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Sex differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331929/sex-related-differential-response-to-dexamethasone-in-endocrine-and-immune-measures-in-depressed-in-patients-and-healthy-controls
#1
Carina Rampp, Andreas Eichelkraut, Johanna Best, Darina Czamara, Monika Rex-Haffner, Manfred Uhr, Elisabeth B Binder, Andreas Menke
Although sex differences in major depression have been reported repeatedly, the underlying mechanisms are still disputed. The rapidly changing gonadal steroid concentrations of the postpartum period or during menopause have been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms and to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is implicated in depression. The sample comprised of 128 depressed in-patients (36.7% women) and 166 healthy controls (30.0% women). Blood was collected at baseline (at 6pm) and then 3 h as well as 21 h after ingestion of 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331353/mechanisms-of-sex-differences-in-fear-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Teniel Sonya Ramikie, Kerry James Ressler
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330548/shox-haploinsufficiency-presenting-with-isolated-short-long-bones-in-the-second-and-third-trimester
#3
Shwetha Ramachandrappa, Abhijit Kulkarni, Hina Gandhi, Cheryl Ellis, Renata Hutt, Lesley Roberts, Rosol Hamid, Aris Papageorghiou, Sahar Mansour
Haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor short stature homeobox (SHOX) manifests as a spectrum of clinical phenotypes, ranging from disproportionate short stature and Madelung deformity to isolated short stature. Here, we describe five infants with molecularly confirmed diagnoses of SHOX haploinsufficiency who presented in utero with short long bones during routine antenatal scanning from as early as 19 weeks gestation. Other foetal growth parameters were normal. The molecular basis of SHOX haploinsufficiency was distinct in each case...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329741/sex-differences-of-hippocampal-structure-in-bipolar-disorder
#4
Jing Shi, Hua Guo, Fengmei Fan, Hongzhen Fan, Huimei An, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17)...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329524/uncovering-the-evolutionary-history-of-neo-xy-sex-chromosomes-in-the-grasshopper-ronderosia-bergii-orthoptera-melanoplinae-through-satellite-dna-analysis
#5
Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez, Diogo Milani, Bernardo Lemos, Elio R Castillo, Dardo A Martí, Erica Ramos, Cesar Martins, Diogo C Cabral-de-Mello
BACKGROUND: Neo-sex chromosome systems arose independently multiple times in evolution, presenting the remarkable characteristic of repetitive DNAs accumulation. Among grasshoppers, occurrence of neo-XY was repeatedly noticed in Melanoplinae. Here we analyzed the most abundant tandem repeats of R. bergii (2n = 22, neo-XY♂) using deep Illumina sequencing and graph-based clustering in order to address the neo-sex chromosomes evolution. RESULTS: The analyses revealed ten families of satDNAs comprising about ~1% of the male genome, which occupied mainly C-positive regions of autosomes...
January 8, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329507/differences-in-salaries-of-physician-assistants-in-the-usa-by-race-ethnicity-and-sex
#6
Darron Smith, Cardell Jacobson
Objectives Data from the Academy of American Physician Assistants have suggested there are no differences in salaries by race and ethnic group. Our objective was to compare salaries of physician assistants for different racial and ethnic groups and sexes using another data source. Methods Data from the American Community Surveys (2010-2012) to examine pay differentials of physician assistants. Ordinary least squares regression analysis to compare the salaries of males and females, and those of racial and ethnic groups...
January 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326960/risk-factors-for-clinician-diagnosed-lyme-arthritis-facial-palsy-carditis-and-meningitis-in-patients-from-high-incidence-states
#7
Natalie A Kwit, Christina A Nelson, Ryan Max, Paul S Mead
Background: Clinical features of Lyme disease (LD) range from localized skin lesions to serious disseminated disease. Information on risk factors for Lyme arthritis, facial palsy, carditis, and meningitis is limited but could facilitate disease recognition and elucidate pathophysiology. Methods: Patients from high-incidence states treated for LD during 2005-2014 were identified in a nationwide insurance claims database using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for LD (088...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326151/sex-based-assessment-of-patient-presentation-lesion-characteristics-and-treatment-modalities-in-patients-undergoing-peripheral-vascular-intervention
#8
Niveditta Ramkumar, Bjoern D Suckow, Jeremiah R Brown, Art Sedrakyan, Jack L Cronenwett, Philip P Goodney
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence suggests that women and men might be treated differently for peripheral arterial disease. This analysis evaluated sex-based differences in disease presentation and its effect on treatment modality among patients who underwent endovascular treatment for peripheral arterial disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using national registry data from the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2010 and 2013, we examined patient, limb, and artery characteristics by sex through descriptive statistics...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324585/effects-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-arterial-function-in-different-age-groups-the-advanced-approach-to-arterial-stiffness-study
#9
Jirar Topouchian, Carlos Labat, Sylvie Gautier, Magnus Bäck, Apostolos Achimastos, Jacques Blacher, Marcin Cwynar, Alejandro de la Sierra, Denes Pall, Francesco Fantin, Katalin Farkas, Luis Garcia-Ortiz, Zoya Hakobyan, Piotr Jankowski, Ana Jelakovic, Zhanna Kobalava, Alexandra Konradi, Yulia Kotovskaya, Marina Kotsani, Irina Lazareva, Alexander Litvin, Viktor Milyagin, Iveta Mintale, Oscar Persson, Rafael Ramos, Anatoly Rogoza, Ligita Ryliskyte, Angelo Scuteri, Yuriy Sirenko, Georges Soulis, Nebojsa Tasic, Maryna Udovychenko, Saule Urazalina, Peter Wohlfahrt, Parounak Zelveian, Athanase Benetos, Roland Asmar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study was to compare arterial stiffness measured simultaneously with two different methods in different age groups of middle-aged and older adults with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). The specific effects of the different MetS components on arterial stiffness were also studied. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, international study included 2224 patients aged 40 years and older, 1664 with and 560 without MetS...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323617/differential-effects-of-early-palliative-care-based-on-the-age-and-sex-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Ryan D Nipp, Areej El-Jawahri, Lara Traeger, Jamie M Jacobs, Emily R Gallagher, Elyse R Park, Vicki A Jackson, William F Pirl, Jennifer S Temel, Joseph A Greer
BACKGROUND: Early palliative care interventions enhance patient outcomes, including quality of life, mood, and coping, but it remains unclear whether certain subgroups of patients are more likely to benefit from early palliative care. We explored whether age and sex moderate the improved outcomes seen with early palliative care. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of 350 patients with advanced lung and non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancer...
January 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323513/the-five-factor-borderline-inventory-behavioral-outcomes-across-time
#11
Ashley C Helle, Hilary L DeShong, Amanda N Baraldi, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt
The Five-Factor Borderline Inventory Short Form (FFBI-SF) is a 48-item dimensional measure of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that was developed from the Five-factor model (FFM). Previous research has examined the relationships of the FFBI-SF to the FFM and BPD. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship of FFBI-SF scales with behavioral outcomes, such as self-injury, physical fights, panic symptoms, promiscuous sex, theft, attempted suicide, reckless driving, and binge eating...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322332/evaluation-of-age-dependent-morphometrics-of-the-meniscofemoral-ligaments-in-reference-to-the-posterior-cruciate-ligament-in-routine-mri
#12
Sebastian Röhrich, Franz Kainberger, Lena Hirtler
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the morphological correlation between the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs), to propose normal ranges for different age populations, and to define guidelines for correct identification and differentiation of MFLs in routine MRI. METHODS: Three hundred forty-two subjects were included retrospectively and subdivided into five age groups. Morphometrics of the PCL and the MFLs were measured on standard MRI in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes...
January 10, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321849/population-genomics-and-geographical-parthenogenesis-in-japanese-harvestmen-opiliones-sclerosomatidae-leiobunum
#13
Mercedes Burns, Marshal Hedin, Nobuo Tsurusaki
Naturally occurring population variation in reproductive mode presents an opportunity for researchers to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of sex. Asexual reproduction frequently assumes a geographical pattern, in which parthenogenesis-dominated populations are more broadly dispersed than their sexual conspecifics. We evaluate the geographical distribution of genomic signatures associated with parthenogenesis using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data from two Japanese harvestman sister taxa, Leiobunum manubriatum and Leiobunum globosum...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321614/effects-on-metabolic-parameters-in-young-rats-born-with-low-birth-weight-after-exposure-to-a-mixture-of-pesticides
#14
Terje Svingen, Louise Ramhøj, Karen Mandrup, Sofie Christiansen, Marta Axelstad, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Ulla Hass
Pesticide exposure during fetal life can lead to low birth weight and is commonly observed in reproductive toxicology studies. Associations have also been found in low birth weight babies born from pesticide-exposed gardeners. Since low birth weight is also linked to metabolic disorders, it can be speculated that early life exposure to pesticides could increase the risk of becoming obese or developing diabetes later in life. We have analyzed potential long-term effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a low dose mixture of six pesticides that individually can cause low birth weight: Cyromazine, MCPB, Pirimicarb, Quinoclamine, Thiram, and Ziram...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321357/mapping-of-id-locus-for-dermal-shank-melanin-in-a-chinese-indigenous-chicken-breed
#15
Jiguo Xu, Shudai Lin, Xinfeng Gao, Qinghua Nie, Qingbin Luo, Xiquan Zhang
The dermal shank pigmentation, one of the defining traits of chicken breeds, is caused by an abnormal deposition of melanin in the dermis of the shank. The abnormal deposition is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin (Id). In this study, we aim to locate the gene responsible for the dermal shank pigmentation in chickens by an association analysis and a differential expression analysis. Based on our results, 72 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in Z chromosome (chrZ): 71-73 Mb (galGal3) were selected to further explore their relationships with the dermal shank pigmentation in pure lines of 96 Gushi hens and 96 Gushi hens with a yellow shank skin colour...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321245/limited-support-for-the-x-linked-grandmother-hypothesis-in-pre-industrial-finland
#16
Simon N Chapman, Jenni E Pettay, Virpi Lummaa, Mirkka Lahdenperä
The level of kin help often depends on the degree of relatedness between a helper and the helped. In humans, grandmother help is known to increase the survival of grandchildren, though this benefit can differ between maternal grandmothers (MGMs) and paternal grandmothers (PGMs) and between grandsons and granddaughters. The X-linked grandmother hypothesis posits that differential X-chromosome relatedness between grandmothers and their grandchildren is a leading driver of differential grandchild survival between grandmother lineages and grandchild sexes...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320843/diagnostic-utility-of-serum-melatonin-levels-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-control-study
#17
A B Rasheed, M S Daoud, F I Gorial
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease and early diagnosis is of clinical and therapeutic importance. Melatonin is an endogenous endolamine hormone that plays an important role in the immune system due to its anti-inflammatory action. This study was designed to assess serum melatonin levels in SLE patients and to evaluate the possible correlation between serum melatonin and patients' baseline characteristics. A case-control study was performed on 50 SLE patients (48 females and 2 males), diagnosed according to the revised 1997 ACR Criteria, and 25 healthy controls (24 females and 1 male), matched by age and sex...
December 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320756/generation-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-from-an-adult-male-with-45-x-46-xy-mosaicism
#18
Yumei Luo, Detu Zhu, Xiangye Xu, Lingxia Ge, Xiaofang Sun, Guokai Chen, Yaoyong Chen
Turner syndrome (TS) with 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype is a rare sex chromosome disorder with an occurrence of 0.15‰ at birth. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a Chinese adult male with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The iPSC line retains the original 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. Therefore, it offers an unprecedented cellular model to investigate the profound symptoms like infertility of TS in the male, and serve as a useful tool to develop therapies for the disease...
January 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319911/genomic-islands-of-differentiation-in-two-songbird-species-reveal-candidate-genes-for-hybrid-female-sterility
#19
Libor Mořkovský, Václav Janoušek, Jiří Reif, Jakub Rídl, Jan Pačes, Lukáš Choleva, Karel Janko, Michael W Nachman, Radka Reifová
Hybrid sterility is a common first step in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. According to Haldane's Rule it affects predominantly the heterogametic sex. While the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in organisms with heterogametic males has been studied for decades, the genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females has received much less attention. We investigated the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in two closely related avian species, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319611/comparison-of-somatosensory-cortex-excitability-between-migraine-and-strict-criteria-tension-type-headache-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#20
Wei-Ta Chen, Fu-Jung Hsiao, Yu-Chieh Ko, Hung-Yu Liu, Pei-Ning Wang, Jong-Ling Fuh, Yung-Yang Lin, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Tension-type headache (TTH) and migraine are both common types of headaches. Despite distinct symptoms, TTH and migraine are highly comorbid and exhibit many clinical similarities. This study enrolled consecutive patients with TTH and age- and sex-matched patients with migraine and healthy controls to investigate whether TTH and migraine are similar in brain excitability change assessed by magnetoencephalography. Patients with TTH were excluded if they reported any headache features or associated symptoms of migraine...
January 9, 2018: Pain
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