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Transcription factors AND supplements

Sang In Lee, In Ho Kim
Most alterations during weaning involve physiological changes in intestinal structure and function. Here, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms regulating the effects of nucleotides on weaning. Nucleotide treatment induced Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression and IPEC-J2 cell growth and reduced wound width. Treatment with nucleosides and TFF3 in lipopolysaccharide-challenged IPEC-J2 cells increased intestinal transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased intestinal permeability. Additionally, nucleosides improved intestinal barrier function through induction of TFF3-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathways...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eri Soejima, Tsuyoshi Ohki, Yayoi Kurita, Xiaohong Yuan, Kayo Tanaka, Satomi Kakino, Kento Hara, Hitomi Nakayama, Yuji Tajiri, Kentaro Yamada
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which severe hypoglycemia accelerates vascular complications. Furthermore, we assessed the possible protective effect of ketone bodies against the endothelial cell damage caused by glucose deficiency. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured at a glucose level of either 0.56 or 5.6 mmol/L with or without 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) supplementation. Cell viability was assessed with a CCK-8 assay and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay...
2018: PloS One
X Dong, Z Zhou, L Wang, B Saremi, A Helmbrecht, Z Wang, J J Loor
Amino acids not only serve as precursors for protein synthesis but also function as signaling molecules that can regulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Methionine and Lys are the most-limiting AA for milk production and a ratio of ∼3:1 Lys:Met in the metabolizable protein has been determined to be ideal. Besides Met and Lys, recent studies have evaluated Ile, Leu, Val, and Thr as potentially limiting for milk protein synthesis. The objective of this experiment was to determine if varying the ratio of Lys:Thr, Lys:Ile, Lys:Val, and Lys:Leu while maintaining an ideal ratio of Lys:Met and fixed ratio of other essential AA (IPAA) elicits changes in intracellular metabolites, gene transcription related to protein synthesis, and phosphorylation status of mTOR pathway proteins...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Hai-Tao Hou, Ya-Nan Wang, Shi-Ze Shao, Song Fu, Xiang-Peng Huang, Xiao-Hui Wang
Dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation has beneficial effects on bone health. However, it is not clear whether a high calcium diet (HCD) following 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) is beneficial to bone health. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an HCD on bone metabolism using a chronic kidney disease (CKD) mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: Sham group, 5/6 Nx group and 5/6 Nx + HCD group. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks post-surgery. Calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using standard colorimetric methods and picric acid methods, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yousef Zakharia, Arup Bhattacharya, Youcef M Rustum
Selenium (Se)-containing molecules exert antioxidant properties and modulate targets associated with tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Prevention clinical trials with low-dose supplementation of different types of Se molecules have yielded conflicting results. Utilizing several xenograft models, we earlier reported that the enhanced antitumor activity of various chemotherapeutic agents by selenomethione and Se-methylselenocysteine in several human tumor xenografts is highly dose- and schedule-dependent...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Deqiang Zhang, Xin Tong, Bradley B Nelson, Ethan Jin, Julian Sit, Nicholas Charney, Meichan Yang, M Bishr Omary, Lei Yin
Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is one of the major chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and potentially hepatocellular carcinoma. Epidemiological studies suggest a potential link between ALD and impaired circadian rhythms, but the role of hepatic circadian proteins in the pathogenesis of ALD remains unknown. Here we show that the circadian clock protein BMAL1 in hepatocytes is both necessary and sufficient to protect mice from alcohol liver disease. Ethanol diet-fed mice with liver-specific knockout (Bmal1-LKO) or depletion of Bmal1 develop more severe liver steatosis and injury as well as a simultaneous suppression of both de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, which can be rescued by the supplementation of synthetic PPARα ligands...
March 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ruhang Tang, Liufang Jing, Vincent P Willard, Chia-Lung Wu, Farshid Guilak, Jun Chen, Lori A Setton
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by an early decrease in cellularity of the nucleus pulposus (NP) region, and associated extracellular matrix changes, reduced hydration, and progressive degeneration. Cell-based IVD therapy has emerged as an area of great interest, with studies reporting regenerative potential for many cell sources, including autologous or allogeneic chondrocytes, primary IVD cells, and stem cells. Few approaches, however, have clear strategies to promote the NP phenotype, in part due to a limited knowledge of the defined markers and differentiation protocols for this lineage...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jingyu Sun, Chen Zhang, MinJeong Kim, Yajuan Su, Lili Qin, Jingmei Dong, Yunhe Zhou, Shuzhe Ding
Exercise and resveratrol supplementation exhibit anti-obesity functions in the long term but have not been fully investigated yet in terms of their early potential effectiveness. Mice fed with high-fat diet were categorized into control (Cont), exercise (Ex), resveratrol supplementation (Res), and exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation (Ex + Res) groups. In the four-week period of weight loss, exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation exerted no additional effects on body weight loss but significantly improved whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis...
March 9, 2018: BMB Reports
Sandrine Herbelet, Elly De Vlieghere, Amanda Gonçalves, Boel De Paepe, Karsten Schmidt, Eline Nys, Laurens Weynants, Joachim Weis, Gert Van Peer, Jo Vandesompele, Jens Schmidt, Olivier De Wever, Jan L De Bleecker
Aims: Regeneration in skeletal muscle relies on regulated myoblast migration and differentiation, in which the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) participates. Impaired muscle regeneration and chronic inflammation are prevalent in myositis. Little is known about the impact of inflammation on NFAT5 localization and expression in this group of diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate NFAT5 physiology in unaffected myoblasts exposed to cytokine or hyperosmolar stress and in myositis...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shuai Zhang, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Kevin J T Noonan, Behnam Saremi, Eric A Wong
Common dietary supplemental methionine (Met) sources include DL-methionine (DL-Met) and the Met precursor DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA). For bio-utilization, D-Met and DL-HMTBA are converted into L-Met through oxidation and transamination. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary supplemental Met sources on gene expression and enzyme activity of Met oxidases in male broiler chickens. Liver, muscle, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected at days 10 (d 10), 21 (d 21), and 26 (d 26) post-hatch from male broiler chickens that were fed a basal diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA) (control), or the control diet supplemented with DL-Met, L-Met, or DL-HMTBA to meet SAA requirements...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Jiulia Satiaputra, Bart A Eijkelkamp, Christopher A McDevitt, Keith E Shearwin, Grant W Booker, Steven W Polyak
Biotin (Vitamin B7) is a critical enzyme co-factor in metabolic pathways important for bacterial survival. Biotin is obtained either from the environment or by de novo synthesis, with some bacteria capable of both. In certain species, the bifunctional protein BirA plays a key role in biotin homeostasis as it regulates expression of biotin biosynthetic enzymes in response to biotin demand and supply. Here, we compare the effect of biotin on the growth of two bacteria that possess a bifunctional BirA, namely Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus...
March 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
L Tettamanti, Al Caraffa, F Mastrangelo, G Ronconi, S Kritas, I Frydas, P Conti
Vitamin supplementation in disease reduces morbidity and mortality in humans by promoting the activation of different genes which influence several pathways. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of vitamin E in mast cell inflammation. Vitamin E is a fat soluble antioxidant which protects from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Vitamin E promotes a barrier function and anti-inflammatory responses by binding the regulatory domain of protein kinase Cα (pkcα) (a regulator and antagonist of heart failure) and decreases the activation of NF-қb, a proinflammatory transcription factor, causing the generation of cytokines/chemokines and mast cell activation...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Rossella Puglisi, Maria Bellenghi, Giada Pontecorvi, Alessandro Gulino, Marina Petrini, Federica Felicetti, Lisabianca Bottero, Gianfranco Mattia, Alessandra Carè
Our previous data supported a role for the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD5) in protection against malignancy, whereby it appears to functionally modify tumor stroma impairing tumor spread. SCD5 is significantly expressed in primary melanoma, but becomes barely detectable at tumor advanced stages. Looking for the regulatory mechanisms underlying SCD5 reduced expression during melanoma progression, we demonstrated a significantly lower stability of SCD5 protein as well as the direct targeting of SCD5 mRNA by the oncogenic miR-221&222 in metastatic cell lines...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Pengfei Li, Jinzhu Meng, Jiongjie Jing, Qingling Hao, Zhiwei Zhu, Jianbo Yao, Lihua Lyu
BACKGROUND: Cocaine-and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an endogenous neuropeptide, which is widespread in animals, plays a key role in regulation of follicular atresia in cattle and sheep. Among animal ovaries, CART mRNA was firstly found in the cattle ovaries. CART was localized in the antral follicles oocytes, granulosa and cumulus cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Further research found that secretion of E2 was inhibited in granulosa cells with a certain dose of CART, the effect depends on the stage of cell differentiation, suggesting that CART could play a crucial role in regulating follicle atresia...
February 26, 2018: Biological Research
Siwen Zhang, Pingping Li, Zhengwei Yuan, Jichun Tan
BACKGROUND: Human menstrual blood-derived stromal cells (MenSCs) are highly proliferative and show multiple differentiation capacity. The convenience and non-invasiveness make MenSC a novel cell source for regenerative medicine applications. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains abundant growth factors which are beneficial to wound healing. However, the influence of PRP on MenSCs remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the role of PRP in MenSCs proliferation and assessed the effects of PRP on endometrial receptivity regulation in vitro...
February 26, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Caroline Happold, Nina Stojcheva, Manuela Silginer, Tobias Weiss, Patrick Roth, Guido Reifenberger, Michael Weller
O6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is a predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating chemotherapy, specifically temozolomide (TMZ), in glioblastoma, the most common malignant intrinsic brain tumor. Glioma-initiating cells (GIC) with stem-like properties have been associated with resistance to therapy and progression. We assessed the levels of MGMT mRNA and MGMT protein by real-time PCR and immunoblot and evaluated the impact of MGMT on TMZ sensitivity in clonogenicity assays in GIC sphere cultures (S) or differentiated adherent monolayer cultures (M)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sébastjen Schoenaers, Daria Balcerowicz, Gordon Breen, Kristine Hill, Malgorzata Zdanio, Grégory Mouille, Tara J Holman, Jaesung Oh, Michael H Wilson, Natalia Nikonorova, Lam Dai Vu, Ive De Smet, Ranjan Swarup, Winnok H De Vos, Isabel Pintelon, Dirk Adriaensen, Claire Grierson, Malcolm J Bennett, Kris Vissenberg
Root hairs facilitate a plant's ability to acquire soil anchorage and nutrients. Root hair growth is regulated by the plant hormone auxin and dependent on localized synthesis, secretion, and modification of the root hair tip cell wall. However, the exact cell wall regulators in root hairs controlled by auxin have yet to be determined. In this study, we describe the characterization of ERULUS (ERU), an auxin-induced Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase, whose expression is directly regulated by ARF7 and ARF19 transcription factors...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Megan A Evans, Hyun Ah Kim, Yeong Hann Ling, Sandy Uong, Antony Vinh, T Michael De Silva, Thiruma V Arumugam, Andrew N Clarkson, Graeme R Zosky, Grant R Drummond, Brad R S Broughton, Christopher G Sobey
Acute inflammation can exacerbate brain injury after ischemic stroke. Beyond its well-characterized role in calcium metabolism, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VitD3 ), has potent immunomodulatory properties. Here, we aimed to determine whether 1,25-VitD3 supplementation could reduce subsequent brain injury and associated inflammation after ischemic stroke. Male C57Bl6 mice were randomly assigned to be administered either 1,25-VitD3 (100 ng/kg/day) or vehicle i...
February 23, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
Jun Gu, Yu-Qi Fan, Hui-Li Zhang, Jian-An Pan, Jian-Ying Yu, Jun-Feng Zhang, Chang-Qian Wang
The clinical use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by cardiotoxicity, involving the dysregulation of autophagy and apoptosis in the myocardium, which were partly reversed by resveratrol (RSV) supplement. However, a definitive mechanisms accounting for DOX's cardiotoxicity and the protective role of RSV remain poorly defined. The aim of the present study was to clarify the specific role of E2F transcription factor 1(E2F1) in regulating autophagy and apoptosis in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity as well as the protective effects of RSV...
February 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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