keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

acth physiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111782/circadian-profiles-of-progesterone-gonadotropins-cortisol-and-corticotropin-in-cycling-and-postmenopausal-women
#1
Anne Caufriez, Rachel Leproult, Georges Copinschi
Little is known about the regulation of temporal variations of progesterone over the 24-hr span in young cycling women as well as in postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between diurnal variations of progesterone and diurnal variations of hormones of the gonadotropic and corticotropic axes, and to provide further information on the source of progesterone secretion under physiological conditions. Twenty-four-hour hormonal profiles were explored under well-controlled laboratory conditions in 10 healthy women (21-36 yr old) with normal ovulatory cycles during early-mid follicular and late luteal phases, and in 8 healthy postmenopausal women (48-74 yr old)...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077838/dietary-manipulations-that-induce-ketosis-activate-the-hpa-axis-in-male-rats-and-mice-a-potential-role-for-fibroblast-growth-factor-21
#2
Karen K Ryan, Amy E B Packard, Karlton R Larson, Jayna Stout, Sarah M Fourman, Abigail M K Thompson, Kristen Ludwick, Kirk M Habegger, Kerstin Stemmer, Nobuyuki Itoh, Diego Perez-Tilve, Matthias H Tschöp, Randy J Seeley, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/ or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis...
October 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053578/treatment-with-synthetic-glucocorticoids-and-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#3
REVIEW
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Giampaolo Papi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore Maria Corsello
Chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment represents a widely-prescribed therapy for several diseases in consideration of both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity but, if used at high doses for prolonged periods, it can determine the systemic effects characteristic of Cushing's syndrome. In addition to signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism, patients on chronic GC therapy are at risk to develop tertiary adrenal insufficiency after the reduction or the withdrawal of corticosteroids or during acute stress...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038331/ghrelin-stimulation-by-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-depends-on-increasing-cortisol-levels
#4
I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern, Y Greenman
Ghrelin plasma concentration increases in parallel to cortisol after a standardized psychological stress in humans, but the physiological basis of this interaction is unknown. We aimed to elucidate this question by studying the ghrelin response to pharmacological manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Six lean, healthy male volunteers were examined under four experimental conditions. Blood samples were collected every 30 min for two sequential periods of two hours. Initially, a baseline period was followed by intravenous injection of a synthetic analog of ACTH (250 μg)...
November 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992676/intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-increases-esophageal-electrical-sensitivity-in-healthy-individuals
#5
Takahisa Yamasaki, Toshihiko Tomita, Mayu Takimoto, Takashi Kondo, Katsuyuki Tozawa, Yoshio Ohda, Tadayuki Oshima, Hirokazu Fukui, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Background/Aims: When a person is experiencing stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can modulate gut physiologies, such as visceral sensation or gastrointestinal motility, and its intravenous administration mimics stress-induced physiological changes. However, the influence of CRH on the esophagus is yet unknown. Accordingly, we investigated whether intravenous CRH administration increases esophageal sensitivity to electrical stimulation in healthy Japanese subjects. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were recruited...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988304/levels-of-plasma-and-fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-following-an-acth-challenge-in-male-and-female-coyotes-canis-latrans
#6
Erika T Stevenson, Eric M Gese, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susannah S French
Knowledge of endocrine stress responses can be advantageous for understanding how animals respond to their environment. One tool in wildlife endocrinology is to measure the adrenocortical activity as a parameter of disturbance of animals. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) provide a noninvasive assessment of adrenocortical activity. Using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge administered to 28 captive coyotes (Canis latrans), we measured the levels of plasma cortisol, and fecal cortisol and corticosterone metabolites (i...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963545/altered-brain-and-gut-responses-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Michiko Kano, Tomohiko Muratsubaki, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Joe Morishita, Makoto Yoshizawa, Keiji Kohno, Mao Yagihashi, Yukari Tanaka, Shunji Mugikura, Patrick Dupont, Huynh Giao Ly, Kei Takase, Motoyori Kanazawa, Shin Fukudo
Stress is a known trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and exacerbates its gastrointestinal symptoms. However, underlying the physiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we investigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, colonic motility, and autonomic responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administration as well as brain activity alterations in IBS. The study included 28 IBS patients and 34 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects. IBS patients demonstrated greater adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses to CRH than control subjects...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920935/spinal-cord-injury-induced-immunodeficiency-is-mediated-by-a-sympathetic-neuroendocrine-adrenal-reflex
#8
Harald Prüss, Andrea Tedeschi, Aude Thiriot, Lydia Lynch, Scott M Loughhead, Susanne Stutte, Irina B Mazo, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Christian Blex, Laura-Christin Geurtz, Thomas Liebscher, Andreas Niedeggen, Ulrich Dirnagl, Frank Bradke, Magdalena S Volz, Michael J DeVivo, Yuying Chen, Ulrich H von Andrian, Jan M Schwab
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) causes systemic immunosuppression and life-threatening infections, thought to result from noradrenergic overactivation and excess glucocorticoid release via hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Instead of consecutive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, we report that acute SCI in mice induced suppression of serum norepinephrine and concomitant increase in cortisol, despite suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone, indicating primary (adrenal) hypercortisolism...
November 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#9
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905718/physiologic-behavioral-and-histologic-responses-to-various-euthanasia-methods-in-c57bl-6ntac-male-mice
#10
Gregory P Boivin, Michael A Bottomley, Patricia A Schiml, Lori Goss, Nadja Grobe
Rodent euthanasia using exposure to increasing concentrations of CO2 has come under scrutiny due to concerns of potential pain during the euthanasia process. Alternatives to CO2, such as isoflurane and barbiturates, have been proposed as more humane methods of euthanasia. In this study, we examined 3 commonly used euthanasia methods in mice: intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital-phenytoin solution, CO2 inhalation, and isoflurane anesthesia followed by CO2 inhalation. We hypothesized that pentobarbital-phenytoin euthanasia would cause fewer alterations in cardiovascular response, result in less behavioral evidence of pain or stress, and produce lower elevations in ACTH than would the isoflurane and CO2 methods, which we hypothesized would not differ in regard to these parameters...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904009/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-18-oxocortisol-and-18-hydroxycortisol-is-there-clinical-utility-of-these-steroids
#11
Jacques Lenders, Tracy A Williams, Martin Reincke, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez
Since the early nineteen eighties 18-hydroxycortisol and 18-oxocortisol have attracted attention when it was shown that the urinary excretion of these hybrid steroids was increased in primary aldosteronism. The development and more widespread use of specific assays has improved the understanding of their role in the (patho)physiology of adrenal disorders. The adrenal site of synthesis is not fully understood although it is clear that for the synthesis of 18-hydroxycortisol and 18-oxocortisol the action of both aldosterone synthase (zona glomerulosa) and 17α-hydroxylase (zona fasciculata) is required with cortisol as main substrate...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888694/analyzing-the-effects-of-co-expression-of-chick-gallus-gallus-melanocortin-receptors-with-either-chick-mrap1-or-mrap2-in-cho-cells-on-sensitivity-to-acth-1-24-or-acth-1-13-nh2-implications-for-the-avian-hpa-axis-and-avian-melanocortin-circuits-in-the-hypothalamus
#12
Alexa L Thomas, Fumihiko Maekawa, Takaharu Kawashima, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Perry Davis, Robert M Dores
In order to better understand the roles that melanocortin receptors (cMCRs) and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (cMRAP1 and cMRAP2) play in the HPA axis and hypothalamus, adrenal gland and hypothalamus mRNA from 1day-old white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus), were analyzed by real-time PCR. mRNA was also made for kidney, ovary, and liver. Mrap1 mRNA could be detected in adrenal tissue, but not in any of the other tissues, and mrap2 mRNA was also detected in the adrenal gland. Finally, all five melanocortin receptors mRNAs could be detected in the adrenal gland; mc2r and mc5r mRNAs were the most abundant...
September 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879214/chicken-domestication-changes-expression-of-stress-related-genes-in-brain-pituitary-and-adrenals
#13
Pia Løtvedt, Amir Fallahshahroudi, Lejla Bektic, Jordi Altimiras, Per Jensen
Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875708/fkbp5-methylation-as-a-possible-marker-for-cortisol-state-and-transient-cortisol-exposure-in-healthy-human-subjects
#14
Britta K Winkler, Hendrik Lehnert, Henrik Oster, Henriette Kirchner, Birgit Harbeck
Current glucocorticoid replacement regimens, in adrenal insufficiency, fail to mimic the physiological cortisol secretion, thereby fostering serious side effects. AIM: To experimentally evaluate the impact of CpG methylation within the FKBP5 gene as a possible short- and long-term marker for cortisol exposure in humans. MATERIALS & METHODS: An ACTH-stimulation test was carried out and methylation status of the FKBP5 gene in leukocytes was determined. RESULTS: A negative correlation between basal levels of methylation and serum cortisol was observed...
October 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843615/faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolite-monitoring-as-a-measure-of-physiological-stress-in-captive-and-wild-vervet-monkeys
#15
Christopher Young, Andre Ganswindt, Richard McFarland, Charon de Villiers, Joritha van Heerden, Stefanie Ganswindt, Louise Barrett, S Peter Henzi
The development of non-invasive techniques to analyse physiological stress in mammalian species has revolutionised field-based endocrinology. However, careful validation of the methods used to determine faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) and other hormone concentrations are required on a species- and sex-specific basis. In this study, we performed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test on four (two male and two female) captive vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) to determine the most appropriate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) from a suite of available EIAs...
August 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837788/regulation-of-the-corticosteroid-signalling-system-in-rainbow-trout-hpi-axis-during-confinement-stress
#16
Pia Kiilerich, Arianna Servili, Sandrine Péron, Claudiane Valotaire, Lionel Goardon, Isabelle Leguen, Patrick Prunet
This study aims to shed light on corticosteroid regulation of stress in teleost fish with focus on the corticosteroid signalling system. The role of the mineralocorticoid-like hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in fish is still enigmatic, as is the function of the mineralocorticoid receptor, MR. Low plasma DOC levels and ubiquitous tissue distribution of MR question the physiological relevance of the mineralocorticoid-axis. Furthermore, the particular purpose of each of the three corticosteroid receptors in fish, the glucocorticoid receptors, GR1 and GR2, and the MR, is still largely unknown...
August 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818144/refining-selection-for-elite-troops-by-predicting-military-training-outcome
#17
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Sabine Kubesch, Olivier Mairesse, Guy de Schutter, Nathalie Pattyn
INTRODUCTION: Paratrooper training courses are very demanding, leading to a high number of drop-outs, despite existing selection criteria. This study investigated physiological, neuropsychological, and subjective data of completers and drop-outs during paratrooper training to identify potential predictive indices. METHODS: Tested were 24 paratrooper soldiers before (t0), after 8 wk (t1), and at the end of a 12-wk training camp (t2). There were 11 soldiers who completed the course and 13 dropped out...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811197/seasonal-changes-in-plasma-testosterone-and-cortisol-suggest-an-androgen-mediated-regulation-of-the-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-the-tarabul-s-gerbil-gerbillus-tarabuli-thomas-1902
#18
Yamina Zatra, Naouel Aknoun-Sail, Arezki Kheddache, Abdelouafi Benmouloud, Salima Charallah, Elara N Moudilou, Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Farida Khammar, Zaina Amirat
In the desert gerbil Gerbillus tarabuli (Thomas, 1902), cortisol is the main glucocorticosteroid produced by the adrenal glands. Plasma cortisol concentrations show highest values when testosterone is reduced and lowest values during the breeding season which occurs from early winter to late spring. In order to specify the implication of testicular androgens in these corticosteroid seasonal variations we investigated the effects induced by gonadectomy performed during the breeding season on the pituitary adrenal axis...
August 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804620/stress-and-immunological-response-of-heifers-divergently-ranked-for-residual-feed-intake-following-an-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-challenge
#19
A K Kelly, P Lawrence, B Earley, D A Kenny, M McGee
BACKGROUND: When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716938/dynamic-responses-of-the-adrenal-steroidogenic-regulatory-network
#20
Francesca Spiga, Eder Zavala, Jamie J Walker, Zidong Zhao, John R Terry, Stafford L Lightman
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a dynamic system regulating glucocorticoid hormone synthesis in the adrenal glands. Many key factors within the adrenal steroidogenic pathway have been identified and studied, but little is known about how these factors function collectively as a dynamic network of interacting components. To investigate this, we developed a mathematical model of the adrenal steroidogenic regulatory network that accounts for key regulatory processes occurring at different timescales...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
keyword
keyword
95544
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"