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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895525/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#1
Christina Wei, Elizabeth Crowne
Endocrine abnormalities are common among childhood cancer survivors. Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) are the least common, but the consequences are severe if missed. Patients with tumours located and /or had surgery performed near the hypothalamic-pituitary region and those treated with an accumulative cranial radiotherapy dose of over 30 Gy are most at risk of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Primary adrenal insufficiency may occur in patients with tumours located in or involving one or both adrenals...
June 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858905/a-novel-mutation-in-the-proopiomelanocortin-pomc-gene-of-a-hispanic-child-metformin-treatment-shows-a-beneficial-impact-on-the-body-mass-index
#2
Mark A Hilado, Ruvdeep S Randhawa
BACKGROUND: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a complex polypeptide that produces a variety of biologically active substances via cleavage in a tissue-specific manner [Challis BG, Millington GW. Proopiomelanocortin deficiency. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle, 1993-2018], yielding several products including adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) and melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH). These peptides have roles in the regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis, adrenal steroidogenesis, melanocyte stimulation and immune modulation...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787923/epileptic-spasms-evidence-for-oral-corticosteroids-and-implications-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
REVIEW
Sharika V Raga, Jo M Wilmshurst
Implementation of international guidelines for the treatment of epileptic spasms, is challenging when access to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and vigabatrin is restricted, especially in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Oral corticosteroids are alternative interventions but evidence for the optimal agent, dose, duration, efficacy and long-term effects is lacking. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the quality of evidence of prednisone and prednisolone (oral corticosteroids) for the management of epileptic spasms...
May 19, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749133/characteristics-of-adrenal-incidentalomas-in-a-large-prospective-computed-tomography-based-multicenter-study-the-coar-study-in-korea
#4
Seong Hee Ahn, Jae Hyeon Kim, Seung Hee Baek, Hyeonmok Kim, Yoon Young Cho, Sunghwan Suh, Beom Jun Kim, Seongbin Hong, Jung Min Koh, Seung Hun Lee, Kee Ho Song
PURPOSE: Previous studies on adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are limited by their retrospective design, small numbers of patients, Western populations, or use of an outdated imaging technique. We investigated the characteristics of AIs in Korean patients and compared them with those reported in the largest retrospective study in Italy to discover the effects of improved imaging techniques and ethnicity differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional observational study including 1005 Korean patients...
June 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675075/pediatric-cushing-s-disease-dichotomy-in-lateralization-between-imaging-and-inferior-petrosal-sinus-sampling-with-review-of-literature
#5
Salman Tehran Shaikh, Vikram S Karmarkar, Chandrashekhar Eknath Deopujari
Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is a minimally invasive method done in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-dependent pituitary adenoma cases where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) either gives equivocal results or fails to localize it. A 12-year-girl with cushingoid features and raised ACTH levels presented to us with two consecutive MRI's done outside showing gross change in the morphology of a left-sided pituitary adenoma. Hence, a bilateral IPSS was done which showed a higher IPS/periphery ACTH ratio on the right side as compared to left...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620167/decreased-expression-of-sfrp2-promotes-development-of-the-pituitary-corticotroph-adenoma-by-upregulating-wnt-signaling
#6
Jie Ren, Fangfang Jian, Hong Jiang, Yuhao Sun, Sijian Pan, Changwei Gu, Xiao Chen, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Liuguan Bian, Qingfang Sun
Cushing's disease is primarily caused by pituitary adrenocorticotropin‑secreting adenoma. However, its pathogenesis has remained obscure. In the present study, whole transcriptome analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA‑Seq) and expression of secreted frizzled‑related protein 2 (SFRP2) was decreased in corticotroph tumors compared with normal pituitary glands. Furthermore, the RNA‑Seq results were validated and the expression of SFRP2 in tumor tissues was analyzed by comparing another cohort of 23 patients with Cushing's disease and 3 normal human pituitary samples using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry staining...
June 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570013/value-of-pituitary-gland-mri-at-7-t-in-cushing-s-disease-and-relationship-to-inferior-petrosal-sinus-sampling-case-report
#7
Meng Law, Regina Wang, Chia-Shang J Liu, Mark S Shiroishi, John D Carmichael, William J Mack, Martin Weiss, Danny J J Wang, Arthur W Toga, Gabriel Zada
Cushing's disease is caused by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, which are often difficult to identify on standard 1.5-T or 3-T MRI, including dynamic contrast imaging. Inferior petrosal and cavernous sinus sampling remains the gold standard for MRI-negative Cushing's disease. The authors report on a 27-year-old woman with Cushing's disease in whom the results of standard 1.5-T and 3-T MRI, including 1.5-T dynamic contrast imaging, were negative. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed a high central-to-peripheral ACTH ratio (148:1) as well as a right-to-left ACTH gradient (19:1), suggesting a right-sided pituitary microadenoma...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547045/serum-free-cortisol-during-glucagon-stimulation-test-in-healthy-short-statured-children-and-adolescents
#8
Naomi Weintrob, Anita Schachter Davidov, Anat Segev Becker, Galit Israeli, Asaf Oren, Ori Eyal
OBJECTIVE: The total cortisol (TC) response may be measured during the glucagon stimulation test (GST) for growth hormone (GH) reserve in order to assess the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Measurements of TC are unreliable in conditions of albumin and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) alterations (e.g., hypoproteinemia or CBG deficiency). We aimed to measure the serum free cortisol (sFC) response to the GST in children and adolescents and determine whether it could predict the GH response to glucagon stimulation...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525561/secreting-ectopic-adrenal-adenoma-a-rare-condition-to-be-aware-of
#9
Yang Zhao, Hui Guo, Ying Zhao, Bingyin Shi
Ectopic adrenal adenoma causing chronic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare phenomenon. Diagnosis is usually made years after disease onset because of the insidious nature of the ectopic adrenal gland and because it overlaps with common symptoms, such as overweight and hypertension, in the general population (Kreitschmann-Andermahr et al., 2015). Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old male with a 15-year history of severe hypertension, facial plethora, and centripetal obesity. During treatment for herpes zoster, the patient presented with severe hypokalemia and flaccid paralysis, characteristic changes associated with CS...
April 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515922/a-case-of-cushing-s-syndrome-due-to-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-secretion-from-esthesioneuroblastoma-with-long-term-follow-up-after-resection
#10
Leslee N Matheny, Sudipa Sarkar, Hanyuan Shi, Jiun-Ruey Hu, Hannah Harmsen, Ty W Abel, Shubhada M Jagasia, Shichun Bao
We present a case of a 52-year-old male who developed Cushing's Syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion from a large esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) of the nasal sinuses. The patient initially presented with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, and confusion. Computed tomography scan of the head and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 7 cm skull base mass centered in the right cribriform plate without sella involvement. Work-up revealed ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia, which did not suppress appropriately after high-dose dexamethasone...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498920/update-on-the-clinicopathology-of-pituitary-adenomas
#11
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472241/adrenal-activity-and-metabolic-risk-during-randomized-escitalopram-or-placebo-treatment-in-pcos
#12
Dorte Glintborg, Magda Lambaa Altinok, Pernille Ravn, Kurt Bjerregaard Stage, Kurt Højlund, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate the changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo. METHODS: Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-week SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n  = 21) or placebo ( n  = 21)...
March 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468732/antidepressant-effects-of-dammarane-sapogenins-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-mice
#13
Ning Jiang, Bei-Yue Zhang, Li-Ming Dong, Jing-Wei Lv, Cong Lu, Qiong Wang, Lin-Xi Fan, Hong-Xia Zhang, Rui-Le Pan, Xin-Min Liu
Depression is a common, dysthymic, and psychiatric disorder, resulting in enormous social and economic burden. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), an active fraction from oriental ginseng, has shown antidepressant-like effects in chronic restraint rats and sleep interruption-induced mice, and the present study aimed to further confirm the antidepressant effects of DS in a model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and to explore the underlying mechanism. Oral administration of DS (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) markedly improved depressant-like behaviors, increasing the sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test and reducing the latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, and decreasing the immobility time in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, compared with the CUMS mice...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454288/apocynum-venetum-leaf-extract-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-chronically-stressed-rats-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#14
Xiangting Li, Ting Wu, Zhonghai Yu, Tingting Li, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Min Cai, Wen Zhang, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious psychiatric disorder, but current treatments are inadequate for approximately half of the patients with MDD. Thus, better methods of treatment are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanism of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CUMS rat model of depression was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity and relevant mechanism of AVLE (30, 60, and 125 mg/kg, i...
April 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432944/expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-pituitary-tumor-transforming-gene-high-mobility-group-a-2-and-ki-67-in-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-secreting-pituitary-tumors-and-their-association-with-tumor-recurrence
#15
Xiaohai Liu, Ming Feng, Ye Zhang, Congxin Dai, Bowen Sun, Xinjie Bao, Kan Deng, Yong Yao, Renzhi Wang
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), and high mobility group A 2 (HMGA2) play important roles in the tumorigenesis of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors, but their associations with tumor recurrence after transsphenoidal adenomectomy remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression profiles of MMP-9, PTTG, HMGA2, and Ki-67 in recurrent and nonrecurrent ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors and to identify their associations with tumor behavior and recurrence status...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354998/-effects-of-heat-sensitive-moxibustion-on-hpa-axis-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Haifeng Zhang, Fangshen Xie, Hongbin Gong, Hui Huang, Shutao Chen, Mingfei Kang, Yong Fu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explore the possible mechanism of heat-sensitive moxibustion on IBS. METHODS: According to random number table, 56 SD male rats were randomly divided into a blank group ( n =8), a model group ( n =8), a moxibustion group ( n =32), and a mifepristone group (RU-486 group, n =8)...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344907/silent-corticotroph-adenomas
#17
REVIEW
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Odelia Cooper
PURPOSE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) present clinically as non-functioning adenomas (NFAs) but are immunopositive for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) without biochemical and clinical manifestation of hypercortisolism. Pathologic examination of resected NFAs that demonstrate positive ACTH and/or TPIT expression confirms its corticotroph lineage. SCAs comprise up to 20% of NFAs and exhibit a higher rate of recurrence. Studies of molecular mechanisms have generated multiple hypotheses on SCA tumorigenesis, pathophysiology, and growth that as yet remain to be proven...
April 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330170/retrospective-review-of-synacthen-testing-in-infants
#18
Timothy Shao Ern Tan, Claire Manfredonia, Rakesh Kumar, Julie Jones, Elaine O'Shea, Raja Padidela, Mars Skae, Sarah Ehtisham, Fiona Ivison, Lesley Tetlow, Peter E Clayton, Indraneel Banerjee, Leena Patel
BACKGROUND: A subnormal cortisol response (30 min level (C30min )<550 nmol/L) to synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone/Synacthen test (SDST) in all infants does not necessarily indicate underlying or persistent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathology. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the diagnoses and outcomes in 68 infants who had a SDST at age <6 months from 2011 to 2014. RESULTS: 29 (43%) infants had a subnormal SDST...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261224/mitochondrial-sirtuins-in-the-rat-adrenal-gland-location-within-the-glands-of-males-and-females-hormonal-and-developmental-regulation-of-gene-expressions
#19
Piotr Celichowski, Karol Jopek, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Rucinski
INTRODUCTION: Sirtuins are NAD dependent class III histone deacetylases. In adrenal cortex mitochondria are able to transform - via nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) - NAD into NADPH, which is required for steroidogenesis. These findings suggest that sirtuins expressed in mitochondria, Sirt3, Sirt4 and Sirt5, may be associated with adrenal steroidogenesis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the expression of mitochondrial sirtuins (Sirt3-5) in individual compartments of rat adrenal cortex, their developmental regulation and to demonstrate whether their expression is dependent on adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and Nampt (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase also known as visfatin/PBEF), the rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of mammalian NAD synthesis...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213284/circulatory-immune-cells-in-cushing-syndrome-bystanders-or-active-contributors-to-atherometabolic-injury-a-study-of-adhesion-and-activation-of-cell-surface-markers
#20
Gloria Aranda, Cristina Lopez, Rebeca Fernandez-Ruiz, Yaiza Esteban, Guillermo Garcia-Eguren, Mireia Mora, Irene Halperin, Gregori Casals, Joaquim Enseñat, Felicia A Hanzu
Glucocorticoids (GC) induce cardiometabolic risk while atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation involving immunity. GC are immune suppressors, and the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) has immune modulator activities. Both may act in atherothrombotic inflammation involving immune cells (IMNC). Aim . To investigate adhesion and activation surface cell markers (CDs) of peripheral IMNC in endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) and the immune modulator role of ACTH. Material and Methods . 16 ACTH-dependent CS (ACTH-D), 10 ACTH-independent (ACTH-ID) CS, and 16 healthy controls (C) were included...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
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