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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457329/the-companion-dog-as-a-model-for-human-aging-and-mortality
#1
Jessica M Hoffman, Kate E Creevy, Alexander Franks, Dan G O'Neill, Daniel E L Promislow
Around the world, human populations have experienced large increases in average lifespan over the last 150 years, and while individuals are living longer, they are spending more years of life with multiple chronic morbidities. Researchers have used numerous laboratory animal models to understand the biological and environmental factors that influence aging, morbidity, and longevity. However, the most commonly studied animal species, laboratory mice and rats, do not experience environmental conditions similar to those to which humans are exposed, nor do we often diagnose them with many of the naturally occurring pathologies seen in humans...
February 19, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456061/the-drosophila-cytokine-gbp-a-model-that-illuminates-the-yin-yang-of-inflammation-and-longevity-in-humans
#2
Stephen B Shears, Yoichi Hayakawa
Our laboratories have determined that the Drosophila cytokine, Growth-blocking peptide (GBP), mediates its biological effects through the Mthl10 G-protein coupled receptor. In this Cytokine Stimulus, we discuss the functional plasticity of the GBP/Mthl10 axis, and we propose that conserved components of this regulatory network may be relevant to human health.
February 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455295/is-extreme-climate-or-moderate-climate-more-conducive-to-longevity-in-china
#3
Yi Huang, Mark Rosenberg, Yingli Wang
Climate is closely related to human longevity. In China, there are many climate types. According to national population censuses from 1982 to 2000, most provinces with a high ratio of centenarians are located in western and northwestern China far from the sea; these areas are characterized by a dry, cold climate, very high altitude, very high daily temperature range, strong winds, and partial hypoxia. Meanwhile, provinces with a high ratio of nonagenarians from 1982 to 2000 are located in southern China near the sea...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453205/co-deficiency-of-lysosomal-mucolipins-3-and-1-in-cochlear-hair-cells-diminishes-outer-hair-cell-longevity-and-accelerates-age-related-hearing-loss
#4
Teerawat Wiwatpanit, Natalie N Remis, Aisha Ahmad, Yingjie Zhou, John C Clancy, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jaime García-Añoveros
Acquired hearing loss is the predominant neurodegenerative condition associated with aging in humans. Although mutations on several genes are known to cause congenital deafness in newborns, few genes have been implicated in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), perhaps because its cause is likely polygenic. Here, we generated mice lacking lysosomal calcium channel mucolipins 3 and 1 and discovered that both male and female mice suffered a polygenic form of hearing loss. While mucolipin 1 is ubiquitously expressed in all cells, mucolipin 3 is expressed in a small subset of cochlear cells -hair cells (HCs) and marginal cells of the stria vascularis- and very few other cell types...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447380/sirtuins-in-gamete-biology-and-reproductive-physiology-emerging-roles-and-therapeutic-potential-in-female-and-male-infertility
#5
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433738/foxo3-and-exceptional-longevity-insights-from-hydra-to-humans
#6
Philip M C Davy, Richard C Allsopp, Timothy A Donlon, Brian J Morris, Donald Craig Willcox, Bradley J Willcox
Aging is a complex, multifactorial process with significant plasticity. While several biological pathways appear to influence aging, few genes have been identified that are both evolutionarily conserved and have a strong impact on aging and age-related phenotypes. The FoxO3 gene (FOXO3), and its homologs in model organisms, appears especially important, forming a key gene in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-signaling pathway, and influencing life span across diverse species. We highlight some of the key findings that are associated with FoxO3 protein, its gene and homologs in relation to lifespan in different species, and the insights these findings might provide about the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that modulate aging and longevity in humans...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432117/closed-loop-continuous-hand-control-via-chronic-recording-of-regenerative-peripheral-nerve-interfaces
#7
Philip P Vu, Zachary T Irwin, Autumn J Bullard, Shoshana W Ambani, Ian C Sando, Melanie G Urbanchek, Paul S Cederna, Cynthia A Chestek
Loss of the upper limb imposes a devastating interruption to everyday life. Full restoration of natural arm control requires the ability to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom of the prosthetic arm and maintain that control over an extended period of time. Current clinically available myoelectric prostheses do not provide simultaneous control or consistency for transradial amputees. To address this issue, we have implemented a standard Kalman filter for continuous hand control using intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from both regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNI) and an intact muscle within non-human primates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431743/sorafenib-promotes-graft-versus-leukemia-activity-in-mice-and-humans-through-il-15-production-in-flt3-itd-mutant-leukemia-cells
#8
Nimitha R Mathew, Francis Baumgartner, Lukas Braun, David O'Sullivan, Simone Thomas, Miguel Waterhouse, Tony A Müller, Kathrin Hanke, Sanaz Taromi, Petya Apostolova, Anna L Illert, Wolfgang Melchinger, Sandra Duquesne, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Lena Osswald, Kai-Li Yan, Arnim Weber, Sonia Tugues, Sabine Spath, Dietmar Pfeifer, Marie Follo, Rainer Claus, Michael Lübbert, Christoph Rummelt, Hartmut Bertz, Ralph Wäsch, Johanna Haag, Andrea Schmidts, Michael Schultheiss, Dominik Bettinger, Robert Thimme, Evelyn Ullrich, Yakup Tanriver, Giang Lam Vuong, Renate Arnold, Philipp Hemmati, Dominik Wolf, Markus Ditschkowski, Cordula Jilg, Konrad Wilhelm, Christian Leiber, Sabine Gerull, Jörg Halter, Claudia Lengerke, Thomas Pabst, Thomas Schroeder, Guido Kobbe, Wolf Rösler, Soroush Doostkam, Stephan Meckel, Kathleen Stabla, Stephan K Metzelder, Sebastian Halbach, Tilman Brummer, Zehan Hu, Joern Dengjel, Björn Hackanson, Christoph Schmid, Udo Holtick, Christof Scheid, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Friedrich Stölzel, Rainer Ordemann, Lutz P Müller, Flore Sicre-de-Fontbrune, Gabriele Ihorst, Jürgen Kuball, Jan E Ehlert, Daniel Feger, Eva-Maria Wagner, Jean-Yves Cahn, Jacqueline Schnell, Florian Kuchenbauer, Donald Bunjes, Ronjon Chakraverty, Simon Richardson, Saar Gill, Nicolaus Kröger, Francis Ayuk, Luca Vago, Fabio Ciceri, Antonia M Müller, Takeshi Kondo, Takanori Teshima, Susan Klaeger, Bernhard Kuster, Dennis Dong Hwan Kim, Daniel Weisdorf, Walter van der Velden, Daniela Dörfel, Wolfgang Bethge, Inken Hilgendorf, Andreas Hochhaus, Geoffroy Andrieux, Melanie Börries, Hauke Busch, John Magenau, Pavan Reddy, Myriam Labopin, Joseph H Antin, Andrea S Henden, Geoffrey R Hill, Glen A Kennedy, Merav Bar, Anita Sarma, Donal McLornan, Ghulam Mufti, Betul Oran, Katayoun Rezvani, Omid Sha, Robert S Negrin, Arnon Nagler, Marco Prinz, Andreas Burchert, Andreas Neubauer, Dietrich Beelen, Andreas Mackensen, Nikolas von Bubnoff, Wolfgang Herr, Burkhard Becher, Gerard Socié, Michael A Caligiuri, Eliana Ruggiero, Chiara Bonini, Georg Häcker, Justus Duyster, Jürgen Finke, Erika Pearce, Bruce R Blazar, Robert Zeiser
Individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the gene encoding Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have a 1-year survival rate below 20%. We observed that sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased IL-15 production by FLT3-ITD+ leukemia cells. This synergized with the allogeneic CD8+ T cell response, leading to long-term survival in six mouse models of FLT3-ITD+ AML...
February 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427754/withanolide-a-extends-the-lifespan-in-human-egfr-driven-cancerous-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Bashir Akhlaq Akhoon, Laxmi Rathor, Rakesh Pandey
The conserved EGFR pathway is linked with multiple cancers in humans including breast, ovarian, and lung carcinoma. Withanolide A, one of the major withanolidal active compounds isolated from the Withania somnifera, extends lifespan and ameliorates stress resistance in wild-type C. elegans by targeting the Insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. Up-regulation of IGF1 can transactivate EGFR which inturn reduces longevity and promotes tumor development in an organism. We examined the effects of Withanolide A on the lifespan of a human EGFR-driven C...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416549/actn3-morbidity-and-healthy-aging
#10
REVIEW
Craig Pickering, John Kiely
As human longevity increases, recent research has focused on the maintenance of optimal health during old age. One such area of focus is that of muscle function in the elderly, with a loss of muscle mass increasing the risk of negative outcomes such as sarcopenia and a decrease in bone mineral density. In this mini-review, we focus on the impact of a single nucleotide polymorphism in ACTN3, shown to impact muscle phenotype in elite athletes, on loss of muscle function, maintenance of bone mineral density, and metabolic disorder risk in an elderly population...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415778/the-history-of-transdisciplinary-race-classification-methods-politics-and-institutions-1840s-1940s
#11
Richard McMahon
A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions - ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology - each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as 'transdisciplinary' can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization...
February 8, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410799/quantification-of-plasma-cell-dynamics-using-mathematical-modelling
#12
Marcel Mohr, Dirk Hose, Anja Seckinger, Anna Marciniak-Czochra
Plasma cells (PCs) are the main antibody-producing cells in humans. They are long-lived so that specific antibodies against either pathogens or vaccines are produced for decades. PC longevity is attributed to specific areas within the bone marrow micro-environment, the so-called 'niche', providing the cells with required growth and survival factors. With antigen encounters, e.g. infection or vaccination, new PCs are generated and home to the bone marrow where they compete with resident PCs for the niche. We propose a parametrized mathematical model describing healthy PC dynamics in the bone marrow...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410319/genetic-cartography-of-longevity-in-humans-and-mice-current-landscape-and-horizons
#13
REVIEW
Michael Hook, Suheeta Roy, Evan G Williams, Maroun Bou Sleiman, Khyobeni Mozhui, James F Nelson, Lu Lu, Johan Auwerx, Robert W Williams
Aging is a complex and highly variable process. Heritability of longevity among humans and other species is low, and this finding has given rise to the idea that it may be futile to search for DNA variants that modulate aging. We argue that the problem in mapping longevity genes is mainly one of low power and the genetic and environmental complexity of aging. In this review we highlight progress made in mapping genes and molecular networks associated with longevity, paying special attention to work in mice and humans...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408453/a-randomized-control-trial-to-establish-the-feasibility-and-safety-of-rapamycin-treatment-in-an-older-human-cohort-immunological-physical-performance-and-cognitive-effects
#14
Ellen Kraig, Leslie A Linehan, Hanyu Liang, Terry Q Romo, Qianqian Liu, Yubo Wu, Adriana D Benavides, Tyler J Curiel, Martin A Javors, Nicolas Musi, Laura Chiodo, Wouter Koek, Jonathan A L Gelfond, Dean L Kellogg
Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by rapamycin (RAPA), an FDA-approved immunosuppressive drug used as a clinical therapy to prevent solid organ allograft rejection, enhances longevity in mice. Importantly, RAPA was efficacious even when initiated in relatively old animals, suggesting that mTOR inhibition could potentially slow the progression of aging-associated pathologies in older humans (Harrison et al., 2009; Miller et al., 2011). However, the safety and tolerability of RAPA in older human subjects have not yet been demonstrated...
February 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402541/synthesis-and-characterization-of-ciprofloxacin-containing-divinyl-oligomers-and-assessment-of-their-biodegradation-in-simulated-salivary-esterase
#15
Yasaman Delaviz, Mitchell A Nascimento, Michael W Laschuk, Timothy W Liu, Meilin Yang, J Paul Santerre
OBJECTIVE: Two leading causes contributing to dental restoration replacement are the marginal breakdown at the composite/dentin interface and secondary caries mediated by bacteria. The objective of the present study was to synthesize oligomers which incorporated enhanced bio-stability but would also be able to generate antimicrobial function if they underwent degradation. METHODS: Stability was incorporated into the oligomers by generating structural features that would physically hinder the availability of hydrolytically sensitive groups in the oligomers...
February 2, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385084/viewpoint-a-contributory-role-of-shell-ginger-alpinia-zerumbet-pers-b-l-burtt-r-m-sm-for-human-longevity-in-okinawa-japan
#16
Rolf Teschke, Tran Dang Xuan
The longevity of the population in the Okinawa Islands of Japan has been ascribed to genetic factors and the traditional Okinawa cuisine, which is low in calories and high in plant content. This diet includes shell ginger (Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm) of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Due to its local popularity, Alpinia zerumbet has become the subject of a good deal of study at the University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa. Personal local experience and review of the literature now suggest that culinary shell ginger may contribute to longevity among the population in Okinawa...
January 31, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384231/xenotopic-expression-of-alternative-electron-transport-enzymes-in-animal-mitochondria-and-their-impact-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
André F Camargo, Marina M Chioda, Ana P C Rodrigues, Geovana S Garcia, Emily A McKinney, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in vertebrates and arthropods is different from that of most other eukaryotes because they lack alternative enzymes that provide electron transfer pathways additional to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. However, the use of diverse experimental models, such as human cells in culture, Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, has demonstrated that the transgenic expression of these alternative enzymes can impact positively many phenotypes associated with human mitochondrial and other cellular dysfunction, including those typically presented in complex IV deficiencies, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379855/a-cell-culture-platform-to-maintain-long-term-phenotype-of%C3%A2-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-endothelial-cells
#18
Brenton R Ware, Mitchell J Durham, Chase P Monckton, Salman R Khetani
Background and Aims: Modeling interactions between primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in vitro can help elucidate human-specific mechanisms underlying liver physiology/disease and drug responses; however, existing hepatocyte/endothelial coculture models are suboptimal because of their use of rodent cells, cancerous cell lines, and/or nonliver endothelial cells. Hence, we sought to develop a platform that could maintain the long-term phenotype of PHHs and primary human LSECs...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377178/distinct-patterns-of-gene-expression-in-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-exposed-to-rapamycin-treatment-or-methionine-restriction
#19
Ashley Azar, Ibiyonu Lawrence, Sebastian Jofre, Joshua Mell, Christian Sell
Both methionine restriction and rapamycin treatment are robust longevity-enhancing regimens for which the mechanisms remain unclear. Cellular senescence is a major contributor to the aging process, and we find that both the methionine and rapamycin regimens delay or prevent activation of the senescence program in human cells. Using a transcriptome-wide analysis, we examined the impact of methionine restriction and rapamycin treatment on senescence-associated gene expression in human cardiac fibroblasts. Our findings have been integrated into gene expression data sets from human lung and skin fibroblasts during senescence...
January 28, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363766/the-role-of-autophagy-in-the-regulation-of-yeast-life-span
#20
REVIEW
Jessica K Tyler, Jay E Johnson
The goal of the aging field is to develop novel therapeutic interventions that extend human health span and reduce the burden of age-related disease. While organismal aging is a complex, multifactorial process, a popular theory is that cellular aging is a significant contributor to the progressive decline inherent to all multicellular organisms. To explore the molecular determinants that drive cellular aging, as well as how to retard them, researchers have utilized the highly genetically tractable budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
January 24, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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