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acth physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763585/seasonal-changes-in-acute-stressor-mediated-plasma-glucocorticoid-regulation-in-new-world-flying-squirrels
#1
Lanna M Desantis, Jeff Bowman, Mathilakath M Vijayan, Gary Burness
Southern flying squirrels have higher circulating cortisol levels than most vertebrates. However, regulation of tissue exposure to cortisol by the hormone's carrier protein, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), appears to be altered due to lower-than-expected CBG expression levels, and a reduced affinity for cortisol. To assess the capacity of flying squirrels to regulate acute stress-mediated cortisol levels, we used the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test followed by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test in both the breeding and non-breeding seasons, and quantified resultant changes in plasma cortisol and relative CBG levels...
May 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758053/behavior-and-physiology-of-two-different-sow-breeds-in-a-farrowing-environment-during-late-35-day-lactation
#2
Honggui Liu, Ran Yi, Chao Wang, Peng Zhao, Mingyue Zhang, Shiwen Xu, Jun Bao
To improve the overall welfare levels of sows and to reduce stress levels at late 35-day lactation, we selected targeted behavioral indicators that might be associated with stress. Therefore, we monitored and evaluated the adaptive capability of two different breeds of sows to the farrowing environment. In this study, Damin sows (Large White × Min pig sows, n = 20) and Large White sows (n = 20) were farrowed in individual pens. Saliva was collected and tested for cortisol density at -15 min, and then at +15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min after an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test conducted at 20, 27 and 34 d post-partum...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693261/fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-and-assay-validation-stress-response-evaluation-in-captive-brown-howler-monkeys-alouatta-clamitans
#3
Thais Eleonora Madeira Buti, Tatiana Kugelmeier, Gisela Sobral, Priscila Viau Furtado, Dafne do Valle Dutra de Andrade Neves, Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The advent of non-invasive methods provides a powerful alternative to stress studies as the use of stressful handling techniques is no longer needed. However, many factors influence hormone metabolism such as sex, diet, and metabolic rate. Thus, validation should be species- and matrix-specific. METHODS: To assess stress response in brown howler monkeys Alouatta clamitans, we adopted an ACTH challenge test and parallelism to provide physiological and laboratorial validation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678289/pathophysiology-of-melanocortin-receptors-and-their-accessory-proteins
#4
REVIEW
T V Novoselova, L F Chan, A J L Clark
The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and their accessory proteins (MRAPs) are involved in regulation of a diverse range of endocrine pathways. Genetic variants of these components result in phenotypic variation and disease. The MC1R is expressed in skin and variants in the MC1R gene are associated with ginger hair color. The MC2R mediates the action of ACTH in the adrenal gland to stimulate glucocorticoid production and MC2R mutations result in familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD). MC3R and MC4R are involved in metabolic regulation and their gene variants are associated with severe pediatric obesity, whereas the function of MC5R remains to be fully elucidated...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615476/neuronostatin-exerts-actions-on-pituitary-that-are-unique-from-its-sibling-peptide-somatostatin
#5
Raul M Luque, Rhonda D Kineman
Neuronostatin, a somatostatin gene-encoded peptide, exerts important physiological and metabolic actions in diverse tissues. However, the direct biological effects of neuronostatin on pituitary function of humans and primates are still unknown. This study used baboon (Papio anubis) primary pituitary cell cultures, a species that closely models human physiology, to demonstrate that neuronostatin inhibits basal, but not ghrelin-/GnRH-stimulated, GH and LH secretion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, without affecting the secretion of other pituitary hormones (prolactin, ACTH, FSH, TSH) or changing mRNA levels...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611652/the-stress-response-of-ragusano-donkey-equus-asinus-to-different-semen-collection-techniques
#6
E Fazio, A Ferlazzo, S Cristarella, P Medica, G Marino, M Quartuccio
The aim of the present study was to characterize the stress response of donkeys to different semen collection techniques, comparing the physiological patterns of hormonal (adrenocorticotropic hormone: ACTH, cortisol) and biochemical variables (creatinine, total protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase: AST, alanine aminotransferase: ALT), and routine seminal parameters and sexual behaviour. Twenty two healthy Ragusano donkeys were used and were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups based on different semen collection techniques...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599718/re-evaluation-of-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-and-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-activation-of-gpr139-in-vitro
#7
Diane Nepomuceno, Chester Kuei, Curt Dvorak, Timothy Lovenberg, Changlu Liu, Pascal Bonaventure
It is now well established that GPR139, a G-protein coupled receptor exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary, is activated by the essential amino acids L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) via Gαq -coupling. The in vitro affinity and potency values of L-Trp and L-Phe are within the physiological concentration ranges of L-Trp and L-Phe. A recent paper suggests that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α and β melanocyte stimulating hormones (α-MSH and β-MSH) and derivatives α-MSH1-9 /α-MSH1-10 can also activate GPR139 in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566366/psychosocial-stress-liver-regeneration-and-weight-gain-a-conspicuous-pathophysiological-triad
#8
Syeda Momna Ishtiaq, Junaid Ali Khan, Muhammad Imran Arshad
Psychosocial stress alters several physiological parameters resulting in multiple disorders, particularly compromising the immune system thereby provoking various diseases including liver disorders. However, the plausible underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recent literature provides mechanistic evidences of detrimental effects of psychosocial stress on physiology of different body organs including liver. The data of stress-induced pathophysiological changes in liver functions and obesity were systematically collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and the Web of Science Databases published in English...
March 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506221/effect-of-short-and-long-term-feed-restriction-on-ghrelin-concentrations-in-turkeys
#9
F R Vizcarra, M Verghese, J A Vizcarra
One-day-old broad-breasted white turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were reared as recommended by industry standards. In Experiment 1, starting at 5 wk of age (WOA), birds were placed in individual cages with free access to feed and water. Blood samples were taken after 18 h of fasting (FASTING) and at 90 ± 5 min after feeding (1.5 h after feeding). In Experiment 2, birds were weighed, randomly assigned to 2 treatments, and placed in individual cages. In treatment 1 (n = 10), birds were fed ad libitum (FF), while birds in treatment 2 (n = 11) were placed on a restricted diet to allow for an average daily gain of 10...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450645/brain-c-fos-expression-patterns-induced-by-emotional-stressors-differing-in-nature-and-intensity
#10
Jesús Úbeda-Contreras, Ignacio Marín-Blasco, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
Regardless of its particular nature, emotional stressors appear to elicit a widespread and roughly similar brain activation pattern as evaluated by c-fos expression. However, their behavioral and physiological consequences may strongly differ. Here we addressed in adult male rats the contribution of the intensity and the particular nature of stressors by comparing, in a set of brain areas, the number of c-fos expressing neurons in response to open-field, cat odor or immobilization on boards (IMO). These are qualitatively different stressors that are known to differ in terms of intensity, as evaluated by biological markers...
February 15, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436637/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-of-the-rat
#11
Piotr Celichowski, Karol Jopek, Paulina Milecka, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Ruciński
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also termed visfatin, catalyses the rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. In addition to its intracellular function (iNampt), extracellular Nampt (eNampt) also affects numerous intracellular signalling pathways. The current study investigated the role of Nampt in the regulation of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑adrenal (HPA) axis in rats. At 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of eNampt (4 µg/100 g) in adult male rats, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) and aldosterone levels remained unchanged, while corticosterone levels were notably elevated compared with the control group, as determined by ELISA...
April 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428703/the-contribution-of-total-and-free-iodothyronines-to-welfare-maintenance-and-management-stress-coping-in-ruminants-and-equines-physiological-ranges-and-reference-values
#12
REVIEW
Adriana Ferlazzo, Cristina Cravana, Esterina Fazio, Pietro Medica
In order to acquire a pattern of thyroid involvement in welfare maintenance in Ruminants and Equines, this review summarizes data concerning the reference values of total and free iodothyronines and their modifications in physiological conditions and in different management conditions (pregnancy, lactation, weaning, growth, isolation, restraint, shearing, confinement and transportation). Thyroidal and extrathyroidal tissues efficiently respond to management practices, giving a differentiated contribution to circulating iodothyronine changes...
February 2, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425375/impact-of-hypothermic-stress-during-special-operations-training-of-chilean-military-forces
#13
Claudio Nieto Jimenez, Jorge Cajigal Vargas, Vjera Sofia Triantafilo Vladilo, Jose Naranjo Orellana
Introduction: The Chilean Army considers processes that can optimize physical capacities for responding to the impact of situations and given stressors. The study of the effect of hypothermia as a stressor agent (HSA) and its relationship with cardiovascular, hematological, anthropometric, endocrine, and immunological parameters has not been fully addressed experimentally in military populations. Objective: To identify the endocrine, hematological, cardiovascular, and immunological changes caused by HSA and to associate these variables with body composition and physical fitness in the military special operation courses of the Chilean Army...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402137/perceived-stress-its-physiological-correlates-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Kristen R Weaver, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Jason Fletcher, Wendy A Henderson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with high psychological comorbidity and diminished quality of life. Patients with IBS display a heightened sensitivity to stress, although the literature is inconsistent as to whether they have a dysregulated stress response. The purpose of the present investigation, a substudy of a larger research effort, was to examine physiological correlates of perceived stress in patients with IBS (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) and to explore associations between perceived stress and quality of life...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397994/validation-of-water-borne-steroid-hormones-in-a-tropical-frog-physalaemus-pustulosus
#15
Alexander T Baugh, Brandon Bastien, Meghan B Still, Nicole Stowell
Minimally invasive methods for estimating hormone concentrations in wild vertebrates offer the opportunity to repeatedly measure behavior and hormone concentrations within individuals while minimizing experimenter interference during sample collection. We examined three steroid hormones (corticosterone, CORT; 17-β estradiol, E2 ; progesterone, PROG) in túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) using non-invasive water-borne methods. Using solid-phase extraction of water samples and liquid extraction of plasma and homogenate samples, coupled with enzyme immunoassays, we complimented the conventional validation approaches (parallelism, recovery determination) with dose-response assays that incorporated pharmacological challenges with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)...
May 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396325/the-response-of-c19-and-some-c21-steroids-during-synacthen-and-insulin-tolerance-test
#16
Kateřina Šimůnková, Michaela Dušková, Lucie Kolatorova, Mikuláš Kosák, Martin Hill, Hana Jandíková, Hana Pospíšilová, Monika Šrámková, Drahomíra Springer, Luboslav Stárka
Testing of the adrenal function with ACTH 1-24 (Synacthen test) or insulin (insulin tolerance test-ITT) is commonly used. The question of ongoing debate is the dose of Synacthen. Moreover, it may be important from the physiological point of view besides measurement of cortisol levels and 17α-hydroxy-progesterone to know also the response of other steroids to these test. The plasma levels of 24 free steroids and their polar conjugates were followed after stimulation of 1 μg, 10 μg and 250 μg of ACTH 1-24 and after insulin administration in thirteen healthy subjects...
January 30, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378866/chronic-stress-alters-adrenal-clock-function-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-manner
#17
Matthew Stagl, Mary Bozsik, Christopher Karow, David Wertz, Ian Kloehn, Savin Pillai, Paul J Gasser, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock in the adrenal gland. Stress influences daily rhythms in behavior and physiology, but it remains unclear how stress affects the function of the adrenal clock itself. Here, we examine the influence of stress on adrenal clock function by tracking PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) rhythms in vitro Relative to non-stressed controls, adrenals from stressed mice displayed marked changes in PER2::LUC rhythms. Interestingly, the effect of stress on adrenal rhythms varied by sex and the type of stress experienced in vivo To investigate the basis of sex differences in the adrenal response to stress, we next stimulated male and female adrenals in vitro with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)...
February 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373482/rare-monogenic-causes-of-primary-adrenal-insufficiency
#18
Satoshi Narumi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic disorders play significant roles in the pathogenesis of childhood-onset primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). The most common form of PAI is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which includes the enzymatic defects of the steroidogenic pathway. This review focuses on less common forms of monogenic PAI (i.e. non-CAH monogenic PAI) with particular attention on their cause, clinical phenotypes and genetic epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-CAH monogenic PAI can be classified into three major categories: first, adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance, second, impaired adrenal redox homeostasis and third, defective organogenesis of the adrenal glands...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349562/the-influence-of-elevated-hormone-levels-on-physiologic-accumulation-of-68-ga-dotatoc
#19
Masao Watanabe, Yuji Nakamoto, Sho Koyasu, Takayoshi Ishimori, Akihiro Yasoda, Kaori Togashi
OBJECTIVE: PET/CT imaging with 68 Ga-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid-D-Phe1 -Tyr3 -octreotide (DOTATOC) is useful in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Functioning NETs by definition secrete abnormal levels of hormones, causing clinical symptoms. It is known that physiologic accumulation can be seen in some organs, but it remains unknown whether elevated hormone levels can affect the physiologic accumulation pattern of 68 Ga-DOTATOC. We aimed to investigate the influence of higher hormone levels on physiologic accumulation of 68 Ga-DOTATOC...
April 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281094/impaired-processing-of-prohormones-in-secretogranin-iii-null-mice-causes-maladaptation-to-an-inadequate-diet-and-stress
#20
Yoshinori Maeda, Saki Kudo, Ken Tsushima, Eri Sato, Chisato Kubota, Aika Kayamori, Hiroki Bochimoto, Daisuke Koga, Seiji Torii, Hiroshi Gomi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Masahiro Hosaka
Secretogranin III (SgIII), a member of the granin family, binds both to another granin, chromogranin A (CgA), and to a cholesterol-rich membrane that is destined for secretory granules (SGs). The knockdown of SgIII in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing AtT-20 cells largely impairs the regulated secretion of CgA and ACTH. To clarify the physiological roles of SgIII in vivo, we analyzed hormone secretion and SG biogenesis in newly established SgIII-knockout (KO) mice. Although the SgIII-KO mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no overt abnormalities under ordinary rearing conditions, a high-fat/high-sucrose diet caused pronounced obesity in the mice...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
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