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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511913/the-non-peptide-crh1-antagonist-cp-154-526-elicits-a-paradoxical-route-dependent-activation-of-the-hpa-axis
#1
Dmitry V Zaretsky, Maria V Zaretskaia, Sumit Sarkar, Daniel E Rusyniak, Joseph A DiMicco
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays an important role in mediating physiological response to stress and is thought to be involved in the development of various psychiatric disorders. In this paper we compare the differences between the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intraarterial (i.a.) administration of the non-peptide CRH1 antagonist CP-154,526 (CP) (10 and 20mg/kg) on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (ACTH), heart rate, MAP, and c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...
May 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504317/adrenal-cortex-reactivity-in-dairy-cows-differs-between-lactational-stages-and-between-different-feeding-levels
#2
J J Gross, R S Zbinden, F Dohme-Meier, R M Bruckmaier
Changes in ACTH challenge test characteristics in dairy cows changing their physiological status at different lactational stages and different feeding levels were not investigated in terms of repeatability yet. In 23 multiparous Holstein cows (10 cows fed a sole fresh herbage diet without concentrate, 13 cows fed with concentrate), three ACTH challenge tests were performed: once during pregnancy shortly prior to drying off (T1), and in week 3 (T2) and 8 (T3) after parturition. Test characteristics were correlated to performance and metabolic parameters: DMI, BW, energy balance (EB), plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495271/the-melanocortin-2-receptor-of-the-rainbow-trout-identifying-a-role-for-critical-positions-in-transmembrane-domain-4-extracellular-loop-2-and-transmembrane-domain-5-in-the-activation-of-rainbow-trout-mc2r
#3
Liang Liang, Perry V Davis, Michael R Dores, Robert M Dores
The activation of either teleost or tetrapod melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs requires interaction between the HFRW motif and R/KKRRP motif in the primary sequence of ACTH, and two corresponding sites on the melanocortin 2 receptor. While the HFRW contact site on MC2R appears to involve residues in TM2, TM3, and TM6, several studies on human MC2R point to the EC2/TM5 region of MC2R as a possible location for the R/KKRRP contact site. In this study nineteen single-alanine mutants of rainbow trout (rt) MC2R were made beginning at V(153) in TM4, at all positions in EC2 (extracellular loop 2), to F(175) in TM5...
May 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492512/aldosterone-and-mineralocorticoid-receptors-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#4
John W Funder
Aldosterone is a uniquely terrestrial hormone, first appearing in lungfish, which have both gills and lungs. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), on the other hand, evolved much earlier, and are found in cartilaginous and bony fish, presumptive ligand cortisol. MRs have equivalent high affinity for aldosterone, progesterone, and cortisol; in epithelia, despite much higher cortisol circulating levels, aldosterone selectively activates MRs by co-expression of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Type 11...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459733/a-phase-1-single-center-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects-to-assess-the-safety-tolerability-clinical-effects-and-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-intravenous-cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate-abp-700-after-a-single-ascending
#5
Michel M R F Struys, Beatrijs I Valk, Douglas J Eleveld, Anthony R Absalom, Peter Meyer, Sascha Meier, Izaak den Daas, Thomas Chou, Kai van Amsterdam, Jason A Campagna, Steven P Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (ABP-700) is a new "soft" etomidate analog. The primary objectives of this first-in-human study were to describe the safety and efficacy of ABP-700 and to determine its maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of ABP-700 and its primary metabolite (cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl acid), to assess the clinical effects of ABP-700, and to investigate the dose-response and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships...
May 1, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434943/epigenetic-pathways-in-human-disease-the-impact-of-dna-methylation-on-stress-related-pathogenesis-and-current-challenges-in-biomarker-development
#6
M Austin Argentieri, Sairaman Nagarajan, Bobak Seddighzadeh, Andrea A Baccarelli, Alexandra E Shields
HPA axis genes implicated in glucocorticoid regulation play an important role in regulating the physiological impact of social and environmental stress, and have become a focal point for investigating the role of glucocorticoid regulation in the etiology of disease. We conducted a systematic review to critically assess the full range of clinical associations that have been reported in relation to DNA methylation of CRH, CRH-R1/2, CRH-BP, AVP, POMC, ACTH, ACTH-R, NR3C1, FKBP5, and HSD11β1/2 genes in adults...
April 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384419/are-invasive-species-stressful-the-glucocorticoid-profile-of-native-lizards-exposed-to-invasive-fire-ants-depends-on-the-context
#7
Sean P Graham, Nicole A Freidenfelds, Christopher J Thawley, Travis R Robbins, Tracy Langkilde
Invasive species represent a substantial threat to native species worldwide. Research on the impacts of invasive species on wild living vertebrates has focused primarily on population-level effects. The sublethal, individual-level effects of invaders may be equally important but are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) on the physiological stress response of a native lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) within two experimental contexts: directly exposing lizards to a fire ant attack and housing lizards with fire ants in seminatural field enclosures...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349931/adipokines-leptin-adiponectin-resistin-differentially-regulate-all-hormonal-cell-types-in-primary-anterior-pituitary-cell-cultures-from-two-primate-species
#8
André Sarmento-Cabral, Juan R Peinado, Lisa C Halliday, María M Malagon, Justo P Castaño, Rhonda D Kineman, Raúl M Luque
Adipose-tissue (AT) is an endocrine organ that dynamically secretes multiple hormones, the adipokines, which regulate key physiological processes. However, adipokines and their receptors are also expressed and regulated in other tissues, including the pituitary, suggesting that locally- and AT-produced adipokines might comprise a regulatory circuit that relevantly modulate pituitary cell-function. Here, we used primary pituitary cell-cultures from two normal nonhuman-primate species [Papio-anubis/Macaca-fascicularis] to determine the impact of different adipokines on the functioning of all anterior-pituitary cell-types...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300671/the-effect-of-cart-on-pituitary-hormones-release-from-cultured-pituitary-cells-harvested-from-fasted-and-fed-ad-libitum-male-rats
#9
M Chmielowska, B Baranowska, E Wolinska-Witort, L Martynska, M Kalisz, A Litwiniuk, W Bik
Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and in several endocrine organs. CART is an important factor in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The aim of the study was to assess the role of CART in physiological response of pituitary cells in a course of starvation. The pituitary cells harvested from starved and fed ad libitum male rats were cultured for 48h and treated with: 0.1nM, 1nM, 10nM or 100nM doses of CART. The medium was collected after 60min and stored at -70°C until samples were further assayed for: LH, FSH, PRL, GH, TSH and ACTH...
May 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#10
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242047/simvastatin-treatment-aggravates-the-glucocorticoid-insufficiency-associated-with-hypocholesterolemia-in-mice
#11
Amber B Ouweneel, Ronald J van der Sluis, Joya E Nahon, Miranda Van Eck, Menno Hoekstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Statin treatment disrupts HMG-CoA reductase-mediated endogenous cholesterol synthesis and lowers plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. Although statin treatment can theoretically impair adrenal steroid hormone synthesis, thus far, no effect on glucocorticoid output has been described, as LDL-cholesterol levels usually remain within the physiological range. However, novel statin-based treatment regimens that dramatically decrease LDL-cholesterol levels are currently employed...
February 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228747/from-bioinactive-acth-to-acth-antagonist-the-clinical-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Chiraz Ghaddhab, Jean-Marc Vuissoz, Johnny Deladoëy
The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a pituitary hormone derived from a larger peptide, the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), as are the MSHs (α-MSH, β-MSH, and γ-MSH) and the β-LPH-related polypeptides (Figure 1A). ACTH drives adrenal steroidogenesis and growth of the adrenal gland. ACTH is a 39 amino acid polypeptide that binds and activates its cognate receptor [melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R)] through the two regions H6F7R8W9 and K15K16R17R18P19. Most POMC-derived polypeptides contain the H6F7R8W9 sequence that is conserved through evolution...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186359/testosterone-supplementation-glucocorticoid-milieu-and-bone-homeostasis-in-the-ageing-male
#13
REVIEW
Vladimir Z Ajdžanović, Branko R Filipović, Branka T Šošić Jurjević, Verica Lj Milošević
Male ageing is entwined with a continuous fall in free testosterone levels, which contributes to the pathogenesis of bone loss. Glucocorticoid excess, either dependent on the ageing process or iatrogenically induced, was found to additionally impair the bone structure and metabolism. Cautious testosterone supplementation in this respect may positively affect the glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis, while testosterone-induced changes in the glucocorticoid output could serve as a determinant of bone-related therapeutic outcome...
February 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186107/blubber-transcriptome-response-to-acute-stress-axis-activation-involves-transient-changes-in-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-a-fasting-adapted-marine-mammal
#14
J I Khudyakov, C D Champagne, L M Meneghetti, D E Crocker
Stress can compromise an animal's ability to conserve metabolic stores and participate in energy-demanding activities that are critical for fitness. Understanding how wild animals, especially those already experiencing physiological extremes (e.g. fasting), regulate stress responses is critical for evaluating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on physiology and fitness, key challenges for conservation. However, studies of stress in wildlife are often limited to baseline endocrine measurements and few have investigated stress effects in fasting-adapted species...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179447/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-differentiation-of-pathologic-neoplastic-hypercortisolism-cushing-s-syndrome-from-physiologic-non-neoplastic-hypercortisolism-formerly-known-as-pseudo-cushing-s-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
James W Findling, Hershel Raff
Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) usually implies the presence of a pathologic condition caused by either an ACTH-secreting neoplasm or autonomous cortisol secretion from a benign or malignant adrenal neoplasm. However, sustained or intermittent hypercortisolism may also accompany many medical disorders that stimulate physiologic/non-neoplastic activation of the HPA axis (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome); these two entities may share indistinguishable clinical and biochemical features...
May 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152402/molecular-cloning-tissue-distribution-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#16
L Li, Z Yang, Y-P Zhang, S He, X-F Liang, Y-X Tao
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs...
November 21, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131969/longitudinal-changes-in-serum-catecholamines-dopamine-serotonin-acth-and-cortisol-in-pregnant-spanish-mares
#17
María Marcilla, Ana Muñoz, Katy Satué
Systemic physiological changes required for placental and fetal development during pregnancy are associated with an activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in women, but this fact has not been investigated in mares. Venous blood samples were taken monthly from 31 successful Spanish mares during the 11months of pregnancy. During the first 4months of pregnancy, adrenaline (AD), dopamine (DOPA) and ACTH increases, whereas 5-hydroxitryptamine (5-HT) decreased, and noradrenaline (NAD) and cortisol (CORT) did not change...
January 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123337/a-harmful-traditional-practice-in-newborns-with-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-resistance-syndrome-branding
#18
Osman Baştuğ, Levent Korkmaz, Sabriye Korkut, Hülya Halis, Tamer Güneş, Selim Kurtoğlu
Branding refers to a traditional practice of creating 'therapeutic' burns with hot iron rods over the skin in order to treat various diseases. Although branding is a harmful practice for the body, it has been used for various illnesses including physiologic jaundice in newborns, pneumonia, and convulsions. It causes serious morbidity and delays seeking proper medical care in neonates. Innovations of modern medicine and the use of evidence-based medicine should be preferred instead of these traditional practices...
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104556/paternal-environmental-enrichment-transgenerationally-alters-affective-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-phenotypes
#19
Shlomo Yeshurun, Annabel K Short, Timothy W Bredy, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal stress in rodents can result in modification of offspring behavior. Environmental enrichment, which enhances cognitive stimulation and physical activity, modifies various behaviors and reduces stress responses in adult rodents. We investigated the transgenerational influence of paternal environmental enrichment on offspring behavior and physiological stress response. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (F0) were exposed to either environmental enrichment or standard housing for four weeks and then pair-mated with naïve females...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100016/validation-of-an-enzyme-immunoassay-and-comparison-of-fecal-cortisol-metabolite-levels-in-black-and-gold-howler-monkeys-alouatta-caraya-inhabiting-fragmented-and-continuous-areas-of-the-humid-chaco-region-argentina
#20
Verónica Inés Cantarelli, Maria Amparo Perez-Rueda, Martin M Kowalewski, Gabriela F Mastromonaco, Marina Flavia Ponzio
In the last years, the study of how environmental stimuli influence the physiology and specifically the endocrinology of an organism became increasingly important, relying mainly on the quantification of glucocorticoids to monitor animal welfare. Most studies investigating cortisol levels in primates were focused on the impact of social stressors; however, a major concern for the conservation of howler monkeys is the increased habitat fragmentation led by the advancement of the agricultural frontier. We compared fecal cortisol metabolite levels (FGCM) in howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) living in fragmented and continuous forests of the Argentine humid Chaco region, throughout the warm season (spring-summer)...
March 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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