenic proteins. Here, we examined the relationship between human genetic variants of KLOTHO and systemic klotho levels - and assessed neuroanatomic correlates of serum klotho in a cohort of healthy older adults. Serum klotho levels were increased with KL-VS heterozygosity, as anticipated...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kisha Holden, Tabia Akintobi, Jammie Hopkins, Allyson Belton, Brian McGregor, Starla Blanks, Glenda Wrenn
Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities...
March 2016: Social Sciences
Xiao Dong, Brandon Milholland, Jan Vijg
Driven by technological progress, human life expectancy has increased greatly since the nineteenth century. Demographic evidence has revealed an ongoing reduction in old-age mortality and a rise of the maximum age at death, which may gradually extend human longevity. Together with observations that lifespan in various animal species is flexible and can be increased by genetic or pharmaceutical intervention, these results have led to suggestions that longevity may not be subject to strict, species-specific genetic constraints...
October 5, 2016: Nature
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Aubrey Sheiham, Georgios Tsakos, Georgia Costa de Araújo-Souza, Richard G Watt
Dental caries levels have declined in children since the 1970s in many countries. Most of the postulated main reasons for the decline are speculative and have not been rigorously evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between some social factors and the decline in dental caries in Brazilian 12-year-old children from 1996 to 2010. Secondary analysis of national data was performed in 27 Brazilian state capitals. A panel data regression model with fixed effects and multiple linear regression were used to verify the relationship between the explanatory and the dependent variables and also the time-trend effect...
October 6, 2016: Caries Research
Giuseppe Maltese, Paraskevi-Maria Psefteli, Benedetta Rizzo, Salil Srivastava, Luigi Gnudi, Giovanni E Mann, Richard C M Siow
Vascular ageing in conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, is associated with the activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and diminished expression of antioxidant defences mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The anti-ageing hormone klotho promotes longevity and protects against cardiovascular and renal diseases. Klotho has been shown to activate Nrf2 and attenuate oxidative damage in neuronal cells, however, the mechanisms by which it protects against vascular smooth muscle cell VSMC dysfunction elicited by Angiotensin II (AngII) remain to be elucidated...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Mariella Della Chiesa, Silvia Pesce, Letizia Muccio, Simona Carlomagno, Simona Sivori, Alessandro Moretta, Emanuela Marcenaro
Human NK cells are distinguished into CD56(bright)CD16(-) cells and CD56(dim)CD16(+) cells. These two subsets are conventionally associated with differential functional outcomes and are heterogeneous with respect to the expression of KIR and CD94/NKG2 heterodimers that represent the two major types of HLA-class I-specific receptors. Recent studies indicated that immature CD56(bright) NK cells, homogeneously expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor, are precursors of CD56(dim) NK cells that, in turn, during their process of differentiation, lose expression of CD94/NKG2A and subsequentially acquire inhibitory KIRs and LIR-1...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Samanta Gasco, Amaya Rando, Pilar Zaragoza, Alberto García-Redondo, Ana Cristina Calvo, Rosario Osta
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a difficult diagnosis and prognosis. In this regard, new and more reliable biomarkers for the disease are needed. We propose peripheral blood, and more specifically the Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells (HSPCs) as potential prognostic biomarkers in the SOD1G93A murine model of ALS. We accurately and serially studied three HSPCs, Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs), Common Lymphoid Progenitors (CLPs) and Common Myeloid Progenitors (CMPs), in both control and SOD1G93A mice along the disease progression by RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Esther D Goldstein, Evan K D'Alessandro, Su Sponaugle
As humans expand into natural environments, populations of wild organisms may become relegated to marginal habitats at the boundaries of their distributions. In the ocean, mesophotic coral ecosystems (30-150 m) at the depth limit of photosynthetic reefs are hypothesized to act as refuges that are buffered from anthropogenic and natural disturbances, yet the viability and persistence of subpopulations in these peripheral habitats remains poorly understood. To assess the potential for mesophotic reefs to support robust coral reef fish populations, we compared population density and structure, growth, size, and reproductive output of the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) from shallow (<10 m), deep shelf (20-30 m), and mesophotic reefs (60-70 m) across the Florida Platform...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Giulia Bacalini, Joris Deelen, Chiara Pirazzini, Marco De Cecco, Cristina Giuliani, Catia Lanzarini, Francesco Ravaioli, Elena Marasco, Diana van Heemst, H Eka D Suchiman, Roderick Slieker, Enrico Giampieri, Rina Recchioni, Fiorella Mercheselli, Stefano Salvioli, Giovanni Vitale, Fabiola Olivieri, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Martijn E T Dollé, John M Sedivy, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi, Pieternella E Slagboom, Paolo Garagnani
Epigenetic remodeling is one of the major features of the aging process. We recently demonstrated that DNA methylation of ELOVL2 and FHL2 CpG islands is highly correlated with age in whole blood. Here we investigated several aspects of age-associated hypermethylation of ELOVL2 and FHL2 We showed that ELOVL2 methylation is significantly different in primary dermal fibroblast cultures from donors of different ages. Using epigenomic data from public resources, we demonstrated that most of the tissues show ELOVL2 and FHL2 hypermethylation with age...
September 26, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Maria L Simões, Yuemei Dong, Andrew Hammond, Ann Hall, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan, George Dimopoulos
Mosquitoes have a multifaceted innate immune system that is actively engaged in warding off various pathogens, including the protozoan malaria parasite Plasmodium. Various immune signaling pathways and effectors have been shown to mediate a certain degree of defense specificity against different Plasmodium species. A key pattern recognition receptor of the Anopheles gambiae immune system is the fibrinogen domain-containing immunolectin FBN9, which has been shown to be transcriptonally induced by Plasmodium infection, and to mediate defense against both rodent and human malaria parasites and bacteria...
September 22, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ruxue Wei, Xueming Zhao, Haisheng Hao, Weihua Du, Huabin Zhu
The rabbit is considered an important model animal from which to obtain embryonic stem cells because of the utility of this animal in physiology and reproductive research. Here, we derived rabbit ES-like (rES-like) cells from blastocysts of superovulated Japanese white rabbits using culture medium containing 10(-7)  M melatonin, 10 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor, and 1,000 IU/mL human leukemia inhibitory factor. This concentration of melatonin had the most significant positive effects on the proliferation inner cell mass-derived cells (improving rates from 19...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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