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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723713/somatotopic-fascicular-lesions-of-the-brachial-plexus-demonstrated-by-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-neurography
#1
Tim Hilgenfeld, Johann Jende, Daniel Schwarz, Philipp Bäumer, Jennifer Kollmer, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Mirko Pham
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high-resolution brachial plexus (BP) magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is capable of (1) distinguishing patients with compressive neuropathy or noncompressive plexopathy from age- and sex-matched controls, (2) discriminating between patients with compressive neuropathy and noncompressive plexopathy, and (3) detecting spatial lesion patterns suggesting somatotopic organization of the BP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (50...
July 18, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723626/positive-correlation-of-cg16672562-methylation-with-obesity-related-traits-in-childhood-obesity-and-its-independence-with-underlying-hif3a-hypoxia-inducible-factor-3a-genetic-background
#2
Suman Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Sohee Han, Jae-Pil Jeon, Sang-Ick Park, Ho-Yeong Yu, Mi Yeong Hwang, Juyoung Lee
Differential methylations of the HIF3A (hypoxia-inducible factor 3a) gene have been linked to body mass index (BMI). To explore the association of these methylations to childhood obesity, we measured 5 CpG methylation sites (cg27146050, cg46801562, cg22891070, cg16672562 and cg46801675) in intron 1 of the HIF3A gene by pyrosequencing, in the Korean population (mean age: 13.9 yrs, 305 obese cases and 387 controls). Two CpG methylations, cg46801562 and cg16672562, had statistically significant association with childhood obesity (P = 2...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721961/determinants-of-child-sex-ratio-in-west-and-south-districts-of-tripura-india
#3
Himadri Bhattacharjya, Subrata Baidya
BACKGROUND: Indian census 2011 has detected declined child sex ratio in the West and South districts of Tripura State. OBJECTIVES: To find out the sex ratio at birth and to identify the factors affecting child sex ratio in west and south districts of Tripura. METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study combined with a qualitative component was conducted among 3438 couples chosen by multistage sampling. Quantitative data were collected by a structured interview schedule...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720388/strain-specific-effects-of-low-level-lead-exposure-on-associative-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#4
Megha Verma, J S Schneider
Exposure to lead (Pb) remains a significant public health concern. Lead exposure in early life impairs the normal development of numerous cognitive and neurobehavioral processes. Previous work has shown that the effects of developmental Pb exposure on gene expression patterns in the brain are modulated by various factors including the developmental timing of the exposure, level of exposure, sex, and genetic background. Using gene microarray profiling, we previously reported a significant strain-specific effect of Pb exposure on the hippocampal transcriptome, with the greatest number of differentially expressed transcripts in Long Evans (LE) rats and the fewest in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
July 15, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716979/blood-biomarkers-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-stroke-the-stroke-chip-study
#5
Alejandro Bustamante, Elena López-Cancio, Sara Pich, Anna Penalba, Dolors Giralt, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Carles Ferrer-Costa, Teresa Gasull, María Hernández-Pérez, Mónica Millan, Marta Rubiera, Pedro Cardona, Luis Cano, Helena Quesada, Mikel Terceño, Yolanda Silva, Mar Castellanos, Moisés Garces, Silvia Reverté, Xavier Ustrell, Rafael Marés, Joan Josep Baiges, Joaquín Serena, Francisco Rubio, Eduardo Salas, Antoni Dávalos, Joan Montaner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke diagnosis could be challenging in the acute phase. We aimed to develop a blood-based diagnostic tool to differentiate between real strokes and stroke mimics and between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in the hyperacute phase. METHODS: The Stroke-Chip was a prospective, observational, multicenter study, conducted at 6 Stroke Centers in Catalonia. Consecutive patients with suspected stroke were enrolled within the first 6 hours after symptom onset, and blood samples were drawn immediately after admission...
July 17, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716632/mitochondrial-estrogen-receptors-as-a-vulnerability-factor-of-chronic-stress-and-mediator-of-fluoxetine-treatment-in-female-and-male-rat-hippocampus
#6
Miroslav Adzic, Milos Mitic, Marija Radojcic
Depression is a disease of an abnormal brain energy metabolism also marked with increased apoptosis in specific brain regions. Mounting evidence indicates that the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis are novel targets for the actions of estrogen receptors (ERs). In this study, we examined the effects of antidepressant (AD) fluoxetine (FLU) treatment on the mitochondrial ER alpha (ERα), ER beta (total and phospo-pERβ) and their association with cytochrome c (cyt c) oxidase activity and apoptotic Bcl2/Bax-molecules in the hippocampal mitochondria of chronically isolated (CPSI) female and male rats depicting depression...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#7
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715961/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-mating-type-determination-in-paramecium-and-tetrahymena
#8
Eduardo Orias, Deepankar Pratap Singh, Eric Meyer
While sex is an ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic invention, self-incompatibility systems such as mating types or sexes appear to be derived limitations that show considerable evolutionary plasticity. Within a single class of ciliates, Paramecium and Tetrahymena species have long been known to present a wide variety of mating type numbers and modes of inheritance, but only recently have the genes involved been identified. Although similar transmembrane proteins mediate self/nonself recognition in both ciliates, the mechanisms of mating type determination differ widely, ranging from Mendelian systems to developmental nuclear differentiation, either stochastic or maternally inherited...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715395/expansion-and-adipogenesis-induction-of-adipocyte-progenitors-from-perivascular-adipose-tissue-isolated-by-magnetic-activated-cell-sorting
#9
Kyan Thelen, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts, G Andres Contreras
Expansion of Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT), a major regulator of vascular function through paracrine signaling, is directly related to the development of hypertension during obesity. The extent of hypertrophy and hyperplasia depends on depot location, sex, and the type of Adipocyte Progenitor Cell (APC) phenotypes present. Techniques used for APC and preadipocytes isolation in the last 10 years have drastically improved the accuracy at which individual cells can be identified based on specific cell surface markers...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714429/structural-brain-correlations-of-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptual-tests-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Nuria Bargallo, Carme Uribe, Anna Campabadal, Alexandra Abos, Carme Junque
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is relevant because it is a marker for evolution to dementia. However, the selection of suitable tests to evaluate separate cognitive domains in mild cognitive impairment related to PD remains an open question. The current work aims to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of several visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests using the same sample and a multimodal MRI approach. METHODS: The study included 36 PD patients and 20 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and education...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714354/is-cerebral-microbleed-prevalence-relevant-as-a-biomarker-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Ana Gb Rabelo, Camila Vl Teixeira, Thamires Nc Magalhães, Ana Flávia Mk Carletti-Cassani, Augusto Cs Amato Filho, Helena Pg Joaquim, Leda L Talib, Orestes Forlenza, Patrícia Ao Ribeiro, Rodrigo Secolin, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Marcio Lf Balthazar
Introduction The search for a reliable neuroimaging biomarker in Alzheimer's disease is a matter of intense research. The presence of cerebral microbleeds seems to be a potential biomarker. However, it is not clear if the presence of microbleeds has clinical usefulness to differentiate mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging. We aimed to verify if microbleed prevalence differs among three groups: mild Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, and normal controls...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714226/extranasopharyngeal-angiofibroma-revisited
#12
Jochen P Windfuhr, Julia Vent
BACKGROUND: Angiofibromas in the head and neck region usually arise in the nasopharynx, but may also occur elsewhere. This study aims at evaluating the incidence and clinical features of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma (ENA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic review of the literature (Medline(®) and Google(™) ) up to December 31(st) , 2015. RESULTS: 174 cases of ENA were retrieved from a total of 170 publications. In contrast to former publications and previous understanding, the nasal septum was by far the most common site of the disease...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713695/robotic-modified-radical-neck-dissection-with-bilateral-axillo-breast-approach
#13
REVIEW
June Young Choi, Kyung Ho Kang
Bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic thyroidectomy has been performed since 2008, and the indications of the BABA robotic operation has been widened to the robotic modified radical neck dissection (MRND). The indication for BABA robotic MRND is suspicious lateral neck metastasis of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the contraindication is far advanced carcinoma such as encasement of common carotid artery. Surgical procedures start from flap formation as a routine BABA robotic thyroidectomy and the lateral neck dissection is performed from level IV and Vb to level III and IIA...
June 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712943/sex-and-brain-region-specific-effects-of-prenatal-stress-and-lead-exposure-on-permissive-and-repressive-post-translational-histone-modifications-from-embryonic-development-through-adulthood
#14
G Varma, M Sobolewski, D A Cory-Slechta, J S Schneider
Developmental exposure to prenatal stress (PS) and lead (Pb) can affect brain development and adversely influence behavior and cognition. Epigenetic-based gene regulation is crucial for normal brain development and mis-regulation, in any form, can result in neurodevelopmental disorders. Post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs) are an integral and dynamic component of the epigenetic machinery involved in gene regulation. Exposures to Pb and/or PS may alter PTHM profiles, promoting lifelong alterations in brain function observed following Pb±PS exposure...
July 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712425/telomere-length-is-inversely-correlated-with-urinary-stress-hormone-levels-in-healthy-controls-but-not-in-un-medicated-depressed-individuals-preliminary-findings
#15
Brittany Fair, Synthia H Mellon, Elissa S Epel, Jue Lin, Dóra Révész, Josine E Verhoeven, Brenda W Penninx, Victor I Reus, Rebecca Rosser, Christina M Hough, Laura Mahan, Heather M Burke, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Owen M Wolkowitz
OBJECTIVE: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of cellular aging affected by chronic stress. The relationship of LTL to the stress hormones, cortisol and catecholamines, is unclear, as are possible differences between healthy controls (HC) and individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This small pilot study is the first to examine the relationship between cortisol, catecholamines and LTL specifically in un-medicated MDD in comparison with HC. METHODS: Participants included 16 un-medicated MDD subjects and 15 HC for assay of LTL, 12-hour overnight urinary free cortisol and catecholamine levels...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711606/ovarian-aromatase-loss-of-function-mutant-medaka-undergo-ovary-degeneration-and-partial-female-to-male-sex-reversal-after-puberty
#16
Masatoshi Nakamoto, Yasushi Shibata, Kaoru Ohno, Takeshi Usami, Yasuhiro Kamei, Yoshihito Taniguchi, Takeshi Todo, Takashi Sakamoto, Graham Young, Penny Swanson, Kiyoshi Naruse, Yoshitaka Nagahama
Although estrogens have been generally considered to play a critical role in ovarian differentiation in non-mammalian vertebrates, the specific functions of estrogens during ovarian differentiation remain unclear. We isolated two mutants with premature stops in the ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1) gene from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-based gene-driven mutagenesis library of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. In XX mutants, gonads first differentiated into normal ovaries containing many ovarian follicles that failed to accumulate yolk...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711420/-left-heart-catheterization-followed-by-other-invasive-procedures-regional-comparisons-reveal-peculiar-differences
#17
Silke Piedmont, Enno Swart, Rosie Kenmogne, Rüdiger C Braun-Dullaeus, Bernt-Peter Robra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diagnostic left heart catheterization (LHC) is recommended if the therapeutic consequences of a bypass operation or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are being considered. The present study examines regional differences in healthcare provision and therapeutic consequences of LHC, differentiated by counties and hospitals of the German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. In addition, it looks at which patient-related factors influence the proportion of follow-up interventions...
July 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710131/gene-regulatory-networks-for-the-haploid-to-diploid-transition-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#18
Sunjoo Joo, Yoshiki Nishimura, Evan Cronmiller, Ran Ha Hong, Thamali Kariyawasam, Ming Hsiu Wang, Nai Chun Shao, Saif-El-Din El Akkad, Takamasa Suzuki, Tetsuya Higashiyama, EonSeon Jin, Jae-Hyeok Lee
The sexual cycle of the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culminates in the formation of diploid zygotes which differentiate into dormant spores that eventually undergo meiosis. Mating between gametes induces rapid cell wall shedding via the enzyme g-lysin; cell fusion is followed by heterodimerization of sex-specific homeobox transcription factors, GSM1 and GSP1, and initiation of zygote-specific gene expression. To investigate the genetic underpinnings of the zygote developmental pathway, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of both pre- and post-fertilization samples...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708850/tumor-spatial-heterogeneity-in-myxoid-containing-soft-tissue-using-texture-analysis-of-diffusion-weighted-mri
#19
Hyun Su Kim, Jae-Hun Kim, Young Cheol Yoon, Bong Keun Choe
The objective of this study was to examine the tumor spatial heterogeneity in myxoid-containing soft-tissue tumors (STTs) using texture analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). A total of 40 patients with myxoid-containing STTs (23 benign and 17 malignant) were included in this study. The region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. For texture analysis, the global (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis), regional (intensity variability and size-zone variability), and local features (energy, entropy, correlation, contrast, homogeneity, variance, and maximum probability) were extracted from the ADC map...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708305/a-novel-variant-of-dhh-in-a-familial-case-of-46-xy-disorder-of-sex-development-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#20
Francoise Paris, Delphine Flatters, Sandrine Caburet, Bérangère Legois, Nadège Servant, Hervé Lefebvre, Charles Sultan, Reiner A Veitia
OBJECTIVE: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of conditions affecting the differentiation and development of the internal and external genitalia. Here, we aimed at identifying the genetic cause of DSD in two 46,XY sisters from a consanguineous family. DESIGN: We performed a whole-exome sequencing of two 46,XY female individuals. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the most likely candidate variant, affecting the desert hedgehog (DHH) gene...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
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