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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303588/dietary-consumption-of-monosodium-l-glutamate-induces-adaptive-response-and-reduction-in-the-life-span-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Amos O Abolaji, Charles O Olaiya, Oluwagbenga J Oluwadahunsi, Ebenezer O Farombi
Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime...
March 16, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#2
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289413/mica-and-nkg2d-is-there-an-impact-on-kidney-transplant-outcome
#3
REVIEW
Matilde Risti, Maria da Graça Bicalho
This paper aims to present an overview of MICA and natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) genetic and functional interactions and their impact on kidney transplant outcome. Organ transplantation has gone from what can accurately be called a "clinical experiment" to a routine and reliable practice, which has proven to be clinically relevant, life-saving and cost-effective when compared with non-transplantation management strategies of both chronic and acute end-stage organ failures. The kidney is the most frequently transplanted organ in the world (transplant-observatory)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288699/longevity-regulation-by-nmd-mediated-mrna-quality-control
#4
Heehwa G Son, Seung-Jae V Lee
Proper maintenance of biological components is crucial for longevity and healthy aging. Although the role of homeostatic maintenance systems for DNA and protein in longevity is established, it remained largely unknown for RNA. In our recent work, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) promotes longevity in the roundworm C. elegans by enhancing RNA quality control. We find that the activity of NMD decreases during aging, raising the possibility that RNA quality declines in old animals. We then show that key components of NMD complex are required for long lifespan in C...
March 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286215/thyroid-hormones-in-extreme-longevity
#5
REVIEW
Sabrina Garasto, Alberto Montesanto, Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Sergio Fusco, Giuseppe Passarino, Valeria Prestipino Giarritta, Francesco Corica
The aim of the present review was to summarize knowledge about thyroid hormones (THs) and longevity. Longevity is a complex multifactorial phenomenon on which specific biological pathways, including hormonal networks involved in the regulation of homeostasis and survival, exert a strong impact. THs are the key responsible for growth, metabolism rate and energy expenditure, and help in maintaining cognition, bone and cardiovascular health. THs production and metabolism are fine tuned, and may help the organism to cope with a variety of environmental challenges...
March 9, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274691/anti-ageing-properties-of-khelma-longevity%C3%A2-treatment-of-human-fibroblasts-increases-proteasome-levels-and-decreases-the-levels-of-oxidized-proteins
#6
Konstantinos Voutetakis, Vasiliki Delitsikou, Michel Georges Magouritsas, Efstathios S Gonos
We have determined the putative anti-ageing properties of Khelma Longevity™, a formula based on various natural compounds from the Mediterranean area. Human primary fibroblast cultures were treated with a wide range of concentrations of Khelma Longevity™ for 1 day or 3 consecutive days. Following these treatments, two major and complementary biomarkers of ageing were measured, namely, the proteasome and the amount of oxidized proteins. It was observed that 24h of treatment with Khelma Longevity™ resulted in a maximum increase of about 41% of the total protein levels of 20S proteasome...
March 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271270/does-the-degree-of-endocrine-dyscrasia-post-reproduction-dictate-post-reproductive-lifespan-lessons-from-semelparous-and-iteroparous-species
#7
Craig S Atwood, Kentaro Hayashi, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Tina Gonzales, Richard L Bowen
Post-reproductive lifespan varies greatly among species; human post-reproductive lifespan comprises ~30-50% of their total longevity, while semelparous salmon and dasyurid marsupials post-reproductive lifespan comprises <4% of their total longevity. To examine if the magnitude of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis dyscrasia at the time of reproductive senescence determines post-reproductive lifespan, we examined the difference between pre- and post-reproductive (1) circulating sex hormones and (2) the ratio of sex steroids to gonadotropins (e...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257663/molecular-pathways-related-to-the-longevity-promotion-and-cognitive-improvement-of-cistanche-tubulosa-in-drosophila
#8
Wei-Yong Lin, Chun Yao, Jack Cheng, Shung-Te Kao, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Hsin-Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: The aging process, including physical dysfunction and age-related memory impairment (AMI), are considered to be correlated with cumulative oxidative damages and insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. PURPOSE: The present study was to elucidate the in vivo effects on delaying aging and ameliorating AMI and underlying molecular mechanisms of Cistanche tubulosa (CT), a herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to improve sexual function and treat kidney dysfunction...
March 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257468/the-genetic-basis-for-variation-in-resistance-to-infection-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-genetic-reference-panel
#9
Jonathan B Wang, Hsiao-Ling Lu, Raymond J St Leger
Individuals vary extensively in the way they respond to disease but the genetic basis of this variation is not fully understood. We found substantial individual variation in resistance and tolerance to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae Ma549 using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). In addition, we found that host defense to Ma549 was correlated with defense to the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pa14, and several previously published DGRP phenotypes including oxidative stress sensitivity, starvation stress resistance, hemolymph glucose levels, and sleep indices...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253987/metabolic-syndrome-and-the-cellular-phase-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
S Pugazhenthi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and progressive neurodegeneration. The major hallmarks of AD pathology are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. However, AD often coexists with other brain microvascular lesions caused by comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. The risk factors for these comorbidities are collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Clinical AD is preceded by decades of prodromal cellular phase...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249563/genome-wide-transcriptomics-of-aging-in-the-rotifer-brachionus-manjavacas-an-emerging-model-system
#11
Kristin E Gribble, David B Mark Welch
BACKGROUND: Understanding gene expression changes over lifespan in diverse animal species will lead to insights to conserved processes in the biology of aging and allow development of interventions to improve health. Rotifers are small aquatic invertebrates that have been used in aging studies for nearly 100 years and are now re-emerging as a modern model system. To provide a baseline to evaluate genetic responses to interventions that change health throughout lifespan and a framework for new hypotheses about the molecular genetic mechanisms of aging, we examined the transcriptome of an asexual female lineage of the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas at five life stages: eggs, neonates, and early-, late-, and post-reproductive adults...
March 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244876/adaptive-sequence-convergence-of-the-tumor-suppressor-adamts9-between-small-bodied-mammals-displaying-exceptional-longevity
#12
Matthew J Lambert, Christine V Portfors
Maximum lifespan varies by two orders of magnitude across mammals. How such divergent lifespans have evolved remains an open question, with ramifications that may potentially lead to therapies for age-related diseases in humans. Several species of microbats as well as the naked mole-rat live much longer than expected given their small sizes, show reduced susceptibility to neoplasia, and largely remain healthy and reproductively capable throughout the majority of their extended lifespans. The convergent evolution of extreme longevity in these two groups allows for the opportunity to identify potentially important aging related genes that have undergone adaptive sequence convergence in these long-lived, yet small-bodied species...
February 26, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243526/bax-inhibitor-1-knockdown-phenotypes-are-suppressed-by-buffy-and-exacerbate-degeneration-in-a-drosophila-model-of-parkinson-disease
#13
P Githure M'Angale, Brian E Staveley
BACKGROUND: Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is an evolutionarily conserved cytoprotective transmembrane protein that acts as a suppressor of Bax-induced apoptosis by regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. We knocked down BI-1 in the sensitive dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) expressing neurons of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate its neuroprotective functions. We additionally sought to rescue the BI-1-induced phenotypes by co-expression with the pro-survival Buffy and determined the effect of BI-1 knockdown on the neurodegenerative α-synuclein-induced Parkinson disease (PD) model...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242236/centenarians-as-extreme-phenotypes-an-ecological-perspective-to-get-insight-into-the-relationship-between-the-genetics-of-longevity-and-age-associated-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Cristina Giuliani, Chiara Pirazzini, Massimo Delledonne, Luciano Xumerle, Patrick Descombes, Julien Marquis, Giacomo Mengozzi, Daniela Monti, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino, Donata Luiselli, Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
In this review we address the genetic continuum between aging and age-related diseases, with particular attention to the ecological perspective. We describe the connections between genes that promote longevity and genes associated to age-related diseases considering trade-off mechanisms in which the same genetic variants could have different effect according to the tissue considered and could be involved in several biological pathways. Then we describe mechanisms of antagonistic pleiotropy, focusing on the complex interplay between genetic variants and environmental changes (internal or external)...
February 24, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240354/the-effect-of-decomposition-on-the-efficacy-of-biometrics-for-positive-identification
#15
Kelly Sauerwein, Tiffany B Saul, Dawnie Wolfe Steadman, Chris B Boehnen
Biometrics, unique measurable physiological and behavioral characteristics, are used to identify individuals in a variety of scenarios, including forensic investigations. However, data on the longevity of these indicators are incomplete. This study demonstrated that iris and fingerprint biometric data can be obtained up to four days postmortem in warmer seasons and 50 + days in the winter. It has been generally believed, but never studied, that iris recognition is only obtainable within the first 24 hours after death...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237426/the-role-of-the-human-visual-cortex-in-assessment-of-the-long-term-durability-of-retinal-gene-therapy-in-follow-on-rpe65-clinical-trial-patients
#16
Manzar Ashtari, Elena S Nikonova, Kathleen A Marshall, Gloria J Young, Puya Aravand, Wei Pan, Gui-Shuang Ying, Aimee E Willett, Mani Mahmoudian, Albert M Maguire, Jean Bennett
PURPOSE: Gene therapy (GT) has offered immense hope to individuals who are visually impaired because of RPE65 mutations. Although GT has shown great success in clinical trials enrolling these individuals, evidence for stability and durability of this treatment over time is still unknown. Herein we explored the value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an objective measure to assess independently the longevity of retinal GT. DESIGN: Individuals with RPE65 mutations who underwent GT in their worse-seeing eye in a phase 1 clinical trial received a second subretinal injection in their contralateral eye in a follow-on clinical trial...
February 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231248/intensive-trapping-of-blood-fed-anopheles-darlingi-in-amazonian-peru-reveals-unexpectedly-high-proportions-of-avian-blood-meals
#17
Marta Moreno, Marlon P Saavedra, Sara A Bickersmith, Catharine Prussing, Adrian Michalski, Carlos Tong Rios, Joseph M Vinetz, Jan E Conn
Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230165/mtdna-meta-analysis-reveals-both-phenotype-specificity-and-allele-heterogeneity-a-model-for-differential-association
#18
Shani Marom, Michael Friger, Dan Mishmar
Human mtDNA genetic variants have traditionally been considered markers for ancient population migrations. However, during the past three decades, these variants have been associated with altered susceptibility to various phenotypes, thus supporting their importance for human health. Nevertheless, mtDNA disease association has frequently been supported only in certain populations, due either to population stratification or differential epistatic compensations among populations. To partially overcome these obstacles, we performed meta-analysis of the multiple mtDNA association studies conducted until 2016, encompassing 53,975 patients and 63,323 controls...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228420/body-composition-changes-in-the-comprehensive-assessment-of-long-term-effects-of-reducing-intake-of-energy-calerie-2-study-a-2-y-randomized-controlled-trial-of-calorie-restriction-in-nonobese-humans
#19
Sai Krupa Das, Susan B Roberts, Manjushri V Bhapkar, Dennis T Villareal, Luigi Fontana, Corby K Martin, Susan B Racette, Paul J Fuss, William E Kraus, William W Wong, Edward Saltzman, Carl F Pieper, Roger A Fielding, Ann V Schwartz, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Background: Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition.Objective: We evaluated the effect of a 2-y CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) among participants enrolled in CALERIE-2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.Design: Participants were 218 nonobese (BMI: 21...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219777/nutrition-metabolism-and-targeting-aging-in-nonhuman-primates
#20
REVIEW
Priya Balasubramanian, Julie A Mattison, Rozalyn M Anderson
This short review focuses on the importance of nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and makes the case that a targeted expansion of the use of this highly translatable model would be advantageous to the biology of aging field. First, we describe the high degree of similarity of the model in terms of aging phenotypes including incidence and prevalence of common human age-related diseases. Second, we discuss the importance of the nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and the extent to which the outcomes of two ongoing long-term studies of caloric restriction are congruent with short-term equivalent studies in humans...
February 20, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
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