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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819223/levobuipivacaine-induced-dissemination-of-a549-lung-cancer-cells
#1
Shun-Ming Chan, Bo-Feng Lin, Chih-Shung Wong, Wen-Ting Chuang, Yu-Ting Chou, Zhi-Fu Wu
While anaesthetics are frequently used on cancer patients during surgical procedures, their consequence on cancer progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to investigate the influence of local anesthetics on lung cancer cell dissemination in vitro and in vivo. A549 human non-small lung cancer cells were treated with various local anaesthetics including ropivacaine, lidocaine, levobupivacaine and bupivacaine. Cell barrier property was assessed using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819175/in-vivo-therapeutic-efficacy-of-frog-skin-derived-peptides-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-pulmonary-infection
#2
Chen Chen, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Y Peter Di
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic and frequently drug-resistant pulmonary pathogen especially in cystic fibrosis sufferers. Recently, the frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Esc(1-21) and its diastereomer Esc(1-21)-1c were found to possess potent in vitro antipseudomonal activity. Here, they were first shown to preserve the barrier integrity of airway epithelial cells better than the human AMP LL-37. Furthermore, Esc(1-21)-1c was more efficacious than Esc(1-21) and LL-37 in protecting host from pulmonary bacterial infection after a single intra-tracheal instillation at a very low dosage of 0...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818344/the-2016-espen-arvid-wretlind-lecture-the-gut-in-stress
#3
REVIEW
Stephen A McClave, Cynthia C Lowen, Robert G Martindale
The gut has a major influence on the course of the human stress response in critical illness for several reasons; the quantity of its immune tissue, the extent of interface with the external environment, the expanse of the microbiome, and its access to the systemic circulation. In critical illness, it is not uncommon to lose mucosal barrier function, which exposes the host to the downside effects of luminal contents and epithelial cell regulation. In that setting, the microbiome is converted to a pathobiome, upregulation of metabolic and immune responses occurs, and homeostatic defense systems are compromised...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#4
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814671/antifibrotic-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
Lynne A Murray, David M Habiel, Miriam Hohmann, Ana Camelo, Huilan Shang, Yang Zhou, Ana Lucia Coelho, Xueyan Peng, Mridu Gulati, Bruno Crestani, Matthew A Sleeman, Tomas Mustelin, Meagan W Moore, Changwan Ryu, Awo D Osafo-Addo, Jack A Elias, Chun G Lee, Buqu Hu, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Darryl A Knight, Cory M Hogaboam, Erica L Herzog
The chronic progressive decline in lung function observed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) appears to result from persistent nonresolving injury to the epithelium, impaired restitution of the epithelial barrier in the lung, and enhanced fibroblast activation. Thus, understanding these key mechanisms and pathways modulating both is essential to greater understanding of IPF pathogenesis. We examined the association of VEGF with the IPF disease state and preclinical models in vivo and in vitro. Tissue and circulating levels of VEGF were significantly reduced in patients with IPF, particularly in those with a rapidly progressive phenotype, compared with healthy controls...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813441/cross-over-endocytosis-of-claudins-is-mediated-by-interactions-via-their-extracellular-loops
#6
Nora Gehne, Agathe Lamik, Martin Lehmann, Reiner F Haseloff, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ingolf E Blasig
Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double membrane vesicles. Super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of Cldns in these vesicles and revealed a distinct separation of Cldns derived from opposing cells within cross-over endocytosed vesicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#7
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#8
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811823/protective-barrier-properties-of-rhinosectan-%C3%A2-spray-containing-xyloglucan-on-an-organotypic-3d-airway-tissue-model-mucilair-results-of-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Barbara De Servi, Francesco Ranzini, Núria Piqué
BACKGROUND: To evaluate barrier protective properties of Rhinosectan(®) spray, a medical device containing xyloglucan, on nasal epithelial cells (MucilAir). METHODS: MucilAir-Nasal, a three-dimensional organotypic (with different cell types) airway tissue model, was treated with the medical device Rhinosectan(®) (30 µL) or with controls (Rhinocort-budesonide-or saline solution). The protective barrier effects of Rhinosectan(®) were evaluated by: TEER (trans-epithelial electrical resistance) (preservation of tight junctions), Lucifer Yellow assay (preservation of paracellular flux) and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy (localization of tight junction proteins)...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811479/membrane-free-culture-and-real-time-barrier-integrity-assessment-of-perfused-intestinal-epithelium-tubes
#10
Sebastiaan J Trietsch, Elena Naumovska, Dorota Kurek, Meily C Setyawati, Marianne K Vormann, Karlijn J Wilschut, Henriëtte L Lanz, Arnaud Nicolas, Chee Ping Ng, Jos Joore, Stefan Kustermann, Adrian Roth, Thomas Hankemeier, Annie Moisan, Paul Vulto
In vitro models that better reflect in vivo epithelial barrier (patho-)physiology are urgently required to predict adverse drug effects. Here we introduce extracellular matrix-supported intestinal tubules in perfused microfluidic devices, exhibiting tissue polarization and transporter expression. Forty leak-tight tubules are cultured in parallel on a single plate and their response to pharmacological stimuli is recorded over 125 h using automated imaging techniques. A study comprising 357 gut tubes is performed, of which 93% are leak tight before exposure...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811362/nuclear-envelope-rupture-is-enhanced-by-loss-of-p53-or-rb
#11
Zhe Yang, John Maciejowski, Titia de Lange
The mammalian nuclear envelope (NE) forms a stable physical barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, normally breaking down only during the cell cycle phase of mitosis. However, spontaneous transient NE rupture in interphase can occur when NE integrity is compromised such as when the nucleus experiences mechanical stress. For instance, deficiencies in the nuclear lamins and their associated proteins can cause NE rupture that is promoted by forces exerted by actin filaments. NE rupture can allow cytoplasmic nucleases to access chromatin, potentially compromising genome integrity...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810265/viral-retinopathy-in-experimental-models-of-zika-infection
#12
Zhenyang Zhao, Matthew Yang, Sasha R Azar, Lynn Soong, Scott C Weaver, Jiaren Sun, Yan Chen, Shannan L Rossi, Jiyang Cai
Purpose: Emerging evidence has shown that both congenital and adult Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause eye diseases. The goals of the current study were to explore mechanisms and pathophysiology of ZIKV-induced eye defects. Methods: Wild-type or A129 interferon type I receptor-deficient mice were infected by either FSS13025 or Mex1-7 strain of ZIKV. Retinal histopathology was measured at different time points after infection. The presence of viral RNA and protein in the retina was determined by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807632/development-of-an-in-vitro-co-culture-model-to-mimic-the-human-intestine-in-healthy-and-diseased-state
#13
Angela A M Kämpfer, Patricia Urbán, Sabrina Gioria, Nilesh Kanase, Vicki Stone, Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen
The intestine forms the largest interface between the environment and the human organism. Its integrity and functioning are crucial for the uptake of nutrients while preventing access of harmful antigens. Inflammatory conditions can significantly change the normal functioning of the intestine. In vitro models that adequately reproduce both healthy and inflamed intestinal tissue could provide a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of intestinal inflammation and investigating new therapeutic drugs. We established a co-culture of Caco-2 and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells that mimics the intestine in healthy and controlled inflamed states...
August 11, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805232/the-protective-effect-of-heme-oxygenase-1-against-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-in-cholestatic-liver-injury-is-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition
#14
Lijing Zhang, Zhenling Zhang, Bojia Liu, Yanling Jin, Yan Tian, Yi Xin, Zhijun Duan
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is reported to protect against liver injury, but little is known about its effect on the intestinal barrier in cholestatic liver injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and its enzymatic by-product on intestinal barrier dysfunction in bile duct ligation (BDL) rats and explored the possible mechanism. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) were used; the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins, intestinal inflammation and NF-κB p65 were measured...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805098/assessment-of-the-permeability-and-toxicity-of-polymeric-nanocapsules-using-the-zebrafish-model
#15
Carmen Teijeiro-Valiño, Elena Yebra-Pimentel, Jorge Guerra-Varela, Noemi Csaba, María J Alonso, Laura Sánchez
AIM: To assess the capacity of a new drug delivery nanocapsule (NC) with a double shell of hyaluronic acid and protamine to overcome biological barriers using the zebrafish model. MATERIALS & METHODS: NCs were prepared by the solvent displacement method, tagged with fluorescent makers and physicochemically characterized. Toxicity was evaluated according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test, and permeability was tested by exposing zebrafish, with and without chorion, to the fluorescent NCs...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804910/t-cell-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-prevents-stat1-induction-of-claudin-2-expression-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Moorthy Krishnan, Declan F McCole
T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) dephosphorylates a number of substrates, including JAK-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling proteins, which are activated by interferon (IFN)-γ, a major proinflammatory cytokine involved in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. A critical function of the intestinal epithelium is formation of a selective barrier to luminal contents. The structural units of the epithelium that regulate barrier function are the tight junctions (TJs), and the protein composition of the TJ determines the tightness of the barrier...
August 14, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803895/periderm-life-cycle-and-function-during-orofacial-and-epidermal-development
#17
REVIEW
Nigel L Hammond, Jill Dixon, Michael J Dixon
Development of the secondary palate involves a complex series of embryonic events which, if disrupted, result in the common congenital anomaly cleft palate. The secondary palate forms from paired palatal shelves which grow initially vertically before elevating to a horizontal position above the tongue and fusing together in the midline via the medial edge epithelia. As the epithelia of the vertical palatal shelves are in contact with the mandibular and lingual epithelia, pathological fusions between the palate and the mandible and/or the tongue must be prevented...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803148/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-the-neuroenteric-system-cervical-vagus-hyperphosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-and-tau-in-young-mexico-city-residents
#18
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Beatriz Pérez-Guillé, Partha S Mukherjee, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel
Mexico City (MC) young residents are exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have high frontal concentrations of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs), accumulation of hyperphosphorylated aggregated α-synuclein (α-Syn) and early Parkinson's disease (PD). Swallowed CDNPs have easy access to epithelium and submucosa, damaging gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and accessing the enteric nervous system (ENS). This study is focused on the ENS, vagus nerves and GI barrier in young MC v clean air controls...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802586/nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-nthi-directly-interfere-with-the-regulation-of-e-cadherin-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#19
Inga Kaufhold, Sünja Osbahr, Kensuke Shima, Sebastian Marwitz, Kristina Rohmann, Daniel Drömann, Torsten Goldmann, Klaus Dalhoff, Jan Rupp
Loss of epithelial barriers characterized by reduction of E-cadherin is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the effects of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections, associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, on the regulation of E-cadherin in host cells. NTHi infection decreased E-cadherin mRNA and protein-levels in lung epithelial cells. E-cadherin reduction was mediated by activation of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Slug...
August 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801643/the-role-of-pge2-in-alveolar-epithelial-and-lung-microvascular-endothelial-crosstalk
#20
Thomas Bärnthaler, Jovana Maric, Wolfgang Platzer, Viktoria Konya, Anna Theiler, Carina Hasenöhrl, Benjamin Gottschalk, Sandra Trautmann, Yannick Schreiber, Wolfgang F Graier, Rudolf Schicho, Gunther Marsche, Andrea Olschewski, Dominique Thomas, Rufina Schuligoi, Akos Heinemann
Disruption of the blood-air barrier, which is formed by lung microvascular endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells, is a hallmark of acute lung injury. It was shown that alveolar epithelial cells release an unidentified soluble factor that enhances the barrier function of lung microvascular endothelial cells. In this study we reveal that primarily prostaglandin (PG) E2 accounts for this endothelial barrier-promoting activity. Conditioned media from alveolar epithelial cells (primary ATI-like cells) collected from BALB/c mice and A549 cells increased the electrical resistance of pulmonary human microvascular endothelial cells, respectively...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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