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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346438/colonization-of-the-cervicovaginal-space-with-gardnerella-vaginalis-leads-to-local-inflammation-and-cervical-remodeling-in-pregnant-mice
#1
Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Amy G Brown, Guillermo O Barilá, Lauren Anton, Carrie E Barnum, Snehal S Shetye, Louis J Soslowsky, Michal A Elovitz
The role of the cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346364/mutations-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-neuroligin-like-glit-1-the-apoptosis-pathway-and-the-calcium-chaperone-crt-1-increase-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-after-6-ohda-treatment
#2
Sarah-Lena Offenburger, Elisabeth Jongsma, Anton Gartner
The loss of dopaminergic neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease, the aetiology of which is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress. We used C. elegans to screen for genes that protect dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and isolated glit-1 (gliotactin (Drosophila neuroligin-like) homologue). Loss of the C. elegans neuroligin-like glit-1 causes increased dopaminergic neurodegeneration after treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an oxidative-stress inducing drug that is specifically taken up into dopaminergic neurons...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343654/intestinal-epithelial-cell-specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-ii-ameliorates-experimental-colitis
#3
Koichiro Suzuki, Takahiro Yamada, Keiko Yamazaki, Masato Hirota, Narumi Ishihara, Mizuki Sakamoto, Daisuke Takahashi, Hideki Iijima, Koji Hase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is believed to develop in genetically susceptible individuals. Glycosylation, a type of post-translational modification, is involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including IBD, by modulating the function of various glycoproteins. To identify novel genes contributing to the development of IBD, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glycosylation-related genes in IBD patients and identified MAN2A1, encoding alpha-mannosidase II (α-MII), as a candidate gene...
January 18, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#4
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335601/loss-of-cd14-leads-to-disturbed-epithelial-b-cell-crosstalk-and-impairment-of-the-intestinal-barrier-after-e-coli-nissle-monoassociation
#5
Marijana Basic, Manuela Buettner, Lydia M Keubler, Anna Smoczek, Inga Bruesch, Stephanie Buchheister, André Bleich
The TLR4 co-receptor CD14 was identified as an IBD candidate gene. Here, its influence on the intestinal barrier was addressed utilizing E. coli Nissle (EcN), which induces severe inflammation in germfree TLR4-/- mice. After monoassociation, EcN was detected in spleens and livers of TLR4-/- and CD14-/- but not wildtype mice. Barrier impairment was characterized by increased apoptosis and decreased epithelial junction (EJ) expression and was reversed by TLR2 stimulation in CD14-/- mice. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation revealed contribution of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells towards intestinal homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331644/ozone-exposure-induces-respiratory-barrier-biphasic-injury-and-inflammation-controlled-by-interleukin-33
#6
Chloé Michaudel, Claire Mackowiak, Isabelle Maillet, Louis Fauconnier, Cezmi Akdis, Milena Sokolowska, Anita Dreher, Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Valérie F Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel, Dieudonnée Togbe
BACKGROUND: IL-33 plays critical role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis, injury and repair. Whether IL-33 regulates neutrophil recruitment and function independently of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in ozone induced lung injury and inflammation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of IL-33/ST2 axis in lung inflammation upon acute ozone exposure in mice. METHODS: ST2 and IL-33 deficient mice, IL-33-citrine reporter and C57BL/6 (WT) mice underwent a single ozone exposure (1 ppm for 1h) in all studies...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331460/inhibition-of-shigella-sonnei-induced-epithelial-barrier-disruption-by-surface-layer-associated-proteins-of-lactobacilli-from-chinese-fermented-food
#7
Yingchun Zhang, Xiaolu Shi, Siqi Hao, Qianhui Lu, Lanwei Zhang, Xue Han, Weihong Lu
Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L were examined to identify the functional basis for their protection within intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L remained active in a trypsin solution and retained a 45-kDa protein band, similar to that observed in controls. In contrast, under conditions of simulated gastric juice, the SLAP were partially degraded. Inhibitory effects of SLAP on adherence of Shigella sonnei to HT-29 cells were assessed with use of exclusion, competition, and replacement assays...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#8
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#9
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330022/extracellular-matrix-contribution-to-skin-wounds-re-epithelialization
#10
REVIEW
Patricia Rousselle, Marine Montmasson, Cécile Garnier
The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by cells that maintain the continuity and integrity of skin and restore it after injury. Cutaneous wound healing in adult mammals is a complex multi-step process that involves overlapping stages of blood clot formation, inflammation, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, neovascularization, and remodeling. Under favorable conditions, epidermal regeneration begins within hours after injury and takes several days until the epithelial surface is intact due to reorganization of the basement membrane...
January 9, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329594/modelling-the-structure-of-a-cerna-theoretical-bipartite-microrna-mrna-interaction-network-regulating-intestinal-epithelial-cellular-pathways-using-r-programming
#11
J M Robinson, W A Henderson
OBJECTIVE: We report a method using functional-molecular databases and network modelling to identify hypothetical mRNA-miRNA interaction networks regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function. The model forms a data-analysis component of our cell culture experiments, which produce RNA expression data from Nanostring Technologies nCounter® system. The epithelial tight-junction (TJ) and actin cytoskeleton interact as molecular components of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Upstream regulation of TJ-cytoskeleton interaction is effected by the Rac/Rock/Rho signaling pathway and other associated pathways which may be activated or suppressed by extracellular signaling from growth factors, hormones, and immune receptors...
January 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#12
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324052/the-expression-profile-of-claudin-family-members-in-the-developing-mouse-lung-and-expression-alterations-resulting-from-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-shs
#13
Joshua B Lewis, Felix R Jimenez, Brigham J Merrell, Brent Kimbler, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
Claudins are tight junctional proteins implicated in cell polarity and epithelial barrier maintenance. Claudin misregulation adversely impacts developmental aspects of cell differentiation and proliferation. The current research evaluated transcriptional expression for Claudins 1-11 and 18 in the developing murine lung at embryonic days (E) 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 and at post-natal day (PN) 3 and PN15. Mouse lungs were also assessed by immunohistochemical analysis to qualitatively evaluate Claudin protein expression...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323757/differentiation-associated-urothelial-cytochrome-p450-oxidoreductase-predicates-the-xenobiotic-metabolising-activity-of-luminal-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancers
#14
Simon C Baker, Volker M Arlt, Radek Indra, Madeleine Joel, Marie Stiborova, Ian Eardley, Niaz Ahmad, Wolfgang Otto, Maximilian Burger, Peter Rubenwolf, David H Phillips, Jennifer Southgate
Extra-hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics by epithelial tissues has evolved as a self-defence mechanism but has potential to contribute to the local activation of carcinogens. Bladder epithelium (urothelium) is bathed in excreted urinary toxicants and pro-carcinogens. This study reveals how differentiation affects cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and the role of NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcripts were inducible in normal human urothelial (NHU) cells maintained in both undifferentiated and functional barrier-forming differentiated states in vitro...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323699/leukotriene-b4-receptor-2-regulates-the-proliferation-migration-and-barrier-integrity-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#15
Min Liu, Juan Shen, Huimin Yuan, Fengling Chen, Huaidong Song, Hui Qin, Yanqin Li, Jiabo Xu, Qing Ye, Shenxian Li, Kazuko Saeki, Takehiko Yokomizo
The airway epithelium plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The functions of leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2) on the airway epithelial cells remains unknown. In our study, BLT2 expression in 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells were manipulated by transfection with BLT2 overexpression plasmid or BLT2 small interference RNA. 16HBE cells were then exposed to BLT2 antagonist (LY255283) or BLT2 agonist (12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid [12-HHT] or CAY10583). The results showed that BLT2 overexpression, 12-HHT stimulation or CAY10583 treatment resulted in the enhanced proliferation and migration of 16HBE cells...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322404/in-vivo-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colitis-associated-cancer
#16
Ka Yee Fung, Tracy Putoczki
A single layer of epithelial cells separates luminal antigens from the host immune system throughout the gastrointestinal tract. A breakdown in the integrity of the epithelial barrier can lead to chronic inflammation, which is associated with numerous complications including cancer. Here we describe three experimental protocols to chemically induce acute and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. These in vivo mouse models are based on the induction of damage to the colonic epithelium, resulting in an inflammatory and wound healing response...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320711/anatomical-physiological-and-functional-diversity-of-adipose-tissue
#17
REVIEW
Rachel K Zwick, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Valerie Horsley, Maksim V Plikus
Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319048/analysis-of-differential-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-cultured-oral-epithelial-cells-altered-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-and-extracellular-adenosine-triphosphate
#18
Wei Guo, Peng Wang, Zhong-Hao Liu, Ping Ye
Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical intercellular junctions of epithelial cells formed by occludin, claudins, junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), and zonula occludens (ZO). Tight junction proteins can sense the presence of bacteria and regulate the transcription of target genes that encode effectors and regulators of the immune response. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of TJ proteins in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis LPS), and extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the oral epithelial cell culture model...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317727/enhanced-nasal-drug-delivery-efficiency-by-increasing-mechanical-loading-using-hypergravity
#19
Dongjoo Kim, Young Hyo Kim, Soonjo Kwon
Nasal route drug administration for local and systemic delivery of many therapeutics has received attention because the nasal cavity is highly vascularized and provides a large surface area for drug absorption. However, nasal mucosa exhibits limited permeability to polar molecules. In this study, we developed a novel method for improving absorption efficiency of polar drugs by applying hypergravity. RPMI 2650 cells and primary human nasal epithelial cells were exposed three times to a 20 min hypergravitational condition (10 × g) with a 20 min rest period after each exposure...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#20
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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