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Eucalyptus grandis

Zhijiao Song, Miaomiao Zhang, Fagen Li, Qijie Weng, Chanpin Zhou, Mei Li, Jie Li, Huanhua Huang, Xiaoyong Mo, Siming Gan
Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Adéyèmi Chabi, Sven Lautenbach, Vincent Oladokoun Agnila Orekan, Nicholas Kyei-Baffour
BACKGROUND: The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC) class is needed for the different ecological zones...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
Ilara G F Budzinski, David H Moon, Pernilla Lindén, Thomas Moritz, Carlos A Labate
Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ilara Gabriela Frasson Budzinski, David H Moon, Júlia Silva Morosini, Pernilla Lindén, Juliano Bragatto, Thomaz Moritz, Carlos Alberto Labate
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation is presumed to play an important role in the regulation of tree growth, especially for Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing tree. This variation may induce changes in the whole tree at transcriptional, protein and metabolite levels. Bark represents an important group of tissues that protect trees from desiccation and pathogen attack, and it has been identified as potential feedstock for lignocellulosic derived biofuels. Despite the growing interest, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulates bark metabolism, particularly in tropical countries...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Jeanne Louw, Cara E Schwarz, Andries J Burger
Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0...
September 2016: Bioresource Technology
Dinkar Singh, Narendra Singh Yadav, Vivekanand Tiwari, Pradeep K Agarwal, Bhavanath Jha
About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein), showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterized proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis, and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
G T Ribeiro, J C Zanuncio, W de S Tavares, F de S Ramalho, J E Serrão
The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region...
June 2, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
S Hortal, J R Powell, J M Plett, A Simonin, I C Anderson
Root systems are simultaneously colonized by multiple individuals of mycorrhizal fungi. Intraspecific competitive interactions between fungal isolates are likely to affect both fungal and plant performance and be influenced by abiotic factors. Here, we assessed the impact of intraspecific competition between three Pisolithus microcarpus isolates on the establishment of, and benefit derived from, symbioses with Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. We investigated the outcomes of competition under ambient and elevated temperature and CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in a factorial design...
August 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Alaine Patrícia da Silva Morais, Cláudio Angeli Sansígolo, Mario de Oliveira Neto
Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Li-Jun Zhou, Fu-Rong Li, Li-Jie Huang, Zhi-Rong Yang, Shu Yuan, Lin-Han Bai
Eucalyptus oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity, including anti-microbial, fungicidal, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal properties. We studied anti-fungal activities of the leaf oil extracted from Eucalyptus. grandis × E. urophylla. Eleven plant pathogenic fungi were tested based on the mycelium growth rates with negative control. The results showed that Eucalyptus oil has broad-spectrum inhibitory effects toward these fungi. Remarkable morphological and structural alterations of hypha have been observed for Magnaporthe grisea after the treatment...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Teresa Ribeiro, Ricardo M Barrela, Hélène Bergès, Cristina Marques, João Loureiro, Leonor Morais-Cecílio, Jorge A P Paiva
The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tomotaka Shinya, Eiji Iwata, Katsuhiko Nakahama, Yujiroh Fukuda, Kazunori Hayashi, Kazuya Nanto, Antonio C Rosa, Akiyoshi Kawaoka
Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected 3-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis) genotypes (AM063 and AM380) that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0 and 48.2%, α-cellulose contents, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Annie F A Chimphango, J F Görgens, W H van Zyl
The functional properties of cellulose fibers can be modified by adsorption of xylan biopolymers. The adsorption is improved when the degree of biopolymers substitution with arabinose and 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) side groups, is reduced. α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and α-d-glucuronidase (AguA) enzymes were applied for side group removal, to increase adsorption of xylan from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) bagasse (BH), bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) (BM), Pinus patula (PP) and Eucalyptus grandis (EH) onto cotton lint...
June 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Paulo Sérgio Balbino Miguel, Marcelo Nagem Valério de Oliveira, Júlio César Delvaux, Guilherme Luiz de Jesus, Arnaldo Chaer Borges, Marcos Rogério Tótola, Júlio César Lima Neves, Maurício Dutra Costa
The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential...
June 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Febé E Meyer, Louise S Shuey, Sitha Naidoo, Thandekile Mamni, Dave K Berger, Alexander A Myburg, Noëlani van den Berg, Sanushka Naidoo
Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Onice Teresinha Dall'Oglio, Rafael Coelho Ribeiro, Francisco de Souza Ramalho, Flávio Lemes Fernandes, Carlos Frederico Wilcken, Sebastião Lourenço de Assis Júnior, Rosa Angélica Plata Rueda, José Eduardo Serrão, José Cola Zanuncio
The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it...
2016: PloS One
L J Ouyang, L M Li
N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are metabolites of mostly gram-negative bacteria and are critical signaling molecules in bacterial quorum-sensing systems. At threshold concentrations, AHLs can activate the expression of pathogenic genes and induce diseases. Therefore, reducing AHL concentrations is a key point of disease control in plants. AHL-lactonase, which is expressed by aiiA, is widespread in Bacillus sp and can hydrolyze AHLs. In the present study, we cloned aiiA from Bacillus subtilis by PCR. A plant expression vector of aiiA was constructed and name Pcam-PPP3-aiiA, in which expression of aiiA was controlled by the pathogen-inducible plant promoter PPP3...
August 2016: Transgenic Research
Gabriela C Canton, Amanda A Bertolazi, Antônio J D Cogo, Frederico Jacob Eutrópio, Juliana Melo, Sávio Bastos de Souza, Cesar A Krohling, Eliemar Campostrini, Ary Gomes da Silva, Arnoldo R Façanha, Nuno Sepúlveda, Cristina Cruz, Alessandro C Ramos
At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations...
July 2016: Mycorrhiza
Liziane M B Morandini, Alexandre T Neto, Marcelo Pedroso, Zaida I Antoniolli, Robert A Burrow, Adailton J Bortoluzzi, Marco A Mostardeiro, Ubiratan F da Silva, Ionara I Dalcol, Ademir F Morel
Two lanostane triterpenoids (sclerodols A and B) were isolated from the culture of the Eucalyptus grandis derived from the endophyte Scleroderma UFSM Sc1(Persoon) Fries together with three known compounds: one related triterpenoid lanosta-8,23-dien-3β,25-diol, the disaccharide α,β-trehalose, and the sugar alcohol mannitol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR, HRME, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The methanol crude extract and the isolated lanostane triterpenoids showed promising anticandidal activities...
February 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tamiris D Salla, Leandro V Astarita, Eliane R Santarém
Elicitation of E. grandis plants with Streptomyces PM9 reduced the gray-mold disease, through increasing the levels of enzymes directly related to the induction of plant defense responses, and accumulation of specific phenolic compounds. Members of Eucalyptus are economically important woody species, especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of this genus are susceptible to pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). Biological control of plant diseases using rhizobacteria is one alternative to reduce the use of pesticides and pathogen attack...
April 2016: Planta
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