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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142309/hypercholesterolemia-enhances-t-cell-receptor-signaling-and-increases-the-regulatory-t-cell-population
#1
Reiner K W Mailer, Anton Gisterå, Konstantinos A Polyzos, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Göran K Hansson
Hypercholesterolemia promotes the inflammation against lipoproteins in atherosclerosis. Development of atherosclerosis is affected by the balance between pro-inflammatory effector T cells and anti-inflammatory regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, phenotype and function of T cell subpopulations in hypercholesterolemia remain to be investigated. Here, we found that cholesterol-containing diet increased the expression of the Treg cell lineage-defining transcription factor FoxP3 among thymocytes and splenocytes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141970/natural-forms-of-vitamin-e-as-effective-agents-for-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Qing Jiang
Initial research on vitamin E and cancer has focused on α-tocopherol (αT), but recent clinical studies on cancer-preventive effects of αT supplementation have shown disappointing results, which has led to doubts about the role of vitamin E, including different vitamin E forms, in cancer prevention. However, accumulating mechanistic and preclinical animal studies show that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol (γT), δ-tocopherol (δT), γ-tocotrienol (γTE), and δ-tocotrienol (δTE), have far superior cancer-preventive activities than does αT...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138831/anti%C3%A2-inflammatory-effect-of-migri%C3%A2-heal%C3%A2-in-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-inflammatory-model-of-primary-mixed-glial-cells
#3
Mahmoud Hassani, Farzaneh Sabouni, Mohammad Ansari, Solaleh Emamgholipour, Mohammad-Sadegh Fallah, Shah-Sanam Abbasi, Saeed Ansari Majd
Migri‑Heal®, is a novel herbal remedy that was introduced for the treatment of migraine headaches. Previous studies revealed that this drug may reduce nitric oxide (NO) in an in vitro inflammatory model. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti‑inflammatory effect of Migri‑Heal® on primary mix glial cells stimulated with LPS. In the current study, neonatal rat primary mix glial cells were isolated from the mixed glial cultures via shaking, and cultured in Dulbecco's' modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138679/modulatory-mechanism-of-polyphenols-and-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-lps-challenged-pregnancy-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Tarique Hussain, Bie Tan, Gang Liu, Ghulam Murtaza, Najma Rahu, Muhammad Saleem, Yulong Yin
Early embryonic loss and adverse birth outcomes are the major reproductive disorders that affect both human and animals. The LPS induces inflammation by interacting with robust cellular mechanism which was considered as a plethora of numerous reproductive disorders such as fetal resorption, preterm birth, teratogenicity, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion, neural tube defects, fetal demise, and skeletal development retardation. LPS-triggered overproduction of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which mediates inflammation via stimulation of NF-κB and PPARγ transcription factors...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137597/reduction-of-pluripotent-gene-expression-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-mechanical-loading-or-cyclo-rgd-peptide
#5
Olesja Hazenbiller, Neil A Duncan, Roman J Krawetz
BACKGROUND: Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is directed by biological and/or physical cues that regulate multiple signaling cascades. We have previously shown that mESCs seeded in a type I collagen matrix demonstrate a loss of pluripotent marker expression and differentiate towards an osteogenic lineage. In this study, we examined if this effect was mediated in part through Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) dependent integrin activity and/or mechano-transduction...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132039/the-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-promotes-oocyte-maturation-by-regulating-cumulus-expansion-in-sheep
#6
Rui-Na Zhang, Bo Pang, Shang-Rong Xu, Peng-Cheng Wan, Song-Chang Guo, Han-Zhong Ji, Gong-Xue Jia, Lin-Yong Hu, Xin-Quan Zhao, Qi-En Yang
Gonadotropins and growth factors synergistically regulate folliculogenesis and oocyte development. C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed in ovaries of sheep, cattle and other species, however, roles of this multifunctional signal axis in oocyte maturation are not defined. Using sheep as a model, we examined the expression patterns and functions of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis during oocyte maturation. CXCL12 and CXCR4 mRNA and protein were present in oocytes and granulosa cells. Relative abundance of CXCR4 transcript was controlled by epidermal growth factor (EGF)...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126187/med12-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-uterine-development-and-maternal-effects-in-the-mammalian-egg
#7
Xinye Wang, Priya Mittal, Carlos A Castro, Gabriel Rajkovic, Aleksandar Rajkovic
The transcriptional factor MED12 is part of the essential mediator transcriptional complex that acts as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes. Missense gain of function mutations in human MED12 are associated with uterine leiomyomas, yet the role of MED12 deficiency in tumorigenesis and reproductive biology has not been fully explored. We generated a Med12 reproductive conditional knockout mouse model to evaluate its role in uterine mesenchyme, granulosa cells, and oocytes. Mice heterozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/+ Amhr2-Cre) were subfertile, while mice homozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/fl Amhr2-Cre) were infertile...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122967/hepatic-accumulation-of-s-adenosylmethionine-in-hamsters-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-associated-to-metabolic-syndrome-under-selenium-and-vitamin-e-deficiency
#8
Josep M Del Bas, Benjamín Rodríguez, Francesc Puiggròs, Silvia Mariné, Miguel Angel Rodríguez, David Moriña, Lluís Armengol, Antoni Caimari, Lluís Arola
Progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the context of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is only partially explored due to the lack of preclinical models. In order to study the alterations in hepatic metabolism that accompany this condition, we developed a model of MetS accompanied by the onset of steatohepatitis (NASH) by challenging golden hamsters with a high fat diet low in vitamin E and selenium (HFD), since combined deficiency results in hepatic necroinflammation in rodents. Metabolomics and transcriptomics integrated analyses of livers revealed an unexpected accumulation of hepatic S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) when compared with healthy livers likely due to diminished methylation reactions and repression of GNMT...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122055/extruded-linseed-alone-or-in-combination-with-fish-oil-modifies-mammary-gene-expression-profiles-in-lactating-goats
#9
Y Faulconnier, L Bernard, C Boby, J Domagalski, Y Chilliard, C Leroux
Nutrition is a major factor that regulates ruminant milk components, particularly its fatty acid (FA) composition, which is an important determinant of milk nutritional quality. In the mammary gland, milk component biosynthesis involves a large number of genes under nutritional regulation that are not well understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of extruded linseeds (EL) alone or in combination with fish oil (ELFO) on goat mammary gene expression. In total, 14 goats were fed one of the following three diets: a natural grassland hay basal diet (CTRL) alone, CTRL supplemented with 530 g/day of EL, or 340 g/day of EL plus 39 g/day of fish oil (ELFO)...
November 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118754/critical-role-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-regulating-gene-expression-and-innate-immune-responses-to-human-rhinovirus-16
#10
Yang Xi, Niamh M Troy, Denise Anderson, Olga M Pena, Jason P Lynch, Simon Phipps, Anthony Bosco, John W Upham
Though human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are usually innocuous viruses, they can trigger serious consequences in certain individuals, especially in the setting of impaired interferon (IFN) synthesis. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are key IFN producing cells, though we know little about the role of pDC in HRV-induced immune responses. Herein, we used gene expression microarrays to examine HRV-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy people, in combination with pDC depletion, to assess whether observed gene expression patterns were pDC dependent...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117231/human-pancreatic-islet-derived-extracellular-vesicles-modulate-insulin-expression-in-3d-differentiating-ipsc-clusters
#11
Diana Ribeiro, Eva-Marie Andersson, Nikki Heath, Anette Persson-Kry, Richard Collins, Ryan Hicks, Niek Dekker, Anna Forslöw
It has been suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) can mediate crosstalk between hormones and metabolites within pancreatic tissue. However, the possible effect of pancreatic EVs on stem cell differentiation into pancreatic lineages remains unknown. Herein, human islet-derived EVs (h-Islet-EVs) were isolated, characterized and subsequently added to human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clusters during pancreatic differentiation. The h-islet-EVs had a mean size of 117±7 nm and showed positive expression of CD63 and CD81 EV markers as measured by ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115568/radical-scavenging-linked-anti-adipogenic-activity-of-alnus-firma-extracts
#12
Sun-Il Choi, Jong Seok Lee, Sarah Lee, Jin-Ha Lee, Hee-Sun Yang, Joohong Yeo, Jong-Yea Kim, Boo-Yong Lee, Il-Jun Kang, Ok-Hwan Lee
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effect of extracts from Alnus firma (A. firma), which is an edible plant that grows in mountainous areas. The total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content as well as the antioxidant activity of a 70% ethanolic extract of A. firma (AFE) was assessed. Furthermore, the effects of AFE on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. The results revealed that the total phenolic, flavonoid and pro-anthocyanidin content of AFE as 436...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113108/polymorphisms-in-ffar4-gpr120-gene-modulate-insulin-levels-and-sensitivity-after-fish-oil-supplementation
#13
Bastien Vallée Marcotte, Hubert Cormier, Iwona Rudkowska, Simone Lemieux, Patrick Couture, Marie-Claude Vohl
The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) (1.9-2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093332/anti-obesity-effect-of-halophyte-crop-limonium-tetragonum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#14
Na-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Doo Heo, Jung-Rae Rho, Min Hye Yang, Eun Ju Jeong
Halophyte Limonium tetragonum has recently been of interest in Korea for its nutritional value and salty taste which made it an ideal vegetable. In this study, the potential of L. tetragonum preventing excess weight gain, obesity and the related health problem has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of L. tetragonum EtOAc soluble fraction (EALT) apparently prevented the body weight gain, adipose tissue weight gain, and the increase of triglyceride and total cholesterol level in mice fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093331/germinated-waxy-black-rice-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Hye Won Kang, Won-Chul Lim, Jin-Kyu Lee, Jin-Nyoung Ho, Eun-Jeong Lim, Hong-Yon Cho
This study aimed to examine the anti-diabetic effect of germinated waxy black rice (GWBR) using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, GWBR supplementation for 8 weeks reduced plasma blood glucose concentrations, improved glucose clearance and prevented diabetes-induced weight loss. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes who received GWBR supplementation exhibited decreased expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 genes and proteins in the small intestine via decreases in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, HNF-1β, and HNF-4α, transcriptional factors that are involved in the regulation of SGLT1 and GLUT2, compared with the rats with STZ-induced diabetes that did not receive GWBR supplements...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091896/effect-of-the-nadph-oxidase-inhibitor-apocynin-on-ischemia-reperfusion-hippocampus-injury-in-rat-brain
#16
Monika Kapoor, Neha Sharma, Rajat Sandhir, Bimla Nehru
Blockage along with sudden restoration of blood following ischemia, results in several cascading events, such as a massive ROS production which plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemia. NADPH oxidase complex in mitochondria complex is believed to be the major source for ROS production. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor in attenuating the ROS production, and the resultant neuroinflammation and mitochondrial injury during cerebral ischemia in rats...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090236/expression-of-th1-and-th2-cytokine-and-associated-transcription-factors-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-correlation-with-disease-severity
#17
Hadis Yousefzadeh, Farahzad Jabbari Azad, Maryam Rastin, Mahnaz Banihashemi, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease in patients with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines belonging mainly to the Th1 pathway. We investigated whether treatment of psoriasis patients with methotrexate (MTX), along with micronutrients, modulated mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 components and whether expression of these components correlated with psoriasis severity. METHODS: Thirty plaque-type psoriasis patients with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores greater than 10 were recruited; these were 15 non-micronutrients taking- (NMT) patients treated with MTX daily (0...
October 2017: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081452/reduced-glutathione-alleviates-tunicamycin-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos
#18
Ihsan Ali, Hai Xing Liu, Li Zhong-Shu, Ma Dong-Xue, Lijie Xu, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Obaid Ullah, Fang Nan-Zhu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a dysfunction in protein-folding capacity, is involved in many pathological and physiological responses, including embryonic development. This study aims to determine the developmental competence, apoptosis, and stress-induced gene expression in mouse preimplantation embryos grown in an in vitro culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM) and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Treatment of zygotes with 0.5 µg/ml TM significantly decreased (P < 0...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080813/arginine-reverses-growth-hormone-resistance-through-the-inhibition-of-toll-like-receptor-4-mediated-inflammatory-pathway
#19
Jingren Xu, Canjun Zhu, Mengyuan Zhang, Qingchun Tong, Xiaojuan Wan, Zhengrui Liao, Xingcai Cai, Yaqiong Xu, Yexian Yuan, Lina Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Qianyun Xi, Yong Xu, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone stimulates growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression and secretion. In the presence of insufficient nutrients, GH increases, whereas IGF-1 expression becomes severely suppressed, leading to GH resistance. This study aimed to explore the effect of arginine (Arg) on GH resistance during malnutrition and to describe its underlying mechanism. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with Arg for 1 h or subjected to caloric restriction with Arg supplement in drinking water for 18 days...
October 25, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070569/dexamethasone-enhances-vasopressin-induced-aquaporin-2-gene-expression-in-the-mpkccd-cells
#20
Kuang-Ting Kuo, Chan-Wei Yang, Ming-Jiun Yu
The cortical collecting duct cell (mpkCCD) has been an instrumental cell model for studying vasopressin-mediated aquaporin-2 regulation. This cell line was first developed by the Vandewalle's group from a transgenic mouse carrying the transforming SV40 antigens driven by the pyruvate kinase promoter. To immortalize the cells, four hormone supplements (dexamethasone, epidermal growth factor, insulin and triiodothyronine) were used to enhance SV40 antigen expression; however, these hormones appear to have various effects on aquaporin-2 gene expression in the cells...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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