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adrenocorticotroph hormone

Xiaojing Wang, Fan Ping, Cuijuan Qi, Xinhua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2), also known as Schmidt's syndrome, is an uncommon disorder characterized by the coexistence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease as the obligatory component is potentially life-threatening. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis of Addison's disease is common owing to its rarity and the nonspecific clinical manifestation. METHODS: Here we reported a case of 38-year-old female patient who presented with 2 years' history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and received levothyroxine replacement...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
V Morelli, A Scillitani, M Arosio, I Chiodini
Recently, the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) published new guidelines on the management of adrenal incidentalomas. At the same time Lopez and coworkers published on the Annals of Internal Medicine an important study showing that even patients with non-functioning adrenal tumors have an increased risk of incident diabetes. In consideration of previous data and of the results of the study of Lopez and coworkers, some points emerge from the ESE Guidelines that deserve attention. Firstly, it must be observed that the term "autonomous cortisol secretion," introduced by the ESE Panel in the place of the commonly used "subclinical hypercortisolism," seems questionable, since the guidelines do not suggest determining the adrenocorticotroph hormone levels that could give the certain proof of a truly autonomous cortisol secretion...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Rafael Carvalho Torres, Nathalia Santos Magalhães, Patrícia M R E Silva, Marco A Martins, Vinicius F Carvalho
Increased hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in diabetes is strongly associated with several morbidities noted in patients with the disease. We previously demonstrated that hyperactivity of HPA axis under diabetic conditions is associated with up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal and down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and MR) in pituitary. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats...
October 8, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Dongyun Zhang, Marvin Bergsneider, Marilene B Wang, Anthony P Heaney
We recently demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor testicular receptor 4 (TR4) is a potent regulator of corticotroph tumor growth and hormone secretion. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is commonly overactivated in human tumors and we have demonstrated that corticotroph tumor TR4 is activated by ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation. We evaluated effects of MEK-162, a selective, non-ATP-competitive allosteric inhibitor of MEK1/2, on murine and human in vitro and in vivo corticotroph tumor proliferation and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Mette Christensen, Rikke Fogt Madsen, Line Rosengreen Møller, Cindy Soendersoe Knudsen, Mie Hessellund Samson
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA-blood samples from 30 patients were collected, aliquoted and stored on ice or at room temperature for 0, 2, 4, 24, or 48 h before centrifugation, and the plasma was stored frozen until analysis...
October 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
T Yuen, L Sun, P Liu, H C Blair, M New, A Zallone, M Zaidi
The long-held belief that pituitary hormones act solely on master targets was first questioned when we documented G protein-coupled receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin on bone cells. These evolutionarily conserved hormones and their receptors are known to have primitive roles, and exist in invertebrate species as far down as coelenterates. It is not surprising therefore that each such hormone has multiple hitherto unrecognized functions in mammalian integrative physiology, and hence, becomes a potential target for therapeutic intervention...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Lixin Deng, Cong He, Yanwei Zhou, Lifan Xu, Huijun Xiong
Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3...
October 3, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Kyra Doumlele, Erin Conway, Julie Hedlund, Patricia Tolete, Orrin Devinsky
West Syndrome is characterized by infantile spasms, a hypsarrhythmic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern, and a poor neurodevelopmental prognosis. First-line treatments include adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and vigabatrin, but adverse effects often limit their use. CPP-115 is a high-affinity vigabatrin analogue developed to increase therapeutic potency and to limit retinal toxicity. Here, we present a child treated with CPP-115 through an investigational new drug protocol who experienced a marked reduction of seizures with no evidence of retinal dysfunction...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
J Mackey, A Mellor, J Watchorn, A Burnett, C Boot, D Woods
Gradual ascent to high altitude is typically associated with reduced resting aldosterone and unchanged cortisol, features that may facilitate acclimatization but are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the cortisol and aldosterone response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone at altitude. Eleven subjects underwent a 250 μg short synacthen test at sea-level and again after trekking to 3 600 m in Nepal. Cortisol and aldosterone were measured by conventional assay from blood samples taken immediately prior to the administration of synacthen (T0) and then 30 (T30) and 60 (T60) min later...
September 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Anand Iyer, Richard Appleton
Infantile spasms, and specifically within the context of West syndrome , is one of the most common epileptic encephalopathies to occur in early infancy. Early recognition and treatment can improve neurodevelopmental outcome in some cases, although the underlying aetiology is probably the most important prognostic factor in both spasm suppression and developmental outcome. Corticosteroids, either adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or prednisolone, and vigabatrin are currently the preferred first-line treatment options...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Mone Zaidi, Li Sun, Peng Liu, Terry F Davies, Maria New, Alberta Zallone, Tony Yuen
Pituitary hormones have traditionally been thought to exert specific, but limited function on target tissues. More recently, the discovery of these hormones and their receptors in organs such as the skeleton suggests that pituitary hormones have more ubiquitous functions. Here, we discuss the interaction of growth hormone (GH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) with bone. The direct skeletal action of pituitary hormones therefore provides new insights and therapeutic opportunities for metabolic bone diseases, prominently osteoporosis...
August 10, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Andrew P Groves, Patrick Reich, Binayak Sigdel, T Keefe Davis
Pneumococcal-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (pHUS) is a rare but severe complication of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. We report the case of a 12-year-old female with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome treated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (H.P. Acthar(®) Gel), who developed pneumococcal pneumonia and subsequent pHUS. While nephrotic syndrome is a well-known risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease, this is the first reported case of pHUS in an adolescent patient with nephrotic syndrome, and reveals novel challenges in the diagnosis, treatment and potential prevention of this complication...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Branko Filipović, Svetlana Trifunović, Ivana Jarić, Nataša Ristić, Verica Milošević
We previously reported that Vitex agnus-castus L. essential oil (VACEO), when administered to middle-aged males, exerts a bone-protective effect, induces silencing of locomotor activities and decreases pituitary prolactin immunopositivity. To further assess the putative endocrine effects of VACEO, we examined the pituitary-thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in our model. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered 60mg/kg of VACEO dissolved in sterile olive oil, while the control group received the same amount of vehicle alone for three weeks...
July 28, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Cuicui Zhuang, Hui Huo, Wanfa Fu, Wanyue Huang, Lulu Han, Miao Song, Yanfei Li
This research investigated the relationship between lymphocytes apoptosis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and NF-κB in AlCl3-treated rats. Eighty Wistar rats were orally exposed to 0 (control group, CG), 0.4 mg/mL (low-dose group, LG), 0.8 mg/mL (mid-dose group, MG) and 1.6 mg/mL (high-dose group, HG) AlCl3 for 90 days, respectively. A variety of measurements were taken including lymphocyte apoptosis index, serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoids (GCs) contents, GC receptors (GCR) and NF-κB mRNA and nuclear protein expressions, caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expressions and activities...
September 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Alexandra Jaeger, Andreas Görres, Armin Tuchscherer, Klaus Wimmers
We comprehensively characterized the effects of a unique natural gain-of-function mutation in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GRAla610Val, in domestic pigs to expand current knowledge of the phenotypic consequences of GR hypersensitivity. Cortisol levels were consistently reduced in one-week-old piglets, at weaning and in peripubertal age, probably due to a reduced adrenal capacity to produce glucocorticoids (GC), which was indicated by an adrenocortical thinning in GRAla610Val carriers. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels were significantly reduced in one-week-old piglets only...
July 2016: Open Biology
Cagatay Karaca, Zuleyha Karaca, Nisa Kahraman, Ender Sirakaya, Ayse Oner, Galip Ertugrul Mirza
PURPOSE: To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in patients with Cushing syndrome (CS) with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with CS and 38 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. Patients with newly diagnosed CS who have been admitted to Erciyes University Department of Endocrinology in 3 years time interval were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and 2 points nasal and 2 points temporal to the fovea with 500-μm intervals each...
July 14, 2016: Retina
Vishnu B Madhok, Ildiko Gagyor, Fergus Daly, Dhruvashree Somasundara, Michael Sullivan, Fiona Gammie, Frank Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and oedema of the facial nerve are implicated in causing Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids have a potent anti-inflammatory action that should minimise nerve damage. This is an update of a review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroid therapy in people with Bell's palsy. SEARCH METHODS: On 4 March 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS...
July 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mojtaba Malek, Fatemeh Esfehanian, Atieh Amouzegar, Farzaneh Sarvghadi, Zohreh Moossavi, Mohammad R Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad E Khamseh, Alireza Amirbaigloo, Ameneh Ebrahim Valojerdi
BACKGROUND: Cushing's disease is the most prevalent cause of endogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone hypersecretion. The aim of this study was to document the current clinical practice pattern in the management of Cushing's disease by Iranian Endocrinologists to determine their opinions and compare them with the current clinical practice guidelines. METHODS: An eight-item questionnaire dealing with diagnosis, treatment and follow up of patients with Cushing's disease was developed, piloted, and sent to the members of Iranian Endocrinology Society...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Y-J Ye, B Liu, B-Z Qin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in patients with cirrhosis and to investigate the clinical significance and characteristics of cirrhosis with adrenal insufficiency (AI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 118 patients that were hospitalized in the Department of Gastroenterology of Xiangyang Hospital affiliated to Hubei University due to cirrhosis were selected and chemiluminescence assay was used to measure the basal level of cortisol and ACTH in their blood...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Aoife Garrahy, Amar Agha
Hypopituitarism is deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones, of which adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency is the most serious and potentially life-threatening. It may occur in isolation or, more commonly as part of more widespread pituitary failure. Diagnosis requires demonstration of subnormal cortisol rise in response to stimulation with hypoglycemia, glucagon, ACTH(1-24) or in the setting of acute illness. The choice of diagnostic test should be individualised for the patient and clinical scenario...
2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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