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adrenocorticotroph hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620167/decreased-expression-of-sfrp2-promotes-development-of-the-pituitary-corticotroph-adenoma-by-upregulating-wnt-signaling
#1
Jie Ren, Fangfang Jian, Hong Jiang, Yuhao Sun, Sijian Pan, Changwei Gu, Xiao Chen, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Liuguan Bian, Qingfang Sun
Cushing's disease is primarily caused by pituitary adrenocorticotropin‑secreting adenoma. However, its pathogenesis has remained obscure. In the present study, whole transcriptome analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA‑Seq) and expression of secreted frizzled‑related protein 2 (SFRP2) was decreased in corticotroph tumors compared with normal pituitary glands. Furthermore, the RNA‑Seq results were validated and the expression of SFRP2 in tumor tissues was analyzed by comparing another cohort of 23 patients with Cushing's disease and 3 normal human pituitary samples using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry staining...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570013/value-of-pituitary-gland-mri-at-7-t-in-cushing-s-disease-and-relationship-to-inferior-petrosal-sinus-sampling-case-report
#2
Meng Law, Regina Wang, Chia-Shang J Liu, Mark S Shiroishi, John D Carmichael, William J Mack, Martin Weiss, Danny J J Wang, Arthur W Toga, Gabriel Zada
Cushing's disease is caused by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, which are often difficult to identify on standard 1.5-T or 3-T MRI, including dynamic contrast imaging. Inferior petrosal and cavernous sinus sampling remains the gold standard for MRI-negative Cushing's disease. The authors report on a 27-year-old woman with Cushing's disease in whom the results of standard 1.5-T and 3-T MRI, including 1.5-T dynamic contrast imaging, were negative. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed a high central-to-peripheral ACTH ratio (148:1) as well as a right-to-left ACTH gradient (19:1), suggesting a right-sided pituitary microadenoma...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547045/serum-free-cortisol-during-glucagon-stimulation-test-in-healthy-short-statured-children-and-adolescents
#3
Naomi Weintrob, Anita Schachter Davidov, Anat Segev Becker, Galit Israeli, Asaf Oren, Ori Eyal
OBJECTIVE: The total cortisol (TC) response may be measured during the glucagon stimulation test (GST) for growth hormone (GH) reserve in order to assess the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Measurements of TC are unreliable in conditions of albumin and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) alterations (e.g., hypoproteinemia or CBG deficiency). We aimed to measure the serum free cortisol (sFC) response to the GST in children and adolescents and determine whether it could predict the GH response to glucagon stimulation...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525561/secreting-ectopic-adrenal-adenoma-a-rare-condition-to-be-aware-of
#4
Yang Zhao, Hui Guo, Ying Zhao, Bingyin Shi
Ectopic adrenal adenoma causing chronic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare phenomenon. Diagnosis is usually made years after disease onset because of the insidious nature of the ectopic adrenal gland and because it overlaps with common symptoms, such as overweight and hypertension, in the general population (Kreitschmann-Andermahr et al., 2015). Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old male with a 15-year history of severe hypertension, facial plethora, and centripetal obesity. During treatment for herpes zoster, the patient presented with severe hypokalemia and flaccid paralysis, characteristic changes associated with CS...
March 7, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515922/a-case-of-cushing-s-syndrome-due-to-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-secretion-from-esthesioneuroblastoma-with-long-term-follow-up-after-resection
#5
Leslee N Matheny, Sudipa Sarkar, Hanyuan Shi, Jiun-Ruey Hu, Hannah Harmsen, Ty W Abel, Shubhada M Jagasia, Shichun Bao
We present a case of a 52-year-old male who developed Cushing's Syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion from a large esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) of the nasal sinuses. The patient initially presented with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, and confusion. Computed tomography scan of the head and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 7 cm skull base mass centered in the right cribriform plate without sella involvement. Work-up revealed ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia, which did not suppress appropriately after high-dose dexamethasone...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498920/update-on-the-clinicopathology-of-pituitary-adenomas
#6
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472241/adrenal-activity-and-metabolic-risk-during-randomized-escitalopram-or-placebo-treatment-in-pcos
#7
Dorte Glintborg, Magda Lambaa Altinok, Pernille Ravn, Kurt B Stage, Kurt Højlund, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status, and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo. METHODS: Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-weeks SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n=21) or placebo (n=21). Patients underwent clinical examination, fasting blood samples, adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH) test, 3 hours oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and filled in questionnaires regarding mental health and health related quality of life (HRQoL): WHO Well Being Index (WHO-5), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS questionnaire...
February 22, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468732/antidepressant-effects-of-dammarane-sapogenins-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-mice
#8
Ning Jiang, Bei-Yue Zhang, Li-Ming Dong, Jing-Wei Lv, Cong Lu, Qiong Wang, Lin-Xi Fan, Hong-Xia Zhang, Rui-Le Pan, Xin-Min Liu
Depression is a common, dysthymic, and psychiatric disorder, resulting in enormous social and economic burden. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), an active fraction from oriental ginseng, has shown antidepressant-like effects in chronic restraint rats and sleep interruption-induced mice, and the present study aimed to further confirm the antidepressant effects of DS in a model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and to explore the underlying mechanism. Oral administration of DS (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) markedly improved depressant-like behaviors, increasing the sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test and reducing the latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, and decreasing the immobility time in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, compared with the CUMS mice...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454288/apocynum-venetum-leaf-extract-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-chronically-stressed-rats-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#9
Xiangting Li, Ting Wu, Zhonghai Yu, Tingting Li, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Min Cai, Wen Zhang, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious psychiatric disorder, but current treatments are inadequate for approximately half of the patients with MDD. Thus, better methods of treatment are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanism of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CUMS rat model of depression was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity and relevant mechanism of AVLE (30, 60, and 125 mg/kg, i...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432944/expression-of-mmp-9-pttg-hmga2-and-ki-67-in-acth-secreting-pituitary-tumors-and-their-association-with-tumor-recurrence
#10
Xiaohai Liu, Ming Feng, Ye Zhang, Congxin Dai, Bowen Sun, Xinjie Bao, Kan Deng, Yong Yao, Renzhi Wang
OBJECTIVE: MMP-9, PTTG, and HMGA2 play important roles in the tumorigenesis of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors, but their associations with tumor recurrence after transsphenoidal adenomectomy remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression profiles of MMP-9, PTTG, HMGA2, and Ki-67 in recurrent and non-recurrent ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors and to identify their associations with tumor behavior and recurrence status...
February 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354998/-effects-of-heat-sensitive-moxibustion-on-hpa-axis-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Haifeng Zhang, Fangshen Xie, Hongbin Gong, Hui Huang, Shutao Chen, Mingfei Kang, Yong Fu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explore the possible mechanism of heat-sensitive moxibustion on IBS. METHODS: According to random number table, 56 SD male rats were randomly divided into a blank group ( n =8), a model group ( n =8), a moxibustion group ( n =32), and a mifepristone group (RU-486 group, n =8)...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344907/silent-corticotroph-adenomas
#12
REVIEW
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Odelia Cooper
PURPOSE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) present clinically as non-functioning adenomas (NFAs) but are immunopositive for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) without biochemical and clinical manifestation of hypercortisolism. Pathologic examination of resected NFAs that demonstrate positive ACTH and/or TPIT expression confirms its corticotroph lineage. SCAs comprise up to 20% of NFAs and exhibit a higher rate of recurrence. Studies of molecular mechanisms have generated multiple hypotheses on SCA tumorigenesis, pathophysiology, and growth that as yet remain to be proven...
April 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330170/retrospective-review-of-synacthen-testing-in-infants
#13
Timothy Shao Ern Tan, Claire Manfredonia, Rakesh Kumar, Julie Jones, Elaine O'Shea, Raja Padidela, Mars Skae, Sarah Ehtisham, Fiona Ivison, Lesley Tetlow, Peter E Clayton, Indraneel Banerjee, Leena Patel
BACKGROUND: A subnormal cortisol response (30 min level (C30min )<550 nmol/L) to synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone/Synacthen test (SDST) in all infants does not necessarily indicate underlying or persistent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathology. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the diagnoses and outcomes in 68 infants who had a SDST at age <6 months from 2011 to 2014. RESULTS: 29 (43%) infants had a subnormal SDST...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261224/mitochondrial-sirtuins-in-the-rat-adrenal-gland-location-within-the-glands-of-males-and-females-hormonal-and-developmental-regulation-of-gene-expressions
#14
Piotr Celichowski, Karol Jopek, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Rucinski
INTRODUCTION: Sirtuins are NAD dependent class III histone deacetylases. In adrenal cortex mitochondria are able to transform - via nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) - NAD into NADPH, which is required for steroidogenesis. These findings suggest that sirtuins expressed in mitochondria, Sirt3, Sirt4 and Sirt5, may be associated with adrenal steroidogenesis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the expression of mitochondrial sirtuins (Sirt3-5) in individual compartments of rat adrenal cortex, their developmental regulation and to demonstrate whether their expression is dependent on adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and Nampt (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase also known as visfatin/PBEF), the rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of mammalian NAD synthesis...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213284/circulatory-immune-cells-in-cushing-syndrome-bystanders-or-active-contributors-to-atherometabolic-injury-a-study-of-adhesion-and-activation-of-cell-surface-markers
#15
Gloria Aranda, Cristina Lopez, Rebeca Fernandez-Ruiz, Yaiza Esteban, Guillermo Garcia-Eguren, Mireia Mora, Irene Halperin, Gregori Casals, Joaquim Enseñat, Felicia A Hanzu
Glucocorticoids (GC) induce cardiometabolic risk while atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation involving immunity. GC are immune suppressors, and the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) has immune modulator activities. Both may act in atherothrombotic inflammation involving immune cells (IMNC). Aim . To investigate adhesion and activation surface cell markers (CDs) of peripheral IMNC in endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) and the immune modulator role of ACTH. Material and Methods . 16 ACTH-dependent CS (ACTH-D), 10 ACTH-independent (ACTH-ID) CS, and 16 healthy controls (C) were included...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185258/corticosteroids-for-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy
#16
REVIEW
Richard Ac Hughes, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Yusuf A Rajabally
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a progressive or relapsing and remitting paralysing illness, probably due to an autoimmune response, which should benefit from corticosteroid treatment. Non-randomised studies suggest that corticosteroids are beneficial. Two commonly used corticosteroids are prednisone and prednisolone. Both are usually given as oral tablets. Prednisone is converted into prednisolone in the liver so that the effect of the two drugs is usually the same...
November 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170844/early-recognition-of-aggressive-pituitary-adenomas-a-single-centre-experience
#17
Filippo Ceccato, Daniela Regazzo, Mattia Barbot, Luca Denaro, Enzo Emanuelli, Daniele Borsetto, Giuseppe Rolma, Luigi Alessio, Marina Paola Gardiman, Giuseppe Lombardi, Nora Albiger, Domenico D'Avella, Carla Scaroni
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas are usually considered benign tumours, although some of them can exhibit an aggressive behaviour. Patients with clinically aggressive pituitary adenomas are frequently diagnosed with larger masses, and may present an earlier recurrence (or persistence) after surgery. Our aim was to characterise the clinical, histopathological and radiological features of patients with aggressive pituitary adenoma, in order to correlate their clinical behaviour with the response to treatment plan...
January 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151238/predictability-of-hypoadrenalism-occurrence-and-duration-after-adrenalectomy-for-acth-independent-hypercortisolism
#18
V Morelli, L Minelli, C Eller-Vainicher, S Palmieri, E Cairoli, A Spada, M Arosio, I Chiodini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity could predict the occurrence and duration of post-surgical hypocortisolism (PSH) in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and with adrenal incidentaloma (AI). METHODS: We studied 80 patients (54 females, age 53.3 ± 11 years), who underwent adrenalectomy for CS (17 patients) or for AI (53 patients). Before surgery, we measured adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH), urinary free cortisol (UFC) and serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg-DST) levels...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115641/traumatic-stress-affects-alcohol%C3%A2-drinking-behavior-through-cocaine%C3%A2-and-amphetamine%C3%A2-regulated-transcript-55%C3%A2-102-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-rats
#19
Jie Liu, Xue-Ming Hu, Xiao-Jian Li, Hui Zhao
Cumulative evidence has suggested an association between stress and alcohol self‑administration; however, less is known about the role of traumatic stress in alcohol drinking behavior. It has been reported that cocaine‑ and amphetamine‑regulated transcript (CART) 55‑102 may be involved in mediating stress responses and regulating reward and reinforcement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of CART 55‑102 in alcohol drinking behavior of rats in the presence or absence of traumatic stress...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104610/functional-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-causing-cushing-s-syndrome-the-effect-of-chemotherapy-on-clinical-symptoms
#20
Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino, Katia Regina Marchetti, Madson Q Almeida, Rachel P Riechelmann
Background: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can originate from any part of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, thyroid and pancreas. These tumours may be functioning or not depending on their ability to produce active substances, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). ACTH-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are rare, with limited data about effective antitumor therapies. Case Report: A 58-year-old man with a history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ACTH ectopic production from a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the pancreas metastatic to the liver...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
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