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Sex differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103314/expression-of-a-mutant-sema3a-protein-with-diminished-signalling-capacity-does-not-alter-als-related-motor-decline-or-confer-changes-in-nmj-plasticity-after-botoxa-induced-paralysis-of-male-gastrocnemic-muscle
#1
Elizabeth B Moloney, Barbara Hobo, Fred De Winter, Joost Verhaagen
Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are specialized cells that envelop the motor nerve terminal, and play a role in the maintenance and regeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The chemorepulsive protein semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is selectively up-regulated in TSCs on fast-fatigable muscle fibers following experimental denervation of the muscle (BotoxA-induced paralysis or crush injury to the sciatic nerve) or in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Re-expression of SEMA3A in this subset of TSCs is thought to play a role in the selective plasticity of nerve terminals as observed in ALS and following BotoxA-induced paralysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103247/bombyx-mori-p-element-somatic-inhibitor-bmpsi-is-a-key-auxiliary-factor-for-silkworm-male-sex-determination
#2
Jun Xu, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
Manipulation of sex determination pathways in insects provides the basis for a wide spectrum of strategies to benefit agriculture and public health. Furthermore, insects display a remarkable diversity in the genetic pathways that lead to sex differentiation. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been cultivated by humans as a beneficial insect for over two millennia, and more recently as a model system for studying lepidopteran genetics and development. Previous studies have identified the B. mori Fem piRNA as the primary female determining factor and BmMasc as its downstream target, while the genetic scenario for male sex determination was still unclear...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100627/inflammatory-biomarkers-predict-heart-failure-severity-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-holistic-proteomic-approach
#3
Camilla Hage, Erik Michaëlsson, Cecilia Linde, Erwan Donal, Jean-Claude Daubert, Li-Ming Gan, Lars H Lund
BACKGROUND: Underlying mechanisms in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction remain unknown. We investigated cardiovascular plasma biomarkers in HF with preserved ejection fraction and their correlation to diastolic dysfunction, functional class, pathophysiological processes, and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 86 stable patients with HF and EF ≥45% in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) biomarker substudy, biomarkers were quantified by a multiplex immunoassay...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099573/hematological-and-morphometric-differences-of-blood-cells-from-rheas-rhea-americana-struthioniformes-rheidae-on-two-conservation-farms
#4
S S M Gallo, N B Ederli, F C R Oliveira
Today, blood tests are an indispensable tool in avian medicine. This study aimed to describe and compare hematological and morphometric data of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of rhea, Rhea americana. To do so, 58 rheas of both sexes on two farms, one in Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espírito Santo (ES), and the other in São Carlos, São Paulo (SP), were selected. Blood samples were taken and their RBC counts, PCV and Hb levels were determined and used in hematimetric index calculations. The total and differentiated leukocyte counts and the TPP and fibrinogen serum levels were also obtained...
January 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098749/a-semipersistent-plant-virus-differentially-manipulates-feeding-behaviors-of-different-sexes-and-biotypes-of-its-whitefly-vector
#5
Shaohua Lu, Jingjing Li, Xueli Wang, Danyang Song, Rune Bai, Yan Shi, Qinsheng Gu, Yen-Wen Kuo, Bryce W Falk, Fengming Yan
It is known that plant viruses can change the performance of their vectors. However, there have been no reports on whether or how a semipersistent plant virus manipulates the feeding behaviors of its whitefly vectors. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is an emergent plant virus in many Asian countries and is transmitted specifically by B and Q biotypes of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique to investigate the effect of CCYV on the feeding behaviors of B...
January 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096856/epidemiological-survey-of-bovine-thelaziosis-in-southeastern-of-iran
#6
Javad Khedri, Mohammad Hossein Radfar, Hassan Borji, Mohammad Azizzadeh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of bovine thelaziosis, performed in the southeast of Iran, an endemic area for Iranian Sistani cattle. METHODS: Between September 2012 to October 2014, 1924 cattle, Sistani breed (n= 1235) and Brahman breed (n=689) of all sex and age groups collected from Sistan and Baluchestan Province were examined using visual observation of the eyes by flushing the conjunctival sac and lachrymal duct with sterile saline solution...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095800/diet-gonadal-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-influence-white-adipose-tissue-mirna-expression
#7
Jenny C Link, Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein, Rita M Cantor, Xuqi Chen, Arthur P Arnold, Aldons J Lusis, Karen Reue
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNA species for degradation or interfering with translation. Specific miRNAs are key regulators of adipogenesis, and are expressed at different levels in adipose tissue from lean and obese mice. The degree of lipid accumulation and distribution of white adipose tissue differs between males and females, and it is unknown whether sex differences in adipose tissue-specific miRNA expression may contribute to this dimorphism...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092168/associations-between-at-risk-alcohol-use-substance-use-and-smoking-with-lipohypertrophy-and-lipoatrophy-among-patients-living-with-hiv
#8
Marisela Noorhasan, Daniel Drozd, Carl Grunfeld, Joe Merrill, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, James H Willig, Amanda Willig, Karen L Cropsey, Kenneth Mayer, Aaron Blashill, Matthew Mimiaga, Mary E McCaul, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, William C Matthews, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob Fredericksen, Robin Nance, Joseph Chris Delaney, Paul Crane, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi Crane
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at 6 sites across the US completed 21,279 clinical assessments including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092116/changes-in-thyroid-cancer-incidence-post-2009-american-thyroid-association-guidelines
#9
Lucy L Shi, Carol DeSantis, Ahmedin Jemal, Amy Y Chen
BACKGROUND: The thyroid cancer incidence rate has tripled in the United States since the 1980s, especially among women and small-sized tumors. This trend has been attributed to increased detection due to the availability of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration technology. In 2009, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) released revisions to their guidelines for well-differentiated thyroid cancers. OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in thyroid cancer incidence rates by tumor size and gender following the 2009 ATA guideline revisions...
January 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092101/the-cross-regulation-between-sox15-and-wnt-signaling-pathway
#10
REVIEW
Ali Moradi, Faezeh Ghasemi, Kazem Anvari, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Saeideh Ahmadi Simab, Safieh Ebrahimi, Amirreza Hesari, Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki, Soodabeh ShahidSales, Amir Avan
WNT/B-CATENIN signaling pathway is one of the key dysregulated pathways in different tumor types, which regulate the expression of several genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. This pathway is being modulated by sex-determining region Y-box (SOX) family genes. The functions of these genes are suggested as tumor suppressor or oncogene. SOX genes transcribe a group of transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. Among them, SOX15 is recently been identified as a novel tumor suppressor in pancreatic and esophagus cancers with a potential role in modulating Wnt/b-catenin signaling...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091775/developmental-and-sex-specific-differences-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-derived-from-allatotropin-gene-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#11
Branislav Bednár, Ladislav Roller, Daniel Čižmár, Diana Mitrová, Dušan Žitňan
Allatotropin (AT) and related neuropeptides are widespread bioactive molecules that regulate development, food intake and muscle contractions in insects and other invertebrates. In moths, alternative splicing of the at gene generates three mRNA precursors encoding AT with different combinations of three structurally similar AT-like peptides (ATLI-III). We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the differential expression of these transcripts during the postembryonic development of Bombyx mori...
January 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090256/normal-2-dimensional-strain-values-of-the-left-ventricle-a-substudy-of-the-normal-echocardiographic-measurements-in-korean-population-study
#12
Jae-Hyeong Park, Ju-Hee Lee, Sang Yeub Lee, Jin-Oh Choi, Mi-Seung Shin, Mi-Jeong Kim, Hae Ok Jung, Jeong Rang Park, Il Suk Sohn, Hyungseop Kim, Seong-Mi Park, Nam Jin Yoo, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyung-Kwan Kim, Goo-Yeong Cho, Mi-Rae Lee, Jin-Sun Park, Chi Young Shim, Dae-Hee Kim, Dae-Hee Shin, Gil Ja Shin, Sung Hee Shin, Kye Hun Kim, Woo-Shik Kim, Seung Woo Park
BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the distribution of 2-dimensional strain values in normal population. We performed a multicenter trial to measure normal echocardiographic values in the Korean population. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Normal echOcardiogRaphic Measurements in KoreAn popuLation (NORMAL) study. Echocardiographic specialists measured frequently used echocardiographic indices in healthy people according to a standardized method at 23 different university hospitals...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089977/antimelanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-antibody-expanding-the-clinical-spectrum-in-north-american-patients-with-dermatomyositis
#13
Siamak Moghadam-Kia, Chester V Oddis, Shinji Sato, Masataka Kuwana, Rohit Aggarwal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical features associated with the antimelanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody (anti-MDA5) in US patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) and classic DM. METHODS: Patients with CADM were consecutively selected from the University of Pittsburgh Myositis Database from 1985 to 2013. CADM was defined by a typical DM rash without objective muscle weakness and no or minimal abnormalities of muscle enzymes, electromyography, or muscle biopsy...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088352/mutations-at-the-darkener-of-apricot-locus-modulate-pheromone-production-and-sex-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Julien Fumey, Claude Wicker-Thomas
Mutations at the Darkener of Apricot (Doa) locus of Drosophila melanogaster alter sexual differentiation by disrupting sex-specific splicing of doublesex pre-mRNA, a key regulator of sex determination. Here, we study the effect of seven Doa alleles and several trans-heterozygous combinations on pheromones and courtship behavior. The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile was slightly masculinized in females, with an accumulation of shorter compounds (C23 and C25) and a reduction in longer compounds (C27 and C29)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#15
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087634/genome-wide-identification-of-regulatory-elements-in-sertoli-cells
#16
Danielle M Maatouk, Anirudh Natarajan, Yoichiro Shibata, Lingyun Song, Gregory E Crawford, Uwe Ohler, Blanche Capel
A current goal of molecular biology is to identify transcriptional networks regulating cell differentiation. However, identifying functional gene regulatory elements has been challenging in the context of developing tissues where material is limited and cell types are mixed. To identify regulatory sites during sex determination, we subjected Sertoli cells from mouse fetal testes to DNaseI-seq and ChIP-seq for H3K27ac. DNaseI-seq identified putative regulatory sites around Sertoli- and pregranulosa-enriched genes; however, active enhancers marked by H3K27ac were enriched proximal only to Sertoli-enriched genes...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087518/cardiovascular-function-in-male-and-female-jcr-la-cp-rats-effect-of-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#17
Ian Hunter, Amanda Soler, Gregory Joseph, Brenda Hutcheson, Chastity Bradford, Frank Zhang, Barry J Potter, Spencer D Proctor, Petra Rocic
30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081238/genomic-organization-of-repetitive-dna-in-woodpeckers-aves-piciformes-implications-for-karyotype-and-zw-sex-chromosome-differentiation
#18
Thays Duarte de Oliveira, Rafael Kretschmer, Natasha Avila Bertocchi, Tiago Marafiga Degrandi, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Ricardo José Gunski
Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA-including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA-in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)-Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)-by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081177/first-behavioural-characterisation-of-a-knockout-mouse-model-for-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15
#19
Jac Kee Low, Ananthan Ambikairajah, Kani Shang, David A Brown, Vicky W W Tsai, Samuel N Breit, Tim Karl
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078433/a-meta-analysis-of-the-clinicopathological-characteristics-and-survival-outcomes-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-colorectal-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Ian S Reynolds, Aobhlinn O'Toole, Joseph Deasy, Deborah A McNamara, John P Burke
PURPOSE: The current study aims to use meta-analytical techniques to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated and sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Patients with IBD have an established increased risk of developing CRC. There is no consensus, however, on the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of IBD associated CRC when compared to sporadic CRC. METHODS: A comprehensive search for published studies comparing IBD associated and sporadic CRC was performed...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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