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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212973/the-burden-of-obesity-on-diabetes-in-the-united-states-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-2008-to-2012
#1
Man Yee Mallory Leung, Nils P Carlsson, Graham A Colditz, Su-Hsin Chang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent and costly chronic diseases in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the risk of developing diabetes and the annual cost of diabetes for a US general population. METHODS: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008 to 2012, were used to analyze 1) probabilities of developing diabetes and 2) annual total health care expenditures for diabetics. The age-, sex-, race-, and body mass index (BMI)-specific risks of developing diabetes were estimated by fitting an exponential survival function to age at first diabetes diagnosis...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211207/social-amoebae-mating-types-do-not-invest-unequally-in-sexual-offspring
#2
Tracy E Douglas, David C Queller, Joan E Strassmann
Unequal investment by different sexes in their progeny is common and includes differential investment in the zygote and differential care of the young. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a sexual stage in which isogamous cells of any two of the three mating types fuse to form a zygote which then attracts hundreds of other cells to the macrocyst. The latter cells are cannibalized and so make no genetic contribution to reproduction. Previous literature suggests that this sacrifice may be induced in cells of one mating type by cells of another, resulting in a higher than expected production of macrocysts when the inducing type is rare and a giving a reproductive advantage to this social cheat...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209211/comparative-expression-profile-of-micrornas-in-anopheles-anthropophagus-midgut-after-blood-feeding-and-plasmodium-infection
#3
Wenquan Liu, Zhenhua Hao, Liyang Huang, Lingzi Chen, Qimei Wei, Liya Cai, Shaohui Liang
BACKGROUND: Anopheles anthropophagus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. In a former study, we have investigated the global miRNA profiles in relation to sex in An. anthropophagus. However, the miRNAs contributing to the blood-feeding and infection with Plasmodium are still unknown. METHODS: High-throughput sequencing was performed to identify miRNA profiles of An...
February 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208949/uterine-tumour-resembling-ovarian-sex-cord-tumour-a-rare-entity
#4
Mustafa Gazi Uçar, Tolgay Tuyan Ilhan, Ayhan Gül, Ceyhan Ugurluoglu, Çetin Çelik
Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumours (UTROSCTs) are an extremely rare type of uterine body tumours arising from the endometrial stroma. Epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, management and natural history of UTROSCTs are still a question of debate, as there is little available data in the literature. Although rare, the possibility of UTROSCTs should be kept in mind, when a patient presents with abnormal bleeding and an enlarged uterus. UTROSCTs appear dirty white/cream-coloured, gelatinous, well-circumscribed mass with smooth surface on macroscopic examination...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207663/role-of-ethnicity-in-alignment-compensation-propensity-matched-analysis-of-differential-compensatory-mechanism-recruitment-patterns-for-sagittal-malalignment-in-288-asd-patients-from-japan-korea-and-united-states
#5
Bassel G Diebo, Isaac Gammal, Yoon Ha, Seung Hwan Yoon, Jae Won Chang, Byeongwoo Kim, Morio Matsumoto, Yu Yamato, Daisaku Takeuchi, Naobumi Hosogane, Mitsuru Yagi, Hiroshi Taneichi, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Christopher Ames
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of adult spinal deformity patients in a multiethnic database. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of ethnicity on recruitment of compensatory mechanisms for sagittal spinal deformity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: While the impacts of age, sex, and pelvic morphology on the ability to compensate for sagittal malalignment have been investigated, the role of ethnicity in compensatory mechanism recruitment is poorly understood...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206984/-sex-differences-of-perceived-health-before-and-during-the-economic-crisis-2007-and-2011-spain
#6
Silvia Calzón Fernández, Alberto Fernández Ajuria, María Puerto López Del Amo González, José Jesús Martín Martín
OBJECTIVE: Several studies show the association between economic crises, unemployment and health income. However, it is necessary to differentiate their impact according to gender. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect that the economic crisis, unemployment and income may have had on the perceived health of men and women in Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted combining data from the 2007 and 2011 Living Conditions Surveys, which collect data from 43,900 adult individuals up to 65 years of age...
February 16, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205059/clinical-application-of-early-gastric-carcinoma-with-lymphoid-stroma-based-on-lymph-node-metastasis-status
#7
Hyun Lim, In Seob Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Young Soo Park, Hyo Jeong Kang, Hee Kyong Na, Ji Yong Ahn, Do Hoon Kim, Kee Don Choi, Ho June Song, Gin Hyug Lee, Hwoon-Yong Jung, Jin-Ho Kim, Beom Su Kim, Jeong Hwan Yook, Byung Sik Kim
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (GCLS) is characterized by undifferentiated carcinoma mixed with prominent lymphoid infiltration. GCLS has unique clinicopathological features and a better prognosis compared to other types of gastric cancer. We analyzed the clinicopathological features of early GCLS in relation to lymph node metastasis (LNM). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 241 patients diagnosed with GCLS confined to the mucosa or the submucosa between March 1998 and December 2015...
February 15, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203683/identification-of-unique-venous-thromboembolism-susceptibility-variants-in-african-americans
#8
John A Heit, Sebastian M Armasu, Bryan M McCauley, Iftikhar J Kullo, Hugues Sicotte, Jyotishman Pathak, Christopher G Chute, Omri Gottesman, Erwin P Bottinger, Joshua C Denny, Dan M Roden, Rongling Li, Marylyn D Ritchie, Mariza de Andrade
To identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) in African-Americans (AAs), we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE in AAs using the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network, comprised of seven sites each with DNA biobanks (total ~39,200 unique DNA samples) with genome-wide SNP data (imputed to 1000 Genomes Project cosmopolitan reference panel) and linked to electronic health records (EHRs). Using a validated EHR-driven phenotype extraction algorithm, we identified VTE cases and controls and tested for an association between each SNP and VTE using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, stroke, site-platform combination and sickle cell risk genotype...
February 16, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202650/contrasting-effects-of-increased-yolk-testosterone-content-on-development-and-oxidative-status-in-gull-embryos
#9
Marco Parolini, Andrea Romano, Cristina Daniela Possenti, Manuela Caprioli, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino
Hormone-mediated maternal effects generate variation in offspring phenotype. In birds, maternal egg testosterone (T) exerts differential effects on offspring traits after hatching, suggesting that mothers experience a trade-off between contrasting T effects. However, there is very little information on T pre-natal effects. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), we increased yolk T concentration within physiological limits and measured the effects on development and oxidative status of late-stage embryos...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199893/decreased-cingulate-cortex-activation-during-cognitive-control-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#10
Staci A Gruber, M Kathryn Dahlgren, Kelly A Sagar, Atilla Gonenc, Lesley Norris, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Ongur, Kathryn E Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are well-documented in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and may impact the efficacy of psychotherapy. Cognitive control, a form of executive functioning, is often used therapeutically to shift patients' thoughts and behaviors from automatic, maladaptive responses to adaptive coping strategies. This study examined cognitive control processing in patients with BPD using the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). METHOD: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with BPD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects completed the MSIT with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199360/systematic-review-of-statistically-derived-models-of-immunological-response-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Joseph B Sempa, Eva L Ujeneza, Martin Nieuwoudt
INTRODUCTION: In Sub-Saharan African (SSA) resource limited settings, Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) counts continue to be used for clinical decision making in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, HIV-infected people often remain with CD4 counts <350 cells/μL even after 5 years of viral load suppression. Ongoing immunological monitoring is necessary. Due to varying statistical modeling methods comparing immune response to ART across different cohorts is difficult. We systematically review such models and detail the similarities, differences and problems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199337/investigating-hybridization-between-the-two-sibling-bat-species-myotis-myotis-and-m-blythii-from-guano-in-a-natural-mixed-maternity-colony
#12
Eve Afonso, Anne-Claude Goydadin, Patrick Giraudoux, Gilles Farny
Because they can form seasonal mixed-species groups during mating and maternal care, bats are exciting models for studying interspecific hybridization. Myotis myotis and M. blythii are genetically close and morphologically almost identical, but they differ in some aspects of their ecology and life-history traits. When they occur in sympatry, they often form large mixed maternity colonies, in which their relative abundance can vary across time due to a shift in the timing of parturition. For the first time, we used non-invasive genetic methods to assess the hybridization rate and colony composition in a maternity colony of M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198147/intrahepatic-fat-abdominal-adipose-tissues-and-metabolic-state-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#13
Anat Yaskolka Meir, Lilac Tene, Noa Cohen, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yftach Gepner, Hila Zelicha, Michal Rein, Nitzan Bril, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Benjamin Sarusy, Dror Dicker, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic-fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous-adipose tissue (SAT) is controversial. While IHF > 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat sub-depots, pancreatic and renal-sinus fats. METHODS: We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat sub-depots, %pancreatic and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198113/early-body-composition-but-not-body-mass-is-associated-with-future-accelerated-decline-in-muscle-quality
#14
Elisa Fabbri, Nancy Chiles Shaffer, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Michelle D Shardell, Marco Zoli, Stephanie A Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: Muscle quality (MQ) or strength-to-mass ratio declines with aging, but the rate of MQ change with aging is highly heterogeneous across individuals. The identification of risk factors for accelerated MQ decline may offer clues to identity the underpinning physiological mechanisms and indicate targets for prevention and treatment. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we tested whether measures of body mass and body composition are associated with differential rates of changes in MQ with aging...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197167/vviaprt3-and-vvifsex-two-genes-involved-in-sex-specification-able-to-distinguish-different-flower-types-in-vitis
#15
João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Jorge Cunha, Helena G Silva, Sara Amâncio, Maria M R Costa, Margarida Rocheta
Vitis vinifera vinifera is a hermaphrodite subspecies, while its ancestor, Vitis vinifera sylvestris, is dioecious. We have identified two genes that together allow the discrimination between male, female and hermaphrodite Vitis plants. The sex locus region on chromosome 2 was screened resulting in the discovery of a new gene, VviFSEX. The same screening revealed another gene, VviAPRT3, located in the sex region, that be used as a sex marker. Both genes are good candidates to be involved in flower sex differentiation in grapevine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196849/a-population-based-study-of-sociodemographic-and-geographic-variation-in-hpv-vaccination
#16
Lila J Finney Rutten, Patrick M Wilson, Debra J Jacobson, Amenah A Agunwamba, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Robert M Jacobson, Jennifer L St Sauver
BACKGROUND: HPV vaccination rates in the U.S. remain low and lag behind other recommended adolescent vaccines. Studies evaluating the association of geographic and area-level characteristics with HPV vaccination rates provide a valuable resource for public health planning. METHOD: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project data linkage system to ascertain HPV vaccination rates between 2010 and 2015 in a 7-county region of southern MN. Geocoded individual patient data was spatially linked to socioeconomic data from the American Community Survey at the census block group level...
February 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196559/the-link-between-childhood-adversity-and-late-life-mental-health-evidence-for-the-influence-of-early-life-experiences-or-illusory-correlations
#17
Tracy D Vannorsdall, Cynthia A Munro
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) reflect stressful or traumatic early life events such as abuse, neglect, and significant household challenges. These experiences are increasingly appreciated as factors that exert influence on physical and mental functioning throughout the lifespan. Numerous studies have demonstrated dose-response relationships between the number of ACEs reported and negative health outcomes in adulthood (Anda et al., 2006). At the same time, evidence points to the role of ACEs in the development of heightened biological reactivity to stress that may serve to increase vulnerability to the development of mental and substance use disorders (e...
March 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196471/characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-serine-protease-inhibitors-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae
#18
Hailan Lin, Xijian Lin, Jiwei Zhu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiaofeng Xia, Fengluan Yao, Guang Yang, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in all living organisms and play significant roles in digestion, development and innate immunity. In this study, we present a genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SPI genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a major pest of cruciferous crops with global distribution and broad resistance to different types of insecticides. RESULTS: A total of 61 potential SPI genes were identified in the P...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194604/hepatocellular-carcinoma-biology-predicts-survival-outcome-after-liver-transplantation-in-the-usa
#19
Mohamed Abd El-Fattah
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathologic prognostic factors of cancer-specific survival (CSS) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) stratified by tumor size. METHODS: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries (2004-2012), we retrieved data of 570 patients who underwent LT for a solitary primary HCC lesion ≤5 cm. A two multivariable Cox models were constructed to identify prognostic factors of CSS in a two different tumor sizes (2 cm cutoff)...
February 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193729/sequential-divergent-and-cooperative-requirements-of-foxl2a-and-foxl2b-in-ovary-development-and-maintenance-of-zebrafish
#20
Yan-Jing Yang, Yang Wang, Zhi Li, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Foxl2 is essential for mammalian ovary maintenance. Although sexually dimorphic expression of foxl2 was observed in many teleost, its role and regulative mechanism in fish remained largely unclear. In this study, we first identified two transcript variants of foxl2a and its homologous gene foxl2b in zebrafish, and revealed their specific expression in follicular layer cells in a sequential and divergent fashion during ovary differentiation, maturation and maintenance. Then, homozygous foxl2a mutants (foxl2a(-/-)) and foxl2b mutants (foxl2b(-/-)) were constructed, and detailed comparisons, such as sex ratio, gonadal histological structure, transcriptome profiling and dynamic expression of gonadal development-related genes, were carried out...
February 13, 2017: Genetics
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