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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812266/oxytocin-and-social-relationships-from-attachment-to-bond-disruption
#1
Oliver J Bosch, Larry J Young
Social relationships throughout life are vital for well-being and physical and mental health. A significant amount of research in animal models as well as in humans suggests that oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the development of the capacity to form social bonds, the mediation of the positive aspects of early-life nurturing on adult bonding capacity, and the maintenance of social bonding. Here, we focus on the extensive research on a socially monogamous rodent model organism, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805746/melanocortins-melanocortin-receptors-and-multiple-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins
The melanocortins and their receptors have been extensively investigated for their roles in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but to a lesser extent in immune cells and in the nervous system outside the hypothalamic axis. This review discusses corticosteroid dependent and independent effects of melanocortins on the peripheral immune system, central nervous system (CNS) effects mediated through neuronal regulation of immune system function, and direct effects on endogenous cells in the CNS. We have focused on the expression and function of melanocortin receptors in oligodendroglia (OL), the myelin producing cells of the CNS, with the goal of identifying new therapeutic approaches to decrease CNS damage in multiple sclerosis as well as to promote repair...
August 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801103/melanocortin-receptors
#3
EDITORIAL
Ya-Xiong Tao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791594/melanocortin-receptor-4-and-glioblastoma-cells-effects-of-the-selective-antagonist-ml00253764-alone-and-in-combination-with-temozolomide-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Francesca Vaglini, Carla Pardini, Teresa Di Desidero, Paola Orlandi, Francesco Pasqualetti, Alessandra Ottani, Simone Pacini, Daniela Giuliani, Salvatore Guarini, Guido Bocci
Currently, no description of melanocortin receptor-4 (MC4R) expression or activity is available in human cancer cells, including glioblastoma (GBM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of MC4Rs in GBM cells and the selective inhibition of their activity through the MC4R antagonist ML00253764 alone and in association with temozolomide in vitro and in vivo. MC4R genotyping and gene expression were performed on human GBM cells (U-87 and U-118) with real-time PCR. MC4R western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were obtained in both cell lines and in human tissues...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782535/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-induced-anorexia-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-likely-involves-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-and-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#5
Taylor Lear, Lingbin Liu, Madison O'Donnell, Betty R McConn, D Michael Denbow, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) reduces food intake in birds and mammals. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of α-MSH on food and water intake, and hypothalamic c-Fos immunoreactivity and appetite-associated factor mRNA in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species that has not undergone the same artificial selection for growth-related traits as the chicken. At 7days post-hatch, 3-h-fasted quail were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected into the lateral ventricle with 0 (vehicle), 0...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761621/toxicity-and-immunogenicity-in-murine-melanoma-following-exposure-to-physical-plasma-derived-oxidants
#6
Sander Bekeschus, Katrin Rödder, Bob Fregin, Oliver Otto, Maxi Lippert, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Kristian Wende, Anke Schmidt, Rajesh Kumar Gandhirajan
Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive and deadly disease. Therapeutic advance has been achieved by antitumor chemo- and radiotherapy. These modalities involve the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, affecting cellular viability, migration, and immunogenicity. Such species are also created by cold physical plasma, an ionized gas capable of redox modulating cells and tissues without thermal damage. Cold plasma has been suggested for anticancer therapy. Here, melanoma cell toxicity, motility, and immunogenicity of murine metastatic melanoma cells were investigated following plasma exposure in vitro...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755272/polymorphism-and-methylation-of-the-mc4r-gene-in-obese-and-non-obese-dogs
#7
Monika Mankowska, Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Aneta Graczyk, Paulina Ciazynska, Monika Stachowiak, Marek Switonski
The dog is considered to be a useful biomedical model for human diseases and disorders, including obesity. One of the numerous genes associated with human polygenic obesity is MC4R, encoding the melanocortin 4 receptor. The aim of our study was to analyze polymorphisms and methylation of the canine MC4R in relation to adiposity. Altogether 270 dogs representing four breeds predisposed to obesity: Labrador Retriever (n = 187), Golden Retriever (n = 38), Beagle (n = 28) and Cocker Spaniel (n = 17), were studied...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739551/the-description-of-a-new-case-with-proopiomelanocortin-pomc-deficiency-an-increasingly-important-diagnosis-to-make
#8
Semra Çetinkaya, Tülay Güran, Erdal Kurnaz, Melikşah Keskin, Elif Sağsak, Senay Savaş Erdeve, Jenifer P Suntharalingham, Federica Buonocore, John Achermann, Zehra Aycan
International surveillance data suggests a worldwide epidemic of pediatric obesity regardless of geographic, socioeconomic, racial and ethnic factors. Reversing this epidemic of pediatric obesity will require recognition and understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition to enable us to develop novel therapies as well as taking measures to shift social attitudes and public policies at a global level. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency is a rare monogenic disorder of early-onset obesity, which has increased our insight into the important role of the leptin-melanocortin pathway in energy balance...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738163/a-local-duplication-of-the-i-melanocortin-receptor-1-i-locus-in-i-astyanax-i
#9
Joshua B Gross, James Weagley, Bethany A Stahl, Li Ma, Luis Espinasa, Suzanne E McGaugh
In this study, we report evidence of a novel duplication of <i>Melanocortin receptor 1 (Mc1r)</i> in the cavefish genome. This locus was discovered following the observation of excessive allelic diversity in a ~820 bp fragment of <i>Mc1r</i> amplified via degenerate PCR from a natural population of <i>Astyanax aeneus</i> fish from Guerrero, Mexico. The cavefish genome reveals the presence of two closely related <i>Mc1r</i> open reading frames separated by a 1...
July 24, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735903/genetics-of-non-syndromic-childhood-obesity-and-the-use-of-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-technologies
#10
REVIEW
Ana Carolina Proença da Fonseca, Claudio Mastronardi, Angad Johar, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Gilberto Paz-Filho
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with the development of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The elevated prevalence of obesity is mostly due to inadequate diet and lifestyle, but it is also influenced by genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To review recent advances in the field of the genetics of obesity. We summarize the list of genes associated with the rare non-syndromic forms of obesity, and explain their function...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#11
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720755/functional-variants-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-associated-with-the-odontoceti-and-mysticeti-suborders-of-cetaceans
#12
Liyuan Zhao, Xiaofan Zhou, Antonis Rokas, Roger D Cone
Cetaceans, a group of mammals adapted to the aquatic environment that descended from terrestrial artiodactyls, exhibit tremendous interspecific differences in a number of phenotypes, including feeding behavior, such as filter feeding in the Mysticeti vs prey-hunting Odontoceti, and size, with the smallest cetacean, the vaquita, at 1.4 meters and the largest, the blue whale, reaching 33 meters. The Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) regulates food intake, energy balance, and somatic growth in both mammals and teleosts...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715181/structural-insights-into-selective-ligand-receptor-interactions-leading-to-receptor-inactivation-utilizing-selective-melanocortin-3-receptor-antagonists
#13
Minying Cai, Udaya Kiran Marelli, Blake Mertz, Johannes G Beck, Florian Opperer, Florian Rechenmacher, Horst Kessler, Victor J Hruby
Systematic N-methylated derivatives of the melanocortin receptor ligand, SHU9119, lead to multiple binding and functional selectivity toward melanocortin receptors. However, the relationship between N-methylation-induced conformational changes in the peptide backbone and side chains and melanocortin receptor selectivity is still unknown. We conducted comprehensive conformational studies in solution of two selective antagonists of the third isoform of the melanocortin receptor (hMC3R), namely, Ac-Nle-c[Asp-NMe-His(6)-d-Nal(2')(7)-NMe-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Lys]-NH2 (15) and Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His(6)-d-Nal(2')(7)-NMe-Arg(8)-NMe-Trp(9)-NMe-Lys]-NH2 (17)...
August 1, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714883/nmr-insights-into-the-structure-function-relationships-in-the-binding-of-melanocortin-analogues-to-the-mc1r-receptor
#14
Maurício Morais, Héctor Zamora-Carreras, Paula D Raposinho, Maria Cristina Oliveira, David Pantoja-Uceda, João D G Correia, M Angeles Jiménez
Linear and cyclic analogues of the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) targeting the human melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) are of pharmacological interest for detecting and treating melanoma. The central sequence of α-MSH (His-Phe-Arg-Trp) has been identified as being essential for receptor binding. To deepen current knowledge on the molecular basis for α-MSH bioactivity, we aimed to understand the effect of cycle size on receptor binding. To that end, we synthesised two macrocyclic isomeric α-MSH analogues, c[NH-NO₂-C₆H₃-CO-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-Lys-NH₂ (CycN-K6) and c[NH-NO₂-C₆H₃-CO-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys-Lys]-NH₂ (CycN-K7)...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699792/novel-approaches-to-the-design-of-bioavailable-melanotropins
#15
Yang Zhou, Minying Cai
The melanocortin system is a primordial and critical system for survival, involved in a wide variety of physiological functions. It includes melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and melanotropin ligands (MCLs). MCRs are important drug targets that can regulate several key physiological processes. Extensive efforts have been made to develop peptide and peptidomimetics targeting melanocortin receptors including MC1R, MC3R, MC4R and MC5R. Most research is focused on developing potent and selective melanotropins. However, developing bioavailable melanotropins remains challenging...
July 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677151/getting-a-tan-without-getting-sik
#16
John D'Orazio
It has been more than a decade since the Fisher lab reported that epidermal eumelanin could be robustly up-regulated by topical application of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator that bypassed a defective melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) to promote melanin synthesis. Eumelanin induction protected fair-skinned mice from UV damage using an animal model that recapitulates many of the features of pigmented human epidermis. Through constitutive production of stem cell factor (Kit ligand) in the basal epidermis, the K14-Scf transgenic mouse retains interfollicular melanocytes in the skin and therefore accumulates melanin pigments in the epidermis...
July 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676423/functional-interplay-between-secreted-ligands-and-receptors-in-melanoma
#17
REVIEW
Cecilia Herraiz, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes, Berta Sánchez-Laorden, José C García-Borrón
Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, results from the malignant transformation of melanocytes located in the basement membrane separating the epidermal and dermal skin compartments. Cutaneous melanoma is often initiated by solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced mutations. Melanocytes intimately interact with keratinocytes, which provide growth factors and melanocortin peptides acting as paracrine regulators of proliferation and differentiation. Keratinocyte-derived melanocortins activate melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) to protect melanocytes from the carcinogenic effect of UVR...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660550/clinical-and-economic-evaluation-of-repository-corticotropin-injection-a-narrative-literature-review-of-treatment-efficacy-and-healthcare-resource-utilization-for-seven-key-indications
#18
REVIEW
Michael Philbin, John Niewoehner, George J Wan
INTRODUCTION: Repository corticotropin injection (RCI; H.P. Acthar(®) Gel; Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals Inc., Hampton, NJ) is a highly purified, prolonged-release porcine preparation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue that is FDA-approved for treatment of 19 autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The diverse physiological actions of RCI at the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) affect processes involved in inflammation, pigmentation, steroidogenesis, and immunomodulation. Although RCI has been approved to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases for more than 60 years, recent progress in understanding both MCRs and the effects of RCI in modulating immune responses has led to increased interest in RCI as a therapeutic choice...
June 28, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651519/analysis-of-the-genetic-variation-in-mitochondrial-dna-y-chromosome-sequences-and-mc1r-sheds-light-on-the-ancestry-of-nigerian-indigenous-pigs
#19
Adeniyi C Adeola, Olufunke O Oluwole, Bukola M Oladele, Temilola O Olorungbounmi, Bamidele Boladuro, Sunday C Olaogun, Lotanna M Nneji, Oscar J Sanke, Philip M Dawuda, Ofelia G Omitogun, Laurent Frantz, Robert W Murphy, Hai-Bing Xie, Min-Sheng Peng, Ya-Ping Zhang
BACKGROUND: The history of pig populations in Africa remains controversial due to insufficient evidence from archaeological and genetic data. Previously, a Western ancestry for West African pigs was reported based on loci that are involved in the determination of coat color. We investigated the genetic diversity of Nigerian indigenous pigs (NIP) by simultaneously analyzing variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome sequence and the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene. RESULTS: Median-joining network analysis of mtDNA D-loop sequences from 201 NIP and previously characterized loci clustered NIP with populations from the West (Europe/North Africa) and East/Southeast Asia...
June 26, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642375/acquired-resistance-to-corticotropin-therapy-in-nephrotic-syndrome-role-of-de-novo-neutralizing-antibody
#20
Pei Wang, Yan Zhang, Yu Wang, Andrew S Brem, Zhangsuo Liu, Rujun Gong
There is increasing evidence supporting the use of corticotropin as an alternative treatment of refractory proteinuric glomerulopathies. The efficacy of short-acting corticotropin, however, remains unknown and was tested here in an adolescent with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome caused by minimal change disease. After developing Cushing syndrome and recently being afflicted with severe cellulitis, the patient was weaned off all immunosuppressants, including corticosteroids. This resulted in a relapse of generalized anasarca, associated with massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia...
July 2017: Pediatrics
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