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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920935/spinal-cord-injury-induced-immunodeficiency-is-mediated-by-a-sympathetic-neuroendocrine-adrenal-reflex
#1
Harald Prüss, Andrea Tedeschi, Aude Thiriot, Lydia Lynch, Scott M Loughhead, Susanne Stutte, Irina B Mazo, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Christian Blex, Laura-Christin Geurtz, Thomas Liebscher, Andreas Niedeggen, Ulrich Dirnagl, Frank Bradke, Magdalena S Volz, Michael J DeVivo, Yuying Chen, Ulrich H von Andrian, Jan M Schwab
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) causes systemic immunosuppression and life-threatening infections, thought to result from noradrenergic overactivation and excess glucocorticoid release via hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Instead of consecutive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, we report that acute SCI in mice induced suppression of serum norepinephrine and concomitant increase in cortisol, despite suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone, indicating primary (adrenal) hypercortisolism...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#2
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905718/physiologic-behavioral-and-histologic-responses-to-various-euthanasia-methods-in-c57bl-6ntac-male-mice
#3
Gregory P Boivin, Michael A Bottomley, Patricia A Schiml, Lori Goss, Nadja Grobe
Rodent euthanasia using exposure to increasing concentrations of CO2 has come under scrutiny due to concerns of potential pain during the euthanasia process. Alternatives to CO2, such as isoflurane and barbiturates, have been proposed as more humane methods of euthanasia. In this study, we examined 3 commonly used euthanasia methods in mice: intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital-phenytoin solution, CO2 inhalation, and isoflurane anesthesia followed by CO2 inhalation. We hypothesized that pentobarbital-phenytoin euthanasia would cause fewer alterations in cardiovascular response, result in less behavioral evidence of pain or stress, and produce lower elevations in ACTH than would the isoflurane and CO2 methods, which we hypothesized would not differ in regard to these parameters...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904009/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-18-oxocortisol-and-18-hydroxycortisol-is-there-clinical-utility-of-these-steroids
#4
Jacques Lenders, Tracy A Williams, Martin Reincke, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez
Since the early nineteen eighties 18-hydroxycortisol and 18-oxocortisol have attracted attention when it was shown that the urinary excretion of these hybrid steroids was increased in primary aldosteronism. The development and more widespread use of specific assays has improved the understanding of their role in the (patho)physiology of adrenal disorders. The adrenal site of synthesis is not fully understood although it is clear that for the synthesis of 18-hydroxycortisol and 18-oxocortisol the action of both aldosterone synthase (zona glomerulosa) and 17α-hydroxylase (zona fasciculata) is required with cortisol as main substrate...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888694/analyzing-the-effects-of-co-expression-of-chick-gallus-gallus-melanocortin-receptors-with-either-chick-mrap1-or-mrap2-in-cho-cells-on-sensitivity-to-acth-1-24-or-acth-1-13-nh2-implications-for-the-avian-hpa-axis-and-avian-melanocortin-circuits-in-the-hypothalamus
#5
Alexa L Thomas, Fumihiko Maekawa, Takaharu Kawashima, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Perry Davis, Robert M Dores
In order to better understand the roles that melanocortin receptors (cMCRs) and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (cMRAP1 and cMRAP2) play in the HPA axis and hypothalamus, adrenal gland and hypothalamus mRNA from 1day-old white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus), were analyzed by real-time PCR. mRNA was also made for kidney, ovary, and liver. Mrap1 mRNA could be detected in adrenal tissue, but not in any of the other tissues, and mrap2 mRNA was also detected in the adrenal gland. Finally, all five melanocortin receptors mRNAs could be detected in the adrenal gland; mc2r and mc5r mRNAs were the most abundant...
September 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879214/chicken-domestication-changes-expression-of-stress-related-genes-in-brain-pituitary-and-adrenals
#6
Pia Løtvedt, Amir Fallahshahroudi, Lejla Bektic, Jordi Altimiras, Per Jensen
Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875708/fkbp5-methylation-as-a-possible-marker-for-cortisol-state-and-transient-cortisol-exposure-in-healthy-human-subjects
#7
Britta K Winkler, Hendrik Lehnert, Henrik Oster, Henriette Kirchner, Birgit Harbeck
Current glucocorticoid replacement regimens, in adrenal insufficiency, fail to mimic the physiological cortisol secretion, thereby fostering serious side effects. AIM: To experimentally evaluate the impact of CpG methylation within the FKBP5 gene as a possible short- and long-term marker for cortisol exposure in humans. MATERIALS & METHODS: An ACTH-stimulation test was carried out and methylation status of the FKBP5 gene in leukocytes was determined. RESULTS: A negative correlation between basal levels of methylation and serum cortisol was observed...
September 6, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843615/faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolite-monitoring-as-a-measure-of-physiological-stress-in-captive-and-wild-vervet-monkeys
#8
Christopher Young, Andre Ganswindt, Richard McFarland, Charon de Villiers, Joritha van Heerden, Stefanie Ganswindt, Louise Barrett, S Peter Henzi
The development of non-invasive techniques to analyse physiological stress in mammalian species has revolutionised field-based endocrinology. However, careful validation of the methods used to determine faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) and other hormone concentrations are required on a species- and sex-specific basis. In this study, we performed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test on four (two male and two female) captive vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) to determine the most appropriate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) from a suite of available EIAs...
August 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837788/regulation-of-the-corticosteroid-signalling-system-in-rainbow-trout-hpi-axis-during-confinement-stress
#9
Pia Kiilerich, Arianna Servili, Sandrine Péron, Claudiane Valotaire, Lionel Goardon, Isabelle Leguen, Patrick Prunet
This study aims to shed light on corticosteroid regulation of stress in teleost fish with focus on the corticosteroid signalling system. The role of the mineralocorticoid-like hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in fish is still enigmatic, as is the function of the mineralocorticoid receptor, MR. Low plasma DOC levels and ubiquitous tissue distribution of MR question the physiological relevance of the mineralocorticoid-axis. Furthermore, the particular purpose of each of the three corticosteroid receptors in fish, the glucocorticoid receptors, GR1 and GR2, and the MR, is still largely unknown...
August 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818144/refining-selection-for-elite-troops-by-predicting-military-training-outcome
#10
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Sabine Kubesch, Olivier Mairesse, Guy de Schutter, Nathalie Pattyn
INTRODUCTION: Paratrooper training courses are very demanding, leading to a high number of drop-outs, despite existing selection criteria. This study investigated physiological, neuropsychological, and subjective data of completers and drop-outs during paratrooper training to identify potential predictive indices. METHODS: Tested were 24 paratrooper soldiers before (t0), after 8 wk (t1), and at the end of a 12-wk training camp (t2). There were 11 soldiers who completed the course and 13 dropped out...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811197/seasonal-changes-in-plasma-testosterone-and-cortisol-suggest-an-androgen-mediated-regulation-of-the-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-the-tarabul-s-gerbil-gerbillus-tarabuli-thomas-1902
#11
Yamina Zatra, Naouel Aknoun-Sail, Arezki Kheddache, Abdelouafi Benmouloud, Salima Charallah, Elara N Moudilou, Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Farida Khammar, Zaina Amirat
In the desert gerbil Gerbillus tarabuli (Thomas, 1902), cortisol is the main glucocorticosteroid produced by the adrenal glands. Plasma cortisol concentrations show highest values when testosterone is reduced and lowest values during the breeding season which occurs from early winter to late spring. In order to specify the implication of testicular androgens in these corticosteroid seasonal variations we investigated the effects induced by gonadectomy performed during the breeding season on the pituitary adrenal axis...
August 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804620/stress-and-immunological-response-of-heifers-divergently-ranked-for-residual-feed-intake-following-an-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-challenge
#12
A K Kelly, P Lawrence, B Earley, D A Kenny, M McGee
BACKGROUND: When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716938/dynamic-responses-of-the-adrenal-steroidogenic-regulatory-network
#13
Francesca Spiga, Eder Zavala, Jamie J Walker, Zidong Zhao, John R Terry, Stafford L Lightman
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a dynamic system regulating glucocorticoid hormone synthesis in the adrenal glands. Many key factors within the adrenal steroidogenic pathway have been identified and studied, but little is known about how these factors function collectively as a dynamic network of interacting components. To investigate this, we developed a mathematical model of the adrenal steroidogenic regulatory network that accounts for key regulatory processes occurring at different timescales...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#14
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
July 14, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710520/psychostimulants-and-forced-swim-stress-interaction-how-activation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-stress-induced-hyperglycemia-are-affected
#15
Humberto Gagliano, Juan Antonio Ortega-Sanchez, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
RATIONALE: We recently reported that simultaneous exposure to amphetamine and various stressors resulted in reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and glycemic responses to the stressors. Since this is a new and relevant phenomenon, we wanted to further explore this interaction. OBJECTIVES: This study aims (i) to characterize the effect of various doses of amphetamine on the physiological response to a predominantly emotional stressor (forced swim) when the drug was given immediately before stress; (ii) to study if an interaction appears when the drug was given 30 min or 7 days before swim; and (iii) to know whether cocaine causes similar effects when given just before stress...
July 14, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666056/high-frequency-oscillations-the-state-of-clinical-research
#16
REVIEW
Birgit Frauscher, Fabrice Bartolomei, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Jan Cimbalnik, Maryse A van 't Klooster, Stefan Rampp, Hiroshi Otsubo, Yvonne Höller, Joyce Y Wu, Eishi Asano, Jerome Engel, Philippe Kahane, Julia Jacobs, Jean Gotman
Modern electroencephalographic (EEG) technology contributed to the appreciation that the EEG signal outside the classical Berger frequency band contains important information. In epilepsy, research of the past decade focused particularly on interictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) > 80 Hz. The first large application of HFOs was in the context of epilepsy surgery. This is now followed by other applications such as assessment of epilepsy severity and monitoring of antiepileptic therapy. This article reviews the evidence on the clinical use of HFOs in epilepsy with an emphasis on the latest developments...
August 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663093/heat-stress-induced-neuroinflammation-and-aberration-in-monoamine-levels-in-hypothalamus-are-associated-with-temperature-dysregulation
#17
Nishant Ranjan Chauhan, Medha Kapoor, Laxmi Prabha Singh, Rajinder Kumar Gupta, Ramesh Chand Meena, Rajkumar Tulsawani, Sarita Nanda, Shashi Bala Singh
Heat Stress (HS) induces diverse pathophysiological changes, which include brain ischemia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage. The present study was undertaken with the objective to ascertain whether neuroinflammation in Hypothalamus (HTH) caused under HS affects monoamine levels and hence, its physiological role in thermoregulation. Rats were exposed to HS in a heat simulation environmental chamber (Ambient temperature, Ta=45±0.5°C and Relative Humidity, RH=30±10%) with real-time measurement of core temperature (Tc) and skin temperature (Ts)...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660550/clinical-and-economic-evaluation-of-repository-corticotropin-injection-a-narrative-literature-review-of-treatment-efficacy-and-healthcare-resource-utilization-for-seven-key-indications
#18
REVIEW
Michael Philbin, John Niewoehner, George J Wan
INTRODUCTION: Repository corticotropin injection (RCI; H.P. Acthar(®) Gel; Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals Inc., Hampton, NJ) is a highly purified, prolonged-release porcine preparation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue that is FDA-approved for treatment of 19 autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The diverse physiological actions of RCI at the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) affect processes involved in inflammation, pigmentation, steroidogenesis, and immunomodulation. Although RCI has been approved to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases for more than 60 years, recent progress in understanding both MCRs and the effects of RCI in modulating immune responses has led to increased interest in RCI as a therapeutic choice...
June 28, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648995/when-the-ball-is-in-the-female-s-court-how-the-scramble-competition-mating-system-of-the-north-american-red-squirrel-has-shaped-male-physiology-and-testosterone-dynamics
#19
Rudy Boonstra, Adam Dušek, Jeffrey E Lane, Stan Boutin
Male reproductive success in most mammals is determined by their success in direct inter-male competition through aggression and conflict, resulting in female-defense mating systems being predominant. This is linked to male testosterone levels and its dynamics. However, in certain environments, a scramble-competition mating system has evolved, where female reproductive behavior takes precedence and male testosterone dynamics are unlikely to be related to inter-male competition. We studied the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a species with a well-established scramble-competition system...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636887/temporal-dynamics-of-the-hpa-axis-linked-to-exploratory-behavior-in-a-wild-european-songbird-parus-major
#20
Alexander T Baugh, Sarah C Davidson, Michaela Hau, Kees van Oers
Variation in the reactivity of the endocrine stress axis is thought to underlie aspects of persistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality). Previous studies, however, have focused largely on estimating baseline or peak levels of glucocorticoids (CORT), often in captive animals. In contrast, the temporal dynamics of the HPA axis-how quickly it turns on and off, for example-may better indicate how an individual copes with stressors. Moreover, these HPA components might be correlated, thereby representing endocrine suites...
June 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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