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Sex differentiation

Charli S Davies, Kendra N Smyth, Lydia K Greene, Debbie A Walsh, Jessica Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock, Christine M Drea
In vertebrates, reproductive endocrine concentrations are strongly differentiated by sex, with androgen biases typifying males and estrogen biases typifying females. These sex differences can be reduced in female-dominant species; however, even the most masculinised of females have less testosterone (T) than do conspecific males. To test if aggressively dominant, female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) may be hormonally masculinised, we measured serum androstenedione (A4), T and estradiol (E2) in both sexes and social classes, during both 'baseline' and reproductive events...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christina R Tyler, Matthew T Labrecque, Elizabeth R Solomon, Xun Guo, Andrea M Allan
Exposure to arsenic, a common environmental toxin found in drinking water, leads to a host of neurological pathologies. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to a low level of arsenic (50ppb) alters epigenetic processes that underlie deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis leading to aberrant behavior. It is unclear if arsenic impacts the programming and regulation of embryonic neurogenesis during development when exposure occurs. The master negative regulator of neural-lineage, REST/NRSF, controls the precise timing of fate specification and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jeremy W Luk, Matthew J Worley, Evan Winiger, Ryan S Trim, Christian J Hopfer, John K Hewitt, Sandra A Brown, Tamara L Wall
PURPOSE: To examine the associations between substance use and antisocial behavior trajectories and seven risky behaviors over time. METHOD: Data were collected from a high-risk sample of adolescents followed into young adulthood. Five trajectory classes, identified based on dual development of substance use and antisocial behavior symptoms, were used to predict three risky driving and four risky sexual behaviors. RESULTS: In this high-risk sample (n=530), participants reported notably high overall rates of reckless driving (55...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mijin Kim, Won Gu Kim, Suyeon Park, Hyemi Kwon, MinJi Jeon, Jong Jin Lee, Jin-Sook Ryu, Tae Yong Kim, YoungKee Shong, Won Bae Kim
BACKGROUND: For patients with lung metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), there is no consensus on the maximal size of metastatic lesions to use when determining the intensity of follow-up and additional therapeutic options. We evaluated the clinical outcomes and survival of patients with metastatic DTC confined to the lung, using the maximal diameter of lung lesions in the initial computed tomography (CT). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 112 DTC patients with metastases confined to the lung...
October 17, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Laura Casas, Fran Saborido-Rey, Taewoo Ryu, Craig Michell, Timothy Ravasi, Xabier Irigoien
Sequential hermaphroditism is a unique reproductive strategy among teleosts that is displayed mainly in fish species living in the coral reef environment. The reproductive biology of hermaphrodites has long been intriguing; however, very little is known about the molecular pathways underlying their sex change. Here, we provide the first de novo transcriptome analyses of a hermaphrodite teleost´s undergoing sex change in its natural environment. Our study has examined relative gene expression across multiple groups-rather than just two contrasting conditions- and has allowed us to explore the differential expression patterns throughout the whole process...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jennifer C Reneker, Vinay Cheruvu, Jingzhen Yang, Chad E Cook, Mark A James, M Clay Moughiman, Joseph A Congeni
BACKGROUND: Dizziness is often reported after a sports-related concussion. Forces experienced at the time of the concussion can cause an injury to multiple anatomical areas, including the central nervous system, the vestibular system, and the cervical spine, each of which is sufficient to cause dizziness. Medical professionals routinely use the subjective history to develop hypotheses about what may be causing a patient's dizziness. No previous studies have attempted to differentiate the source of the dizziness through precise patient descriptors or the triggers of dizziness...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Priti Bandi, Diana Silver, Tod Mijanovich, James Macinko
BACKGROUND: In the past 40 years, a variety of factors might have impacted motor vehicle (MV) fatality trends in the US, including public health policies, engineering innovations, trauma care improvements, etc. These factors varied in their timing across states/localities, and many were targeted at particular population subgroups. In order to identify and quantify differential rates of change over time and differences in trend patterns between population subgroups, this study employed a novel analytic method to assess temporal trends in MV fatalities between 1968 and 2010, by age group and sex...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Ivana V Yang, Brent S Pedersen, Andrew H Liu, George T O'Connor, Dinesh Pillai, Meyer Kattan, Rana Tawil Misiak, Rebecca Gruchalla, Stanley J Szefler, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn Kercsmar, Adam Richards, Allen D Stevens, Christena A Kolakowski, Melanie Makhija, Christine A Sorkness, Rebecca Z Krouse, Cynthia Visness, Elizabeth J Davidson, Corinne E Hennessy, Richard J Martin, Alkis Togias, William W Busse, David A Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Given the strong environmental influence on both epigenetic marks and allergic asthma in children, the epigenetic alterations in respiratory epithelia might provide insight into allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify DNA methylation and gene expression changes associated with childhood allergic persistent asthma. METHODS: We compared genomic DNA methylation patterns and gene expression in African American children with persistent atopic asthma (n = 36) versus healthy control subjects (n = 36)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Birju A Shah, Alison Migliori, Itsuka Kurihara, Surendra Sharma, Yow-Pin Lim, James Padbury
OBJECTIVE: To examine circulating levels of inter-alpha inhibitor protein (IaIp) in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP), and matched controls to assess the diagnostic accuracy of IaIp to differentiate NEC from SIP and to compare receiver operating characteristics of IaIp for NEC with C-reactive protein (CRP). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, nested case-control study of infants with feeding intolerance was carried out...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Roshan Chudal, Andre Sourander, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Dan Sucksdorff, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Alan S Brown
OBJECTIVES: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established general marker of inflammation from both infectious and noninfectious exposures. Previous studies have shown that maternal CRP is associated with an increased risk of autism and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early to mid-gestational serum CRP levels, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). METHODS: This study is derived from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Bipolar Disorder (FIPS-B), based on a nested case-control study design...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Rene Seiger, Andreas Hahn, Allan Hummer, Georg S Kranz, Sebastian Ganger, Michael Woletz, Christoph Kraus, Ronald Sladky, Alexander Kautzky, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Rupert Lanzenberger
Sex-steroid hormones are primarily involved in sexual differentiation and development and are thought to underlie processes related to cognition and emotion. However, divergent results have been reported concerning the effects of hormone administration on brain structure including side effects like brain atrophy and dementia. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender subjects offers a unique model for studying the effects of sex hormones on the living human brain. In this study, 25 Female-to-Male (FtM) and 14 Male-to-Female (MtF) subjects underwent MRI examinations at baseline and after a period of at least 4-months of continuous cross-sex hormone administration...
October 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shota Nishitani, Kazuya Ikematsu, Tsunehiko Takamura, Sumihisa Honda, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Kazuyuki Shinohara
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but not between the variants and the underlying brain activity. To study this, we investigated the association between neural activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) in mothers and fathers in response to their child smiling video stimuli to induce the positive affect related to attachment with their child, and genetic variants of OT receptor (OXTR) and AVP receptor 1A (AVPR1A)...
October 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Shao-Yong Xu, Shu-Fen Li, Guo-Xin Ni
BACKGROUND Although tendinopathy is common, its underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible pathogenesis of tendinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a total of 24 rats were randomly and evenly divided into a control (CON) group and a strenuous treadmill running (STR) group. Animals in the STR group were subjected to a 12-week treadmill running protocol. Subsequently, all Achilles tendons were harvested to perform histological observation or biochemical analyses...
October 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Virginia J Howard, Leslie A McClure, Dawn O Kleindorfer, Solveig A Cunningham, Amanda G Thrift, Ana V Diez Roux, George Howard
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and incident stroke in a national cohort of black and white participants. METHODS: The study comprised black (n = 10,274, 41%) and white (n = 14,601) stroke-free participants, aged 45 and older, enrolled in 2003-2007 in Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), a national population-based cohort. A neighborhood socioeconomic score (nSES) was constructed using 6 neighborhood variables...
October 14, 2016: Neurology
Nararat Laopichienpong, Narongrit Muangmai, Lawan Chanhome, Sunutcha Suntrarachun, Panupon Twilprawat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Kornsorn Srikulnath
Snakes exhibit genotypic sex determination with female heterogamety (ZZ males and ZW females), and the state of sex chromosome differentiation also varies among lineages. To investigate the evolutionary history of homologous genes located in the non-recombining region of differentiated sex chromosomes in snakes, partial sequences of the gametologous CTNNB1 gene were analyzed for 12 species belonging to henophid (Cylindrophiidae, Xenopeltidae, and Pythonidae) and caenophid snakes (Viperidae, Elapidae, and Colubridae)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Heredity
Liandong Yang, Zhaolei Zhang, Shunping He
Males and females often display extensive phenotypic differences, and many of these sexual dimorphisms are thought to result from differences between males and females in expression of genes present in both sexes. Sex-biased genes have been shown to exhibit accelerated rates of evolution in a wide array of species, however the cause of this remains enigmatic. In this study, we investigate the extent and evolutionary dynamics of sex-biased gene expression in zebrafish. Our results indicate that both male-biased genes and female-biased genes exhibit accelerated evolution at the protein level...
October 13, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Nina Braun, Claus Hoess, Alexander Kutz, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Robert Thomann, Christoph Henzen, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVE: Positive associations between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes have been found and are called "the obesity survival paradox." However, whether obesity has protective effects or if this paradox is because of confounding remains unclear. Herein, we analyzed the effects of weight on long-term mortality in a large cohort of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and investigated whether the differential effects of obesity on inflammation pathways accounted for mortality differences...
August 9, 2016: Nutrition
Karen Vrijens, Ellen Winckelmans, Maria Tsamou, Willy Baeyens, Patrick De Boever, Danyel Jennen, Theo M de Kok, Elly Den Hond, Wouter Lefebvre, Michelle Plusquin, Hans Reynders, Greet Schoeters, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Jos Kleinjans, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in 98 healthy volunteers (48 men, 50 women). The expression of 8 sex-specific candidate biomarker genes (significantly associated with PM10 in the discovery cohort and with a reported link to air pollution-related disease) was measured with qPCR in an independent validation cohort (75 men, 94 women)...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Michela Marina, Gian Paolo Ceda, Raffaella Aldigeri, Graziano Ceresini
To evaluate the causes of the first referral to an endocrine visit of patients with thyroid cancer in a mildly iodine-deficient area and to correlate them with prognostic features. We studied 298 consecutive patients (64 M and 234 F) with thyroid cancer. Of these, 281 had differentiated thyroid cancer. The causes of referral were categorized as follows: (Group A) clinical evidence of a neck lump; (Group B) incidental imaging in subjects without known thyroid diseases; (Group C) incidental imaging during a workup of thyroid disorders...
October 14, 2016: Endocrine
Peter Aaby, Jens Nielsen, Christine S Benn, Jean-François Trape
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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