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acth physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300671/the-effect-of-cart-on-pituitary-hormones-release-from-cultured-pituitary-cells-harvested-from-fasted-and-fed-ad-libitum-male-rats
#1
M Chmielowska, B Baranowska, E Wolinska-Witort, L Martynska, M Kalisz, A Litwiniuk, W Bik
Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and in several endocrine organs. CART is an important factor in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The aim of the study was to assess the role of CART in physiological response of pituitary cells in a course of starvation. The pituitary cells harvested from starved and fed ad libitum male rats were cultured for 48h and treated with: 0.1nM, 1nM, 10nM or 100nM doses of CART. The medium was collected after 60min and stored at -70°C until samples were further assayed for: LH, FSH, PRL, GH, TSH and ACTH...
March 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#2
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242047/simvastatin-treatment-aggravates-the-glucocorticoid-insufficiency-associated-with-hypocholesterolemia-in-mice
#3
Amber B Ouweneel, Ronald J van der Sluis, Joya E Nahon, Miranda Van Eck, Menno Hoekstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Statin treatment disrupts HMG-CoA reductase-mediated endogenous cholesterol synthesis and lowers plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. Although statin treatment can theoretically impair adrenal steroid hormone synthesis, thus far, no effect on glucocorticoid output has been described, as LDL-cholesterol levels usually remain within the physiological range. However, novel statin-based treatment regimens that dramatically decrease LDL-cholesterol levels are currently employed...
February 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228747/from-bioinactive-acth-to-acth-antagonist-the-clinical-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Chiraz Ghaddhab, Jean-Marc Vuissoz, Johnny Deladoëy
The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a pituitary hormone derived from a larger peptide, the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), as are the MSHs (α-MSH, β-MSH, and γ-MSH) and the β-LPH-related polypeptides (Figure 1A). ACTH drives adrenal steroidogenesis and growth of the adrenal gland. ACTH is a 39 amino acid polypeptide that binds and activates its cognate receptor [melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R)] through the two regions H6F7R8W9 and K15K16R17R18P19. Most POMC-derived polypeptides contain the H6F7R8W9 sequence that is conserved through evolution...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186359/testosterone-supplementation-glucocorticoid-milieu-and-bone-homeostasis-in-the-ageing-male
#5
REVIEW
Vladimir Z Ajdžanović, Branko R Filipović, Branka T Šošić Jurjević, Verica Lj Milošević
Male ageing is entwined with a continuous fall in free testosterone levels, which contributes to the pathogenesis of bone loss. Glucocorticoid excess, either dependent on the ageing process or iatrogenically induced, was found to additionally impair the bone structure and metabolism. Cautious testosterone supplementation in this respect may positively affect the glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis, while testosterone-induced changes in the glucocorticoid output could serve as a determinant of bone-related therapeutic outcome...
February 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186107/blubber-transcriptome-response-to-acute-stress-axis-activation-involves-transient-changes-in-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-a-fasting-adapted-marine-mammal
#6
J I Khudyakov, C D Champagne, L M Meneghetti, D E Crocker
Stress can compromise an animal's ability to conserve metabolic stores and participate in energy-demanding activities that are critical for fitness. Understanding how wild animals, especially those already experiencing physiological extremes (e.g. fasting), regulate stress responses is critical for evaluating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on physiology and fitness, key challenges for conservation. However, studies of stress in wildlife are often limited to baseline endocrine measurements and few have investigated stress effects in fasting-adapted species...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179447/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-differentiation-of-pathologic-neoplastic-hypercortisolism-cushing-s-syndrome-from-physiologic-non-neoplastic-hypercortisolism-formerly-known-as-pseudo-cushing-s-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
James W Findling, Hershel Raff
Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) usually implies the presence of a pathologic condition caused by either an ACTH-secreting neoplasm or autonomous cortisol secretion from a benign or malignant adrenal neoplasm. However, sustained or intermittent hypercortisolism may also accompany many medical disorders that stimulate physiologic/non-neoplastic activation of the HPA axis (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome); these two entities may share indistinguishable clinical and biochemical features...
May 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152402/molecular-cloning-tissue-distribution-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#8
L Li, Z Yang, Y-P Zhang, S He, X-F Liang, Y-X Tao
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs...
November 21, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131969/longitudinal-changes-in-serum-catecholamines-dopamine-serotonin-acth-and-cortisol-in-pregnant-spanish-mares
#9
María Marcilla, Ana Muñoz, Katy Satué
Systemic physiological changes required for placental and fetal development during pregnancy are associated with an activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in women, but this fact has not been investigated in mares. Venous blood samples were taken monthly from 31 successful Spanish mares during the 11months of pregnancy. During the first 4months of pregnancy, adrenaline (AD), dopamine (DOPA) and ACTH increases, whereas 5-hydroxitryptamine (5-HT) decreased, and noradrenaline (NAD) and cortisol (CORT) did not change...
January 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123337/a-harmful-traditional-practice-in-newborns-with-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-resistance-syndrome-branding
#10
Osman Baştuğ, Levent Korkmaz, Sabriye Korkut, Hülya Halis, Tamer Güneş, Selim Kurtoğlu
Branding refers to a traditional practice of creating 'therapeutic' burns with hot iron rods over the skin in order to treat various diseases. Although branding is a harmful practice for the body, it has been used for various illnesses including physiologic jaundice in newborns, pneumonia, and convulsions. It causes serious morbidity and delays seeking proper medical care in neonates. Innovations of modern medicine and the use of evidence-based medicine should be preferred instead of these traditional practices...
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104556/paternal-environmental-enrichment-transgenerationally-alters-affective-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-phenotypes
#11
Shlomo Yeshurun, Annabel K Short, Timothy W Bredy, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal stress in rodents can result in modification of offspring behavior. Environmental enrichment, which enhances cognitive stimulation and physical activity, modifies various behaviors and reduces stress responses in adult rodents. We investigated the transgenerational influence of paternal environmental enrichment on offspring behavior and physiological stress response. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (F0) were exposed to either environmental enrichment or standard housing for four weeks and then pair-mated with naïve females...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100016/validation-of-an-enzyme-immunoassay-and-comparison-of-fecal-cortisol-metabolite-levels-in-black-and-gold-howler-monkeys-alouatta-caraya-inhabiting-fragmented-and-continuous-areas-of-the-humid-chaco-region-argentina
#12
Verónica Inés Cantarelli, Maria Amparo Perez-Rueda, Martin M Kowalewski, Gabriela F Mastromonaco, Marina Flavia Ponzio
In the last years, the study of how environmental stimuli influence the physiology and specifically the endocrinology of an organism became increasingly important, relying mainly on the quantification of glucocorticoids to monitor animal welfare. Most studies investigating cortisol levels in primates were focused on the impact of social stressors; however, a major concern for the conservation of howler monkeys is the increased habitat fragmentation led by the advancement of the agricultural frontier. We compared fecal cortisol metabolite levels (FGCM) in howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) living in fragmented and continuous forests of the Argentine humid Chaco region, throughout the warm season (spring-summer)...
March 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069904/detection-and-activity-of-11-beta-hydroxylase-cyp11b1-in-the-bovine-ovary
#13
Ayelen N Amweg, Fernanda Mariel Rodriguez, Emilia Huber, Belkis E Marelli, Natalia Gareis, Eduardo M Belotti, Florencia Rey, Natalia Raquel Salvetti, Hugo H Ortega
Glucocorticoids (GCs) such as cortisol and corticosterone are important steroid hormones with different functions in intermediate metabolism, development, cell differentiation, immune response and reproduction. In response to physiological and immunological stress, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) acts on the adrenal gland by stimulating synthesis and secretion of GCs. However, there is increasing evidence that GCs may also be synthesized by extra-adrenal tissues. Here, we examined the gene and protein expression of the enzyme 11β-hydroxylase P450c11 (CYP11B1), involved in the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol, in the different components of the bovine ovary, and determined the functionality of CYP11B1 in vitro...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063163/immediate-versus-modified-release-hydrocortisone-in-mitotane-treated-patients-with-adrenocortical-cancer
#14
Marianne Weigel, Stefanie Hahner, Mark Sherlock, Amar Agha, Lucy Ann Behan, Paul M Stewart, Wiebke Arlt, Daniela Beier, Kathrin Frey, Kathrin Zopf, Marcus Quinkler
OBJECTIVE: Mitotane induces hepatic CYP3A4 activity, resulting in accelerated cortisol inactivation, and also increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG). Therefore, higher hydrocortisone doses are required in patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC) on mitotane treatment. Modified release hydrocortisone has not been used in mitotane-treated ACC patients yet. AIM: Case series to compare serum cortisol, calculated free serum cortisol and ACTH levels in ACC patients on mitotane treatment with immediate and modified release hydrocortisone...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012830/individual-differences-in-stress-vulnerability-the-role-of-gut-pathobionts-in-stress-induced-colitis
#15
Dominik Langgartner, Daniel Peterlik, Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Petra Brokmann, Peter J Flor, Zeli Shen, James G Fox, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Christopher A Lowry, Stefan O Reber
Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), an established mouse model for chronic psychosocial stress, promotes a microbial signature of gut inflammation, characterized by expansion of Proteobacteria, specifically Helicobacter spp., in association with colitis development. However, whether the presence of Helicobacter spp. during CSC is critically required for colitis development is unknown. Notably, during previous CSC studies performed at Regensburg University (University 1), male specific-pathogen-free (SPF) CSC mice lived in continuous subordination to a physically present and Helicobacter spp...
December 21, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008793/social-isolation-alters-central-nervous-system-monoamine-content-in-prairie-voles-following-acute-restraint
#16
Neal McNeal, Eden M Anderson, Deirdre Moenk, Diane Trahanas, Leslie Matuszewich, Angela J Grippo
Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for 4 weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals...
January 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923708/acth-modulation-on-corticosterone-melatonin-testosterone-and-innate-immune-response-in-the-tree-frog-hypsiboas-faber
#17
Adriana Maria Giorgi Barsotti, Vania Regina de Assis, Stefanny Christie Monteiro Titon, Braz Titon, Zulma Felisbina da Silva Ferreira, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
The modulation exerted by glucocorticoids in physiological responses to stressors is essential for maintaining short-term homeostasis. However, highly frequent and/or prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis may inhibit processes that are important to long-term fitness and health, including reproduction and immunocompetence. The present study evaluates the response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection in the adult male tree frog, Hypsiboas faber, as indicated by levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT), plasma testosterone (T), ocular melatonin (MEL), hematocrit and immune functioning (total leukocyte count and bacterial killing ability against Escherichia coli)...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916140/moderate-alcohol-consumption-after-a-mental-stressor-attenuates-the-endocrine-stress-response
#18
I C Schrieks, M M Joosten, W A A Klöpping-Ketelaars, R F Witkamp, H F J Hendriks
Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is limited. Therefore, our objective was to study whether moderate alcohol consumption immediately after a mental stressor attenuates the stress response. Twenty-four healthy men (age 21-40 y, BMI 18-27 kg/m(2)) participated in a placebo-controlled trial...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888772/adrenocortical-sensitivity-moderated-by-ongoing-stress-predicts-drinking-intensity-in-alcohol-dependent-men
#19
Bryon Adinoff, David Leonard, Julianne Price, Martin A Javors, Robrina Walker, E Sherwood Brown, Hong Xiao, Uma Rao
Allostatic load from both environmental stressors and persistent glucocorticoid secretion has been associated with disease severity in alcohol dependence. Heightened relapse risk and/or drinking severity, in particular, may be a reaction to alcohol- and withdrawal-induced changes in physiological stress response systems coupled with ongoing life stress, although their shared contributions upon drinking severity have not been assessed. To investigate the combined contribution of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity and environmental stressors (e...
February 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864050/ancestry-trumps-experience-transgenerational-but-not-early-life-stress-affects-the-adult-physiological-stress-response
#20
Gail L McCormick, Travis R Robbins, Sonia A Cavigelli, Tracy Langkilde
Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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