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Parkinson disease with dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809934/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-nested-case-control-study
#1
Chiu-Ying Chen, Hui-Jung Hung, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Chung Y Hsu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chon-Haw Tsai, Trong-Neng Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed that chronic exposure to air pollution can significantly increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), but this relationship is inconclusive as large-scale prospective studies are limited and the results are inconsistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure in a nationwide population using a longitudinal approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the National Health Insurance Research Dataset (NHIRD), which consisted of 1,000,000 beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Program (NHI) in the year 2000 and their medical records from 1995 to 2013 and using public data on air pollution concentrations from monitoring stations across Taiwan released from the Environmental Protection Administration to identify people with ages ≥ 40 years living in areas with monitoring stations during 1995-1999 as study subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808912/molecular-imaging-and-updated-diagnostic-criteria-in-lewy-body-dementias
#2
REVIEW
Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martijn L T M Müller, Kirk A Frey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aims of the study were to review recent advances in molecular imaging in the Lewy body dementias (LBD) and determine if these may support the clinical but contested temporal profile distinction between Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia (PDD) versus dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RECENT FINDINGS: There do not appear to be major regional cerebral metabolic or neurotransmitter distinctions between PDD and DLB. However, recent studies highlight the relative discriminating roles of Alzheimer proteinopathies...
August 14, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808876/changes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-t-tau-and-p-tau-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-relative-to-those-with-normal-cognition-a-meta-analysis
#3
Xiaohui Hu, Yan Yang, Daokai Gong
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signature of reduced amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42), elevated total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau) is important for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ42, t-tau, and p-tau have been reported in numerous studies to contribute to predicting cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PDCI). However, no consistent conclusion can be drawn so far. Literatures regarding Aβ42, t-tau, and p-tau in CSF were systematically reviewed, and a meta-analysis was thus performed to evaluate the changes of these biomarkers in PDCI patients, including PD with mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and PD dementia (PDD) patients, relative to PD with normal cognition (PDNC) patients...
August 14, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807493/homocysteine-and-cognitive-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Nicole Licking, Charles Murchison, Brenna Cholerton, Cyrus P Zabetian, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Montine, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Kathryn A Chung, Karen Edwards, James B Leverenz, Joseph F Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Increased plasma homocysteine (HC) is a risk factor for dementia in the general population. Levodopa therapy causes increased plasma HC, but it remains unclear whether elevated plasma HC is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study population includes all participants in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center (PANUC) Clinical cohort at the time of the study, consisting of 294 individuals with PD who had a standardized neuropsychological assessment and plasma collection for HC measurement...
August 9, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807457/identification-of-pseudobulbar-affect-symptoms-in-the-nursing-home-setting-development-and-assessment-of-a-screening-tool
#5
Carrie Allen, Barbara Zarowitz, Terrence O'Shea, Edward Peterson, Charles Yonan, Fanta Waterman
Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA) is a neurologic condition characterized by involuntary outbursts of crying and/or laughing disproportionate to patient mood or social context. Although an estimated 9% of nursing home residents have symptoms suggestive of PBA, they are not routinely screened. Our goal was to develop an electronic screening tool based upon characteristics common to nursing home residents with PBA identified through medical record data. Nursing home residents with PBA treated with dextromethorphan hydrobromide/quinidine sulfate (n = 140) were compared to age-, gender-, and dementia-diagnosis-matched controls without PBA or treatment (n = 140)...
August 11, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805589/visual-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Richard A Armstrong
This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805587/osteoporosis-a-hidden-nonmotor-face-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Vinod Metta, Tamara C Sanchez, Chandrasekhara Padmakumar
Osteoporosis is a "hidden nonmotor face" of Parkinson's disease and a cause of considerable morbidity in the older general population and in Parkinson's disease patients. Some regard this as a "hidden epidemic." Women are overrepresented and have considerable problems related to osteoporosis. In general osteoporosis leads to reduced mobility aggravating the motor syndrome of PD. The nonmotor aspects and impact of osteoporosis in PD have remained unexplored. Possible nonmotor consequences include a range of pain syndromes related to local pain, fractures, falls, and injuries as well as pathological fractures and radiculopathy...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805571/palliative-care-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinsonism
#8
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
The term palliative care (PC) is defined as a collection of interventions and strategies that helps to improve and sustain the quality of life of patients and caregivers in situations and scenarios associated with life-threatening illness. This is usually implemented by means of early identification and treatment of relevant motor and nonmotor issues such as pain, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction, dementia, and depression. In addition, a holistic PC program also includes delivery of physical, psychosocial, and spiritual support...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803444/atypical-parkinsonian-syndromes-a-general-neurologist-s-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Angela B Deutschländer, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson, Zbigniew K Wszolek
The differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian syndromes is challenging. These severe and often rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorders are clinically heterogeneous and show significant phenotypic overlap. Here we review clinical, imaging, neuropathologic and genetic features of multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The terms CBD and FTLD refer to pathologically confirmed cases of corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802934/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Dominic H Ffytche, Dag Aarsland
Although illusions, hallucinations and delusions did not play a prominent role in James Parkinson's original clinical descriptions, the longitudinal view of disease progression he advocated has important lessons for the study of such symptoms today. A focus on longitudinal progression rather than individual symptoms led to the concept of PD psychosis-a spectrum of positive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The publication of criteria for PD psychosis in 2007 helped unify the disparate set of symptoms, raising their profile and resulting in a rapid expansion of literature focussing on clinical aspects, mechanisms, and treatment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802933/cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Claire O'Callaghan, Simon J G Lewis
Cognitive decline is now recognized as a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease, and it has been the subject of increasing research in recent decades. Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease can be distinguished as dopaminergically mediated executive dysfunction seen in the milder stages vs a global dementia syndrome that can occur with disease progression. The neural basis of these deficits has been explored from the perspective of multimodal imaging techniques to measure the structural, functional, and metabolic correlates of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802919/nonmotor-signs-in-genetic-forms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Meike Kasten, Connie Marras, Christine Klein
Although only a minority (i.e., ~5%) of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases is due to well-defined genetic causes, important clues about the common, "idiopathic" PD (iPD) can be garnered from monogenic model diseases. Nonmotor signs (NMS) are also present in monogenic PD and reviewed in this chapter for the confirmed PD genes SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and the risk factor gene GBA. Within the context of the MDSGene database (www.mdsgene.org), we performed a systematic literature search and extracted information on cognitive decline, depression, psychotic signs and symptoms, autonomic signs and symptoms, anxiety, sleep disorder, and olfactory impairment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800743/an-itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-reveals-dysregulation-of-neocortical-synaptopodin-in-lewy-body-dementias
#13
Arnab Datta, Yuek Ling Chai, Jing Min Tan, Jasinda H Lee, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Siu Kwan Sze, Mitchell K P Lai
Lewy body dementias are the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia in the elderly after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two clinical subgroups of Lewy body dementias, namely, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), are differentiated by the chronology of cognitive symptoms relative to parkinsonism. At present, there remains a debate on whether DLB and PDD are separate disease entities, or fall within the same spectrum of Lewy body dementias. In this study, we compared the detergent-soluble proteome via an 8-plex isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis of pooled lysates from the prefrontal cortex (BA9) of DLB (n = 19) and PDD (n = 21) patients matched a priori for amyloid (total Aβ42) burden, semi-quantitative scores for Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles together with age-matched control (n = 21) subjects...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799502/mitochondrial-dynamics-and-proteins-related-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Athanasios Alexiou, Bilal Nizami, Faez Iqbal Khan, Georgia Soursou, Charalampos Vairaktarakis, Stylianos Chatzichronis, Vasilis Tsiamis, Vasileios Manztavinos, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the occurrence of proteins misfolding lead to neuronal death, resulting in Age-related Dementia and Neurodegenerative diseases as well as Frailty. Functional, neurophysiologic and biochemical alterations within the mitochondrial populations can reveal deficits in brain energy metabolism resulting in Mild Cognitive Impairment, abnormal neural development, autonomic dysfunction and other mitochondrial disorders. Additionally, in cases of Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease, a significant number of proteins seems to form unordered and problematic structures, leading through unknown mechanisms to pathological conditions...
August 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798667/the-foxp2-driven-network-in-developmental-disorders-and-neurodegeneration
#15
Franz Oswald, Patricia Klöble, André Ruland, David Rosenkranz, Bastian Hinz, Falk Butter, Sanja Ramljak, Ulrich Zechner, Holger Herlyn
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#16
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777757/gba-associated-parkinson-s-disease-progression-in-a-deep-brain-stimulation-cohort
#17
Vanessa Lythe, Dilan Athauda, Jennifer Foley, Niccolò E Mencacci, Marjan Jahanshahi, Lisa Cipolotti, Jonathan Hyam, Ludvic Zrinzo, Marwan Hariz, John Hardy, Patricia Limousin, Tom Foltynie
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that glucosidase beta acid (GBA) mutations predispose Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to a greater burden of cognitive impairment and non-motor symptoms. This emerging knowledge has not yet been considered in patients who have undergone deep brain stimulation (DBS); a surgery that is generally contraindicated in those with cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE: To explore the long-term phenotypic progression of GBA-associated PD, in a DBS cohort...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756177/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-become-the-same-disease
#18
Joseph H Friedman
INTRODUCTION: The question whether DLB and PDD are distinct disorders has been debated in several forums. The two disorders, once parkinsonism is present in DLB, cannot be distinguished on clinical or pathological grounds. The conundrum exists for those DLB patients who do not yet have parkinsonism, and raises the parallel with patients who have Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder but have not yet manifested parkinsonian signs. METHODS: A literature review was summarized to justify classification as a single disorder...
July 18, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751258/distinct-%C3%AE-synuclein-strains-and-implications-for-heterogeneity-among-%C3%AE-synucleinopathies
#19
REVIEW
Chao Peng, Ronald J Gathagan, Virginia M-Y Lee
The deposition of misfolded β-sheet enriched amyloid protein is a shared feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies demonstrated the existence of conformationally diverse strains as a common property for multiple amyloidogenic proteins including α-Synuclein (α-Syn). α-Syn is misfolded and aggregated in a group of neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as α-Synucleinopathies, which include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy body, multiple system atrophy and also a subset of Alzheimer's disease patients with concomitant PD-like Lewy bodies and neurites...
July 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750675/differential-role-of-csf-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-alzheimer-s-disease-core-biomarkers-in-lewy-body-disorders-and-alzheimer-s-dementia
#20
Davide Chiasserini, Leonardo Biscetti, Paolo Eusebi, Nicola Salvadori, Giulia Frattini, Simone Simoni, Naomi De Roeck, Nicola Tambasco, Erik Stoops, Hugo Vanderstichele, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Brit Mollenhauer, Paolo Calabresi, Lucilla Parnetti
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) share clinical and molecular features. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may help the characterization of these diseases, improving the differential diagnosis. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of five CSF biomarkers across a well-characterized cohort of patients diagnosed with AD, DLB, PDD, and Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: A total of 208 patients were enrolled in 3 European centers...
July 28, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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