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Eucalyptus grandis

Ji-Yuan Xu, Tong-Qi Yuan, Lin Xiao, Run-Cang Sun
Effect of sonication on the extractability and physico-chemical properties of hemicelluloses from Eucalyptus grandis using 5% KOH solution at 50 °C for 3 h has been comparatively studied. The results showed that the yield of hemicelluloses increased from 2.6 to 19.6% as the ultrasonic time was extended from 5 to 35 min. The highest yield of hemicelluloses (95.2%) was achieved at 30 min ultrasonic time. Xylose was the dominant sugar (82.94-84.96%) of all the hemicellulosic fractions. Furthermore, the hemicelluloses obtained by ultrasound-assisted extractions had slightly lower molecular weights (74,510-66,770 g/mol) and thermal stabilities, but higher contents of xylose (83...
September 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
K Y Crous, J E Drake, M J Aspinwall, R E Sharwood, M G Tjoelker, O Ghannoum
Climate is an important factor limiting tree distributions and adaptation to different thermal environments may influence how tree populations respond to climate warming. Given the current rate of warming, it has been hypothesized that tree populations in warmer, more thermally stable climates may have limited capacity to respond physiologically to warming compared to populations from cooler, more seasonal climates. We determined in a controlled environment how several provenances of widely distributed Eucalyptus tereticornis and E...
May 27, 2018: Global Change Biology
Xiaozhen Ye, Zhenhui Zhong, Hongyi Liu, Lianyu Lin, Mengmeng Guo, Wenshuo Guo, Zonghua Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Lizhen Feng, Guodong Lu, Feiping Zhang, Quanzhu Chen
BACKGROUND: Leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. is one of the most destructive diseases to affect Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations. These pathogens mainly attack Eucalyptus, a tree with a diversity of secondary metabolites employed as defense-related phytoalexins. To unravel the fungal adaptive mechanisms to various phytoalexins, we examined the genome of C. pseudoreteaudii, which is one of the most aggressive pathogens in southeast Asia. RESULTS: A 63.7 Mb genome with 14,355 coding genes of C...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Murugan Sumathi, Vijaya Kumar Waman Bachpai, A Mayavel, Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta, Binai Nagarajan, D Rajasugunasekar, Veerasamy Sivakumar, Ramasamy Yasodha
The eucalypt species, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis , show tolerance to drought and salinity conditions, respectively, and are widely cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of tropical countries. In this study, genetic linkage map was developed for interspecific cross E. tereticornis  ×  E. camaldulensis using pseudo-testcross strategy with simple sequence repeats (SSRs), intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The consensus genetic map comprised totally 283 markers with 84 SSRs, 94 ISSRs, and 105 SRAP markers on 11 linkage groups spanning 1163...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Sanushka Naidoo, Nanette Christie, Juan J Acosta, Makobatjatji M Mphahlele, Kitt G Payn, Alexander A Myburg, Carsten Külheim
Leptocybe invasa is an insect pest causing gall formation on oviposited shoot tips and leaves of Eucalyptus trees leading to leaf deformation, stunting, and death in severe cases. We previously observed different constitutive and induced terpenes, plant specialized metabolites that may act as attractants or repellents to insects, in a resistant and susceptible clone of Eucalyptus challenged with L. invasa. We tested the hypothesis that specific terpenes are associated with pest resistance in a Eucalyptus grandis half-sib population...
April 30, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Guo Chang Ding, Xiao Hua Wang, Qi Fan Yang, Qun Xing Lin, Zhi Qun Huang
We employed a comparative study to examine the effects of tree species transition on soil microbial biomass, community composition and enzymes activities under Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook, Eucalyptus grandis and a N-fixing species, Acacia melanoxylon in subtropical China. Results showed that the effect of tree species on soil microbial community and enzymes activities was significant only in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Reforestation with N-fixing species A. melanoxylon on the C. lanceolata harvest site significantly increased the total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), fungal PLFAs, Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, Gram-negative bacterial PLFAs and actinomycetes biomasses in the 0-10 cm soil layer...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Arthur P A Pereira, Maurício R G Zagatto, Carolina B Brandani, Denise de Lourdes Mescolotti, Simone R Cotta, José L M Gonçalves, Elke J B N Cardoso
Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Sumathi, V K W Bachpai, B Deeparaj, A Mayavel, Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta, B Nagarajan, D Rajasugunasekar, V Sivakumar, R Yasodha
Eucalyptus is an important industrial species with tolerance to drought and salt stress. Genetic improvement activities including quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for pulping and adventitious rooting traits are in progress, but no information is available on the genomic regions on adaptive traits such as stomatal characteristics. In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. grandis was generated for the development of genetic map and QTL identification for stomatal traits...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
Eduardo P Cappa, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Facundo Muñoz, Martín N Garcia, Pamela V Villalba, Jaroslav Klápště, Susana N Marcucci Poltri
We investigated the impact of combining the pedigree- and genomic-based relationship matrices in a multiple-trait individual-tree mixed model (a.k.a., multiple-trait combined approach) on the estimates of heritability and on the genomic correlations between growth and stem straightness in an open-pollinated Eucalyptus grandis population. Additionally, the added advantage of incorporating genomic information on the theoretical accuracies of parents and offspring breeding values was evaluated. Our results suggested that the use of the combined approach for estimating heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in multiple-trait evaluations is advantageous and including genomic information increases the expected accuracy of breeding values...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jakob B Butler, Jules S Freeman, Brad M Potts, René E Vaillancourt, Dario Grattapaglia, Orzenil B Silva-Junior, Blake A Simmons, Adam L Healey, Jeremy Schmutz, Kerrie W Barry, David J Lee, Robert J Henry, Graham J King, Abdul Baten, Mervyn Shepherd
Terpenes are economically and ecologically important phytochemicals. Their synthesis is controlled by the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family, which is highly diversified throughout the plant kingdom. The plant family Myrtaceae are characterised by especially high terpene concentrations, and considerable variation in terpene profiles. Many Myrtaceae are grown commercially for terpene products including the eucalypts Corymbia and Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus grandis has the largest TPS gene family of plants currently sequenced, which is largely conserved in the closely related E...
March 10, 2018: Heredity
Alexandre S Pimenta, Maíra Fasciotti, Thays V C Monteiro, Kássio M G Lima
The present study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of pyroligneous acid (PA) obtained from slow pyrolysis of the clone GG100 of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis . The efficiency of extraction of organic compounds by using different solvents-dichloromethane (DCM), diethyl ether (DE) and ethyl acetate (EA)-was evaluated. Wood discs were collected and carbonized at a heating rate of 1.25 °C/min until 450 °C. Pyrolysis gases were trapped and condensed, yielding a crude liquid product (CLP), which was refined to obtain pure PA...
February 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jörg Kruse, Heinz Rennnenberg, Mark A Adams
We used instantaneous temperature responses of CO2 -respiration to explore temperature acclimation dynamics for Eucalyptus grandis grown with differing nitrogen supply. A reduction in ambient temperature from 23 to 19 °C reduced light-saturated photosynthesis by 25% but increased respiratory capacity by 30%. Changes in respiratory capacity were not reversed after temperatures were subsequently increased to 27 °C. Temperature sensitivity of respiration measured at prevalent ambient temperature varied little between temperature treatments but was significantly reduced from ~105 kJ mol-1 when supply of N was weak, to ~70 kJ mol-1 when it was strong...
February 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Qian-Yu Liu, Guang-Sheng Guo, Zhen-Fei Qiu, Xiao-Dan Li, Bing-Shan Zeng, Chun-Jie Fan
Gibberellins (GAs) play a key role in plant growth and development including cell elongation, cell expansion, and xylem differentiation. Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees providing fiber and energy. However, the roles of GAs in Eucalyptus remain unclear and their effects on xylem development remain to be determined. In this study, E. grandis plants were treated with 0.10 mg L-1 GA3 and/or paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA inhibitor). The growth of shoot and root were recorded, transverse sections of roots and stems were stained using toluidine blue, and expression levels of genes related to hormone response and secondary cell wall biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR...
February 8, 2018: Protoplasma
Xia Chen, Jianguo Gao, Ping Zhao, Heather R McCarthy, Liwei Zhu, Guangyan Ni, Lei Ouyang
An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Miaomiao Zhang, Changpin Zhou, Zhijiao Song, Qijie Weng, Mei Li, Hongxia Ji, Xiaoyong Mo, Huanhua Huang, Wanhong Lu, Jianzhong Luo, Fagen Li, Siming Gan
Genomic loci related with resistance to gall-inducing insects have not been identified in any plants. Here, association mapping was used to identify molecular markers for resistance to the gall wasp Leptocybe invasa in two Eucalyptus species. A total of 86 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were screened out from 839 SSRs and used for association mapping in E. grandis. By applying the mixed linear model, seven markers were identified to be associated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with the gall wasp resistance in E...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Biyue Tan, Dario Grattapaglia, Harry X Wu, Pär K Ingvarsson
Non-additive genetic effects can be effectively exploited in control-pollinated families with the availability of genome-wide markers. We used 41,304 SNP markers and compared pedigree vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing height, diameter, basic density and pulp yield for Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis control-pollinated families represented by 949 informative individuals. We evaluated models accounting for additive, dominance, and first-order epistatic interactions (additive by additive, dominance by dominance, and additive by dominance)...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Sebastian Pfautsch, Michael J Aspinwall, John E Drake, Larissa Chacon-Doria, Rob J A Langelaan, David T Tissue, Mark G Tjoelker, Frederic Lens
Background and Aims: Sapwood traits like vessel diameter and intervessel pit characteristics play key roles in maintaining hydraulic integrity of trees. Surprisingly little is known about how sapwood traits covary with tree height and how such trait-based variation could affect the efficiency of water transport in tall trees. This study presents a detailed analysis of structural and functional traits along the vertical axes of tall Eucalyptus grandis trees. Methods: To assess a wide range of anatomical and physiological traits, light and electron microscopy was used, as well as field measurements of tree architecture, water use, stem water potential and leaf area distribution...
January 25, 2018: Annals of Botany
Weichao Teng, Yachao Kang, Wenjuan Hou, Houzhen Hu, Wenji Luo, Jie Wei, Linghui Wang, Boyu Zhang
Under acidic conditions, aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important factor limiting plant productivity; however, the application of phosphorus (P) might alleviate the toxic effects of Al. In this study, seedlings of two vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'G9' and E. grandis × E. urophylla 'DH32-29'were subjected to six treatments (two levels of Al stress and three levels of P). Under excessive Al stress, root Al content was higher, whereas shoot and leaf Al contents were lower with P application than those without P application...
2018: PloS One
Joao Benhur Mokochinski, Paulo Mazzafera, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Roland Mumm, Ric Cornelis Hendricus de Vos, Robert David Hall
Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may affect the metabolism of three species of Eucalyptus, E. dunnii, E. grandis and E. pellita. Young plants were grown for 53 d in the greenhouse and then transferred to growth chambers at 10°C, 20°C or 30°C for another 7 d...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
P W Crous, M J Wingfield, T I Burgess, G E St J Hardy, P A Barber, P Alvarado, C W Barnes, P K Buchanan, M Heykoop, G Moreno, R Thangavel, S van der Spuy, A Barili, S Barrett, S O Cacciola, J F Cano-Lira, C Crane, C Decock, T B Gibertoni, J Guarro, M Guevara-Suarez, V Hubka, M Kolařík, C R S Lira, M E Ordoñez, M Padamsee, L Ryvarden, A M Soares, A M Stchigel, D A Sutton, A Vizzini, B S Weir, K Acharya, F Aloi, I G Baseia, R A Blanchette, J J Bordallo, Z Bratek, T Butler, J Cano-Canals, J R Carlavilla, J Chander, R Cheewangkoon, R H S F Cruz, M da Silva, A K Dutta, E Ercole, V Escobio, F Esteve-Raventós, J A Flores, J Gené, J S Góis, L Haines, B W Held, M Horta Jung, K Hosaka, T Jung, Ž Jurjević, V Kautman, I Kautmanova, A A Kiyashko, M Kozanek, A Kubátová, M Lafourcade, F La Spada, K P D Latha, H Madrid, E F Malysheva, P Manimohan, J L Manjón, M P Martín, M Mata, Z Merényi, A Morte, I Nagy, A-C Normand, S Paloi, N Pattison, J Pawłowska, O L Pereira, M E Petterson, B Picillo, K N A Raj, A Roberts, A Rodríguez, F J Rodríguez-Campo, M Romański, M Ruszkiewicz-Michalska, B Scanu, L Schena, M Semelbauer, R Sharma, Y S Shouche, V Silva, M Staniaszek-Kik, J B Stielow, C Tapia, P W J Taylor, M Toome-Heller, J M C Vabeikhokhei, A D van Diepeningen, N Van Hoa, Van Tri M, N P Wiederhold, M Wrzosek, J Zothanzama, J Z Groenewald
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia : Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea , Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae , Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia sessilis var . cygnorum , Disculoides calophyllae on Corymbia calophylla , Harknessia banksiae on Banksia sessilis , Harknessia banksiae-repens on Banksia repens , Harknessia banksiigena on Banksia sessilis var ...
June 2017: Persoonia
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