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embryo in vitro production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101788/embling-production-in-althaea-officinalis-l-through-somatic-embryogenesis-and-their-appraisal-via-histological-and-scanning-electron-microscopical-studies
#1
Ruphi Naz, Mohammad Anis, Abdulrahman A Alatar
In vitro propagation of a medicinally important plant, Althaea officinalis, has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos (globular to torpedo-shaped embryos) were induced on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium augmented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, and 25.0) alone or combined with N6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μM). These were directly formed from the cut ends and subsequently spread on the whole surface of internodal explants...
January 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096658/anticancer-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-girinimbine-isolated-from-murraya-koenigii
#2
Venoos Iman, Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Hamed Karimian, Noraziah Nordin, Mehran Fadaeinasab, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin, Suzita Mohd Noor
Therapy that directly targets apoptosis and/or inflammation could be highly effective for the treatment of cancer. Murraya koenigii is an edible herb that has been traditionally used for cancer treatment as well as inflammation. Here, we describe that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from M. koenigii, induced apoptosis and inhibited inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) by girinimbine revealed decreased cell viability in HT-29, whereas there was no cytotoxic effect on normal colon cells...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096155/inhibition-of-the-%C3%AE-lactamase-blamab-by-avibactam-improves-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-efficacy-of-imipenem-against-mycobacterium-abscessus
#3
Anne-Laure Lefebvre, Vincent Le Moigne, Audrey Bernut, Carole Veckerlé, Fabrice Compain, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer, Michel Arthur, Jean-Luc Mainardi
Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infections are treated with a macrolide (clarithromycin or azithromycin), an aminoglycoside (amikacin), and a β-lactam (cefoxitin or imipenem). The triple combination is used without any β-lactamase inhibitor despite production of the broad spectrum β-lactamase BlaMab We determine whether inhibition of BlaMab by avibactam improves the activity of imipenem against M. abscessus. Bactericidal activity of drug combinations was assayed in broth and in human macrophages. The in vivo efficacy of the drugs was tested by monitoring the survival of infected zebrafish embryos...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089824/mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-2-in-human-cumulus-cells-is-associated-with-regulating-autophagy-and-apoptosis-maintaining-gap-junction-integrity-and-progesterone-synthesis
#4
Hongshan Ge, Fan Zhang, Duan Ping, Nan Zhu, Jiayan Zhang, Feijun Ye, Dan Shan, Hua Chen, XiaoSheng Lu, ChunFang Zhu, Renshan Ge, Zhenkun Lin
To explore the roles of mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) in cumulus cells (CCs), human CCs were cultured in vitro, and the UCP2 was inhibited by treatment with Genipin, a special UCP inhibitor, or by RNA interference targeting UCP2. No significant differences in adenosine triphosphate levels and the ratio of ADP/ATP were observed after UCP2 inhibition. UCP2 inhibition caused a significant increase in cellular oxidative damage, which was reflected in alterations to several key parameters, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels and the ratio of reduced GSH to GSSG...
January 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081254/maternal-supply-of-cas9-to-zygotes-facilitates-the-efficient-generation-of-site-specific-mutant-mouse-models
#5
Alberto Cebrian-Serrano, Shijun Zha, Lars Hanssen, Daniel Biggs, Christopher Preece, Benjamin Davies
Genome manipulation in the mouse via microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 site-specific nucleases has allowed the production time for genetically modified mouse models to be significantly reduced. Successful genome manipulation in the mouse has already been reported using Cas9 supplied by microinjection of a DNA construct, in vitro transcribed mRNA and recombinant protein. Recently the use of transgenic strains of mice overexpressing Cas9 has been shown to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis via maternal supply to zygotes and this route may provide an alternative to exogenous supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069903/improvement-of-in-vitro-produced-bovine-embryo-treated-with-coa-a-under-heat-stressed-condition
#6
Imran Khan, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Lianguang Xu, Ayman Mesalam, Mmr Chowdhury, Myeong-Don Joo, Ihsan-Ul- Haq, Bushra Mirza, Il-Keun Kong
Heat stress has large effects on reproduction including conception rate in cattle. In this study, we examined the effects of coagulansin-A (coa-A), a steroidal lactone, on acquired thermo tolerance during in vitro production of bovine embryos. Oocytes were incubated in in vitro maturation (IVM) media with or without coa-A at two different temperatures, 40.5 °C and 42 °C, for 20 h. The treatment of coa-A significantly improved blastocyst development only at 40.5 °C (P < 0.05). Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that coa-A induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), but significantly attenuated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063128/improved-production-of-doubled-haploids-of-winter-and-spring-triticale-hybrids-via-combination-of-colchicine-treatments-on-anthers-and-regenerated-plants
#7
Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Hanna Pudelska, Jolanta Woźna, Tomasz Pniewski
Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060351/ploidy-manipulation-of-zebrafish-embryos-with-heat-shock-2-treatment
#8
Destiny L Baars, Kendra A Takle, Jonathon Heier, Francisco Pelegri
Manipulation of ploidy allows for useful transformations, such as diploids to tetraploids, or haploids to diploids. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, specifically the generation of homozygous gynogenetic diploids is useful in genetic analysis because it allows the direct production of homozygotes from a single heterozygous mother. This article describes a modified protocol for ploidy duplication based on a heat pulse during the first cell cycle, Heat Shock 2 (HS2). Through inhibition of centriole duplication, this method results in a precise cell division stall during the second cell cycle...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057903/reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-unfolded-protein-response-pathways-in-pre-implantation-embryo
#9
REVIEW
Ihsan Ali, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Jin Yi, Li Zhong-Shu, Obaidullah, Fang Nan-Zhu
The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated responses are critical to embryonic development in the challenging in-vitro environment. ROS production increases during early embryonic development with the increased protein requirement for cell survival and growth. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional cellular organelle responsible for protein folding, modification, and cellular homeostasis. ER stress is activated by a variety of factors including ROS, leading to activation of the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), which restores homeostasis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055238/valproic-acid-increases-histone-acetylation-and-alters-gene-expression-in-the-donor-cells-but-does-not-improve-the-in-vitro-developmental-competence-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryos-produced-by-hand-made-cloning
#10
Naresh L Selokar, Monika Saini, Himanshu Agrawal, Prabhat Palta, Manmohan Singh Chauhan, Radheysham Manik, Suresh Kumar Singla
Use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) is believed to improve the developmental competence and quality of cloned embryos produced. We examined the effects of treatment of buffalo fibroblasts with valproic acid (VPA), a HDACi on these cells and on embryos produced from them by hand-made cloning. VPA treatment (1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mM) altered (p < 0.05) the growth characteristics and relative expression level of HDAC1, DNMT1, DNMT3a, P53, and CASPASE3, and the global level of H3K9/14ac, H4K5ac, and H3K18ac but not H3K27me3 in the cells...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043342/in%C3%A2-vitro-embryo-production-in-wood-bison-bison-bison-athabascae-using-in%C3%A2-vivo-matured-cumulus-oocyte-complexes
#11
Miriam P Cervantes, J Manuel Palomino, Muhammad Anzar, Reuben J Mapletoft, Gabriela F Mastromonaco, Gregg P Adams
Experiments were conducted in wood bison to determine the effect of additional maturation time on embryo development of in vivo matured oocytes. In experiment 1, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were collected 30 hours after hCG treatment in superstimulated wood bison, and expanded COC were fertilized immediately or after 4 hours of additional in vitro maturation. Embryo development was assessed on Days 3, 7, and 8 (Day 0 = day of fertilization). No difference in cleavage rate was detected (55.3% vs. 60...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043341/effect-of-seminal-plasma-removal-before-cryopreservation-of-bovine-semen-obtained-by-electroejaculation-on-semen-quality-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertility
#12
Suzane Peres Campanholi, Fabio Morato Monteiro, Erika Aline Ribeiro Dias, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante, Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz, José Antonio Dell'Aqua Junior, Frederico Ozanam Papa, Camila de Paula Freitas Dell'Aqua, Roberta Vantini, Joaquim Mansano Garcia
Cryopreservation of bull semen is a common biotechnology procedure in cattle breeding. However, when the ejaculate is obtained by electroejaculation, wide variation is observed in the sperm/seminal plasma (SP) ratio that can affect the freezability of semen in this species. The removal of SP may improve the quality of frozen bull semen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SP removal from the ejaculate on the cryopreservation of semen from 38 Nellore bulls collected by electroejaculation...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031476/5-hydroxytryptamine-synthesized-in-the-aorta-gonad-mesonephros-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-survival
#13
Junhua Lv, Lu Wang, Ya Gao, Yu-Qiang Ding, Feng Liu
The in vitro or ex vivo production of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) holds great promise for the treatment of hematological diseases in the clinic. However, HSCs have not been produced from either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. In this study, we report that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; also called serotonin) can enhance the generation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in vitro and is essential for the survival of HSPCs in vivo during embryogenesis. In tryptophan hydroxylase 2-deficient embryos, a decrease in 5-HT synthesized in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros leads to apoptosis of nascent HSPCs...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025841/regulation-of-diapause-in-carnivores
#14
J C Fenelon, P L Lefèvre, A Banerjee, B D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is an evolutionary strategy to ensure that offspring are born when maternal and environmental conditions are optimal for survival. In many species of carnivores, obligate embryonic diapause occurs in every gestation. In mustelids, the regulation of diapause and reactivation is influenced by photoperiod, which then acts to regulate the secretion of pituitary prolactin. Prolactin in turn regulates ovarian steroid function. Reciprocal embryo transplant studies indicate that this state of embryonic arrest is conferred by uterine conditions and is presumed to be due to a lack of specific factors necessary for continued development...
December 27, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025292/comparative-seed-germination-and-seedling-development-of-the-ghost-orchid-dendrophylax-lindenii-orchidaceae-and-molecular-identification-of-its-mycorrhizal-fungus-from-south-florida
#15
Nguyen H Hoang, Michael E Kane, Ellen N Radcliffe, Lawrence W Zettler, Larry W Richardson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The endangered leafless ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii, one of the most renowned orchids in the world, is difficult to grow under artificial conditions. Published information on asymbiotic and symbiotic (co-culture with a mycobiont) seed germination, seedling anatomy and developmental morphology of this leafless orchid is completely lacking. This information is critical for the development of efficient procedures for ghost orchid production for successful reintroduction...
December 26, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007046/maternal-effect-gene-expression-in-porcine-metaphase-ii-oocytes-and-embryos-in-vitro-effect-of-epidermal-growth-factor-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-leukemia-inhibitory-factor
#16
Marta Wasielak, Teresa Więsak, Iwona Bogacka, Beenu Moza Jalali, Marek Bogacki
Maternal effect genes (MEG) play a crucial role in early embryogenesis. In vitro culture conditions may affect MEG expression in porcine oocytes and embryos. We investigated whether in vitro culture medium supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF), IL-1β or LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) affects the mRNA level of ZAR-1 (zygote arrest 1), NPM2 (nucleoplasmin 2) and DPPA3 (developmental associated protein 3) in porcine MII oocytes and embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in NCSU-37 medium (control) or in NCSU-37 with EGF 10 ng/ml, IL-1β 10 ng/ml or LIF 50 ng/ml...
December 23, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003732/regulation-of-photoreceptor-gene-transcription-via-a-highly-conserved-transcriptional-regulatory-element-by-vsx-gene-products
#17
Yi Pan, Daniel F Comiskey, Lisa E Kelly, Dawn S Chandler, Heithem M El-Hodiri
PURPOSE: The photoreceptor conserved element-1 (PCE-1) sequence is found in the transcriptional regulatory regions of many genes expressed in photoreceptors. The retinal homeobox (Rx or Rax) gene product functions by binding to PCE-1 sites. However, other transcriptional regulators have also been reported to bind to PCE-1. One of these, vsx2, is expressed in retinal progenitor and bipolar cells. The purpose of this study is to identify Xenopus laevis vsx gene products and characterize vsx gene product expression and function with respect to the PCE-1 site...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000967/decrease-in-bovine-in-vitro-embryo-production-efficiency-during-winter-season-in-a-warm-summer-mediterranean-climate
#18
C Cheuquemán, P Loren, M Arias, J Risopatrón, R Felmer, J Álvarez, T Mogas, R Sánchez
Retrospective analysis of monthly embryo production from December 2011 to May 2015 and its correlation with meteorological data in our geographic zone was made. We had observed that in certain time of the year, in vitro blastocyst production decreases. Accordingly, was examined the association between blastocyst production and climatological parameters. Cleavage rates correlate positively with blastocyst rates (p < .05). Significant differences in cleavage rates between autumn and summer (79.8%; 71.5%), and between winter and autumn (71...
December 21, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000057/bovine-in-vitro-embryo-production-the-effects-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-10-fgf10
#19
Mateus Nunes Diógenes, Ana Luiza Silva Guimarães, Ligiane Oliveira Leme, Margot Alves Nunes Dode
PURPOSE: In an attempt to improve in vitro embryo production, we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) during in vitro maturation on the developmental capacity of bovine oocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 3-8 mm diameter. After selection, the COCs were matured in medium with or without 0.5 ng/mL of FGF10. The effect of FGF10 during in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear maturation kinetics and expansion of the cumulus cells was investigated...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989758/low-level-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-reduces-oocyte-developmental-competence-in-association-with-impaired-gene-expression
#20
D Kalo, Z Roth
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), are reproductive toxicants. However, disruptive effects of MEHP at low concentrations on the oocyte and developing blastocyst are unknown. Previously, we detected low levels of MEHP in follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows associated with reduced estradiol levels. Moreover, the MEHP concentrations found were similar to those reported for follicular fluid aspirated from women who have undergone IVF cycles...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology
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