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Sex differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150608/rapid-neo-sex-chromosome-evolution-and-incipient-speciation-in-a-major-forest-pest
#1
Ryan R Bracewell, Barbara J Bentz, Brian T Sullivan, Jeffrey M Good
Genome evolution is predicted to be rapid following the establishment of new (neo) sex chromosomes, but it is not known if neo-sex chromosome evolution plays an important role in speciation. Here we combine extensive crossing experiments with population and functional genomic data to examine neo-XY chromosome evolution and incipient speciation in the mountain pine beetle. We find a broad continuum of intrinsic incompatibilities in hybrid males that increase in strength with geographic distance between reproductively isolated populations...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149326/virtually-in-the-heat-of-the-moment-insula-activation-in-safe-sex-negotiation-among-risky-men
#2
Benjamin J Smith, Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Emily Barkley-Levenson, A James Melrose, Lynn C Miller, John R Monterosso, Antoine Bechara, Paul Robert Appleby, John L Christensen, Carlos G Godoy, Stephen J Read
HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual "hook up" game in an fMRI scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM...
November 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148792/proteomic-markers-of-the-functional-sperm-population-in-bovines-1-comparison-of-low-and-high-density-spermatozoa-following-cryopreservation
#3
Olivier D'Amours, Gilles Frenette, Sylvie Bourassa, Ezequiel Calvo, Patrick Blondin, Robert Sullivan
Mammalian semen contains a heterogeneous population of sperm cells. This heterogeneity results from variability in the complex processes of cell differentiation in the testis, biochemical modifications undergone by spermatozoa during transit along the male reproductive tract, interactions with secretions from accessory sex glands at ejaculation, and, in the context of reproductive technologies, in the ability of ejaculated spermatozoa to resist damage associated with freeze-thaw procedures. When submitted to density gradient centrifugation, ejaculated spermatozoa distribute themselves into two distinct populations: a low-density population characterized by low motility parameters, and a high-density population with high motility characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148577/mouse-models-to-evaluate-the-role-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-skeletal-maintenance-and-adaptation
#4
REVIEW
Amanda M Rooney, Marjolein C H van der Meulen
Estrogen signaling and mechanical loading have individual and combined effects on skeletal maintenance and adaptation. Previous work investigating estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo using global estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene knockout mouse models has provided information regarding the role of ERα in regulating bone mass and adaptation to mechanical stimulation. However, these models have inherent limitations that confound interpretation of the data. Therefore, recent studies have focused on mice with targeted deletion of ERα from specific bone cells and their precursors...
November 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146494/sex-specific-ultrasonic-vocalization-patterns-and-alcohol-consumption-in-high-alcohol-drinking-had-1-rats
#5
N Mittal, N Thakore, R L Bell, W T Maddox, T Schallert, C L Duvauchelle
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have been established as an animal model of emotional status and are often utilized in drug abuse studies as motivational and emotional indices. Further USV functionality has been demonstrated in our recent work showing accurate identification of selectively-bred high versus low alcohol-consuming male rats ascertained exclusively from 22 to 28kHz and 50-55kHz FM USV acoustic parameters. With the hypothesis that alcohol-sensitive sex differences could be revealed through USV acoustic parameters, the present study examined USVs and alcohol consumption in male and female selectively bred high-alcohol drinking (HAD-1) rats...
November 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#6
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144244/modes-of-infant-feeding-and-the-risk-of-childhood-asthma-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#7
Annika Klopp, Lorena Vehling, Allan B Becker, Padmaja Subbarao, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Diana L Lefebvre, Malcolm R Sears, Meghan B Azad
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether different modes of infant feeding are associated with childhood asthma, including differentiating between direct breastfeeding and expressed breast milk. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 3296 children in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort. The primary exposure was infant feeding mode at 3 months, reported by mothers and categorized as direct breastfeeding only, breastfeeding with some expressed breast milk, breast milk and formula, or formula only...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143923/impact-of-concurrent-versus-adjuvant-chemotherapy-on-the-severity-and-duration-of-lymphopenia-in-glioma-patients-treated-with-radiation-therapy
#8
Alexander J Lin, Jian L Campian, Caressa Hui, Soumon Rudra, Yuan J Rao, Dinesh Thotala, Dennis Hallahan, Jiayi Huang
Prolonged severe lymphopenia has been shown to persist beyond a year in glioma patients after radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. This study examines the differential impact of concurrent versus adjuvant chemotherapy on lymphopenia after RT. WHO grade II-III glioma patients who received RT with concurrent and/or adjuvant chemotherapy from 2007 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was temozolomide (TMZ), and adjuvant chemotherapy was either TMZ or procarbazine/lomustine/vincristine (PCV)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143418/identification-of-swallowing-disorders-in-early-and-mid-stage-parkinson-s-disease-using-pattern-recognition-of-pharyngeal-high-resolution-manometry-data
#9
C A Jones, M R Hoffman, L Lin, S Abdelhalim, J J Jiang, T M McCulloch
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause severe dysphagia, especially later in disease progression. Early identification of swallowing dysfunction may lead to earlier intervention. Pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM) provides complementary information to videofluoroscopy, with advantages of being quantitative and objective. Artificial neural network (ANN) classification can examine non-linear relationships among multiple variables with relatively low bias. We evaluated if ANN techniques could differentiate between patients with PD and healthy controls...
November 16, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142864/count-of-platelet-and-mean-platelet-volume-score-serologic-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Jae Woo Park, Chul-Hwan Kim, Yong Chan Ha, Moon Young Kim, Sung Min Park
Objectives: TNM staging, especially for lymph node metastasis, is the scoring system most widely used among prognostic factors for cancer survival. Several biomarkers have been studied as serologic markers, but their specificity is low and clinical applications are difficult. This study aimed to establish a scoring system for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using platelet (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) levels measured postoperatively and to evaluate their significance as prognostic factors...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142269/sex-specific-association-between-asthma-and-hypertension-in-nationally-representative-young-korean-adults
#11
Hong Seok Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Kyungdo Han, Gerald Pekler, Seong-Su Lee, Soonjib Yoo, Sung Rae Kim
It has been reported that people with asthma have an increased risk of hypertension. However, little is known about the specific relationship between asthma and hypertension in young adults. Among subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2008-2013, a total of 10,138 young adults (4,226 men and 5,912 women) aged 19-39 years were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141937/novel-differences-in-renal-gene-expression-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-model
#12
Victoria L Halperin Kuhns, Jennifer L Pluznick
Obesity is a significant risk factor for both chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. To better understand disease development, we sought to identify novel genes differentially expressed early in disease progression. We first confirmed that mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet exhibit early signs of renal injury including hyperfiltration. We then performed RNA Seq using renal cortex RNA from C57Bl/6 male mice fed either HF or control (Ctrl) diet. We identified 1134 genes differentially expressed in the cortex on HF versus Ctrl, of which 31 genes were selected for follow up analysis...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140871/hiv-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#13
Elia John Mmbaga, Kåre Moen, Germana Henry Leyna, Rose Mpembeni, Melkizedeck Thomas Leshabari
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies and differential risk behaviours among men who have sex with men(MSM) in Africa calls for population specific studies. We present results from the largest integrated bio-behavioural survey among MSM in Africa to inform programming. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study utilizing respondent driven sampling to recruit MSM aged 18 and above. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV-related risks were collected and all participants were tested for HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2), Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) and Syphilis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139646/physical-fitness-and-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-male-students-from-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#14
Slawomir Koziel, Marek Kociuba Mail, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak
There is sex-difference in humans as regards aerobic efficiency, physical strength and endurance and the sex difference is greatly dependent upon differential concentration of testosterone during different phases of growth and development including the intrauterine phase or prenatal growth. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an putative indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher prenatal testosterone exposure and vice versa. Males generally have lower 2D:4D than females...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138941/differential-timing-and-latitudinal-variation-in-sex-ratio-of-aquatic-warblers-during-the-autumn-migration
#15
Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Małgorzata E Chrostek, Frédéric Jiguet, Carlos Zumalacárregui Martínez, David Miguélez, Júlio M Neto
Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138870/insig2-rs7566605-single-nucleotide-variant-and-global-dna-methylation-index-levels-are-associated-with-weight-loss-in-a-personalized-weight-reduction-program
#16
Francesca Pirini, Sebastian Rodriguez-Torres, Bola Grace Ayandibu, María Orera-Clemente, Alberto Gonzalez-de la Vega, Fahcina Lawson, Roland J Thorpe, David Sidransky, Rafael Guerrero-Preston
Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with lipid metabolism and energy balance are implicated in the weight loss response caused by nutritional interventions. Diet‑induced weight loss is also associated with differential global DNA methylation. DNA methylation has been proposed as a predictive biomarker for weight loss response. Personalized biomarkers for successful weight loss may inform clinical decisions when deciding between behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between global DNA methylation, genetic variants associated with energy balance and lipid metabolism, and weight loss following a non‑surgical weight loss regimen...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137708/smartphone-based-non-invasive-salivary-glucose-biosensor
#17
Anuradha Soni, Sandeep Kumar Jha
The present work deals with the development of a non-invasive optical glucose biosensor using saliva samples and a smartphone. The sensor was fabricated with a simple methodology by immobilization of Glucose oxidase enzyme along with a pH responsive dye on a filter paper based strip. The strip changes color upon reaction with glucose present in saliva and the color changes were detected using a smartphone camera through RGB profiling. This standalone biosensor showed good sensitivity and low interference while operating within 20 s response time...
December 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136690/-values-of-jazf1-gene-rearrangement-detected-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-in-diagnosis-of-endometrial-stromal-tumours
#18
Q M Bai, B Chang, X Y Tu, R Bi, Y F Cheng, D Huang, X L Zhu, L J Wu, X Zhang, X Y Zhou, W T Yang
Objective: To investigate the role of JAZF1 gene rearrangement in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of endometrial stromal sarcomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methods: JAZF1 gene rearrangement was analyzed by FISH in 129 cases of ESS diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2016 including 105 cases of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS), 21 cases of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG-ESS) and 3 cases of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS). Sixteen cases of the related tumours in uterus were also collected as control group...
November 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136178/identification-of-genomic-regions-associated-with-sex-in-pacific-halibut
#19
Daniel P Drinan, Timothy Loher, Lorenz Hauser
Understanding and identifying the genetic mechanisms responsible for sex-determination are important for species management, particularly in exploited fishes where sex biased harvest could have implications on population dynamics and long-term persistence. The Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) supports important fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean. The proportion of each sex in the annual harvest is currently estimated using growth curves, but genetic techniques may provide a more accurate method. We used restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify RAD-tags that were linked to genetic sex, based on differentiation (FST) between the sexes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135021/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-trail-making-test-for-screening-cognitive-impairment
#20
Mingqing Wei, Jing Shi, Ting Li, Jingnian Ni, Xuekai Zhang, Yumeng Li, Shenghua Kang, Fuyun Ma, Hengge Xie, Bin Qin, Dongsheng Fan, Liping Zhang, Yongyan Wang, Jinzhou Tian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Trail-Making Test (TMT), which is commonly used to measure executive function, consists of two components (TMT-A and TMTB). There is a lack of normative TMT data for Chinese elderly adults. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the TMT in screening for cognitive impairment. DESIGN: 2,294 Chinese-speaking adults aged 50 to 85: 1,026 with normal cognition (NC), 462 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 108 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 113 with vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI), 121 with vascular dementia (VaD), 282 with uncertain types of dementia, and 15 with mixed dementia...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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