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Renal cell carcinoma pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349592/overview-of-current-and-future-adjuvant-therapy-for-high-risk-localized-renal-cell-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Gurudatta Naik, Guru Sonpavde
High-risk localized renal cell carcinoma represents a therapeutic challenge with high recurrence rates and poor survival with nephrectomy alone. Multiple agents targeting angiogenic and immunologic pathways have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in the metastatic setting but have failed to replicate similar successes in localized disease. Study results with adjuvant anti-angiogenic therapies may have been compromised by the high incidence of treatment discontinuations or dosage reductions secondary to intolerable side effects...
January 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344506/micrornas-in-renal-diseases-a-potential-novel-therapeutic-target
#2
Federica Petrillo, Anna Iervolino, Miriam Zacchia, Adelina Simeoni, Cristina Masella, Giovanna Capolongo, Alessandra Perna, Giovambattista Capasso, Francesco Trepiccione
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in posttranscriptional gene regulation. miRNAs inhibit target gene expression by blocking protein translation or by inducing mRNA degradation and therefore have the potential to modulate physiological and pathological processes. Summary: In the kidney, miRNAs play a role in the organogenesis and in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including renal carcinoma, diabetic nephropathy, cystogenesis, and glomerulopathies...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343314/cell-free-dna-the-role-in-pathophysiology-and-as-a-biomarker-in-kidney-diseases
#3
Peter Celec, Barbora Vlková, Lucia Lauková, Janka Bábíčková, Peter Boor
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is present in various body fluids and originates mostly from blood cells. In specific conditions, circulating cfDNA might be derived from tumours, donor organs after transplantation or from the foetus during pregnancy. The analysis of cfDNA is mainly used for genetic analyses of the source tissue -tumour, foetus or for the early detection of graft rejection. It might serve also as a nonspecific biomarker of tissue damage in critical care medicine. In kidney diseases, cfDNA increases during haemodialysis and indicates cell damage...
January 18, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342457/the-von-hippel-lindau-gene-is-required-to-maintain-renal-proximal-tubule-and-glomerulus-integrity-in-zebrafish-larvae
#4
Ellen van Rooijen, Glenn van de Hoek, Ive Logister, Henry Ajzenberg, Nine V A M Knoers, Freek van Eeden, Emile E Voest, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Rachel H Giles
BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is characterized by the development of benign and malignant tumours in many organ systems, including renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. It is not completely understood what underlies the development of renal pathology, and the use of murine Vhl models has been challenging due to limitations in disease conservation. We previously described a zebrafish model bearing inactivating mutations in the orthologue of the human VHL gene. METHODS: We used histopathological and functional assays to investigate the pronephric and glomerular developmental defects in vhl mutant zebrafish, supported by human cell culture assays...
January 17, 2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340018/survival-prediction-of-kidney-renal-papillary-cell-carcinoma-by-comprehensive-lncrna-characterization
#5
Huihua Lan, Jianghui Zeng, Gang Chen, Huayi Huang
Kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP) accounts for 10%-15% of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), patients with KIRP tend to have a poor prognosis, and there was a lack of effective prognostic indicators for this type of cancer. Currently, owing to the availability of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been discovered to indicate a prognostic value in some tumors. In that regard, we analyzed lncRNA-sequencing data of KIRP in TCGA, and among 780 differentially-expressed lncRNAs, we selected 37 lncRNAs which were able to assist the prognosis...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339836/the-role-of-metabolic-enzymes-in-mesenchymal-tumors-and-tumor-syndromes-genetics-pathology-and-molecular-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Jason L Hornick, Judith V M G Bovée
The discovery of mutations in genes encoding the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and fumarate hydratase (FH) has expanded our understanding not only of altered metabolic pathways but also epigenetic dysregulation in cancer. IDH1/2 mutations occur in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas in patients with the non-hereditary enchondromatosis syndromes Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome and in sporadic tumors. IDH1/2 mutations result in excess production of the oncometabolite (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate...
January 16, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339177/trends-in-reporting-histological-subtyping-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-association-with-cancer-center-type
#7
Ted Gansler, Stacey Fedewa, Mahul B Amin, Chun Chieh Lin, Ahmedin Jemal
Histological classification of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has become increasingly important for clinical management. We identified 295,483 RCC diagnosed from 1998-2014 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to examine temporal trends in proportions of RCC with unspecified histology and several specific histologies from the 1998 and 2004 World Health Organization classifications of RCC. Further, multivariable log binomial analysis of 101,062 RCC diagnosed from 2010-2014 was used to determine whether the association of diagnosing/treating facility type and the proportion of unspecified RCC is independent of patient demographic and clinical factors...
January 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339043/the-relationship-between-red-cell-distribution-width-and-cancer-specific-survival-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-partial-and-radical-nephrectomy
#8
Marcin Życzkowski, Paweł Rajwa, Ewa Gabrys, Karolina Jakubowska, Ewelina Jantos, Andrzej Paradysz
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of red cell distribution width (RDW) on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients who undergo nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total number of 434 patients with pathologically proven RCC treated with radical or partial nephrectomy between 2003 and 2012 were identified in a single tertiary academic center. To evaluate the accuracy of RDW for CSS prediction, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328439/prognostic-significance-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-expression-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Shuiqing Wu, Fen Jiang, Hongtao Wu, Yinhuai Wang, Ran Xu, Jian Cao, Qiong Lu, Xuan Zhu, Zhaohui Zhong, Xiaokun Zhao
The prognostic significance of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in tumors and the levels of preoperative hemoglobin in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), with or without concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was investigated. A total of 128 patients with ccRCC who underwent surgery were analyzed using retrospective methods. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were analyzed with clinicopathological variables, including preoperative hemoglobin levels, COPD and the levels of HIF‑1α expression, by Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317515/intratumoural-heterogeneity-may-hinder-precision-medicine-strategies-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Ilaria Montagnani, Rodolfo Montironi, Francesca Castiglione, Guido Martignoni, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is an heterogeneous tumour at architectural, cellular and molecular level, a reason why the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus recommended wide sampling of RCC masses to include at least 1 block/cm of tumour together with perpendicular sections of the tumour/perinephric fat interface and the tumour/renal sinus interface. Intratumoural molecular heterogeneity may be a limitation at the moment of defining precision medicine strategies based on gene mutation status...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306556/sarcomatoid-renal-cell-carcinoma-biology-and-treatment-advances
#11
REVIEW
Nemer El Mouallem, Steven C Smith, Asit K Paul
Sarcomatoid transformation in renal cell carcinoma, so called sacromatoid RCC (sRCC), is associated with an aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. Current therapeutic approaches are largely ineffective. Recent studies looking into the genomic and molecular characterization of sRCCs have provided insights into the biology and pathogenesis of this entity. These advances in molecular signatures may help development of effective treatment strategies. We herein present a review of recent developments in the pathology, biology, and treatment modalities in sRCC...
January 3, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305201/initial-assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-irreversible-electroporation-ire-in-the-focal-treatment-of-localised-renal-cell-carcinoma-rcc-with-delayed-interval-kidney-tumour-resection-irene-trial-an-ablate-and-resect-pilot-study
#12
Johann J Wendler, Maciej Pech, Frank Fischbach, Julian Jürgens, Björn Friebe, Daniel Baumunk, Markus Porsch, Simon Blaschke, Daniel Schindele, Sandra Siedentopf, Jens Ricke, Martin Schostak, Jens Köllermann, Uwe B Liehr
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation of pT1a renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) in the first prospective, monocentric Phase 2a pilot ablate-and-resect study (IRENE trial). It has been postulated that focal IRE can bring about complete ablation of soft-tissue tumours with protection of healthy peritumoral tissue and anatomical structures. METHODS: The first seven study patients, with biopsy-proven pT1a RCC (15-39mm) underwent IRE...
January 2, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302811/gene-expression-analysis-in-peripheral-blood-cells-of-patients-with-hereditary-leiomyomatosis-and-renal-cell-cancer-syndrome-hlrcc-identification-of-nrf2-pathway-activation
#13
Carolina Arenas Valencia, Liliana Lopez Kleine, Andres M Pinzon Velasco, Andrea Y Cardona Barreto, Clara E Arteaga Diaz
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome (HLRCC) is a very rare disease that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Affected patients may develop from cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas to type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (Schmidt and Linehan, Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 7:253-260, 2014). HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the FH gene, which produces the fumarate hydratase protein that participates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle during the conversion of fumarate to malate. In FH-deficient cells, high concentrations of fumarate lead to a series of intricate events, which seem to be responsible for the malignant transformation (Yang et al...
January 4, 2018: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299091/oncocytoma-a-differential-consideration-for-an-incidentally-detected-fdg-avid-renal-mass-on-pet-ct
#14
Christopher J Smith, Mindy X Wang, Michael Feely, Brandon Otto, Joseph R Grajo
Renal oncocytoma is a benign renal neoplasm that is often discovered incidentally and closely mimics renal cell carcinoma on common imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the inability to reliably distinguish between these benign and malignant lesions with imaging, both are typically treated as if they are malignant. Hypermetabolic activity of renal oncocytomas is not frequently encountered because positron emission tomography (PET) is not a standard modality for imaging primary renal tumors...
May 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291011/transferrin-receptor-1-upregulation-in-primary-tumor-and-downregulation-in-benign-kidney-is-associated-with-progression-and-mortality-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#15
Christopher J Greene, Kristopher Attwood, Nitika J Sharma, Kenneth W Gross, Gary J Smith, Bo Xu, Eric C Kauffman
The central dysregulated pathway of clear cell (cc) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the von Hippel Lindau/hypoxia inducible factor-α axis, is a key regulator of intracellular iron levels, however the role of iron uptake in human RCC tumorigenesis and progression remains unknown. We conducted a thorough, large-scale investigation of the expression and prognostic significance of the primary iron uptake protein, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71/TFRC), in RCC patients. TfR1 immunohistochemistry was performed in over 1500 cores from 574 renal cell tumor patient tissues (primary tumors, matched benign kidneys, metastases) and non-neoplastic tissues from 36 different body sites...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290970/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-as-prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#16
Carmen Garrigós, Marta Espinosa, Ana Salinas, Ignacio Osman, Rafael Medina, Miguel Taron, Sonia Molina-Pinelo, Ignacio Duran
Despite major advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, prognosis is still defined using clinical and pathological parameters. Moreover, no valid predictive biomarkers exist to help us selecting the best treatment for each patient. With these premises, we aimed to analyse the expression and to determine the prognostic and predictive value of 64 key single nucleotide polymorphisms in 18 genes related with angiogenesis or metabolism of antiangiogenics in two cohorts of patients with localized and advanced renal cell cancer treated at our institution...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283437/analytic-survey-of-57-cases-of-oral-metastases
#17
Yingci Liu, Richard J Vargo, Elizabeth A Bilodeau
BACKGROUND: Oral lesions have been reported among the first signs of an undiagnosed metastatic disease. Accurate diagnosis of an occult metastasis remains critical in determining the treatment course. Previous studies regarding oral metastatic tumors present varied data regarding the most frequent metastases to the oral cavity. These discrepancies echo the changes in incidence rates for certain malignancies over time and demonstrate the need for periodic updates in oral metastasis studies...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282443/first-ever-use-of-proton-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-delivered-with-curative-intent-to-bilateral-synchronous-primary-renal-cell-carcinomas
#18
Melissa A Frick, Arpit M Chhabra, Liyong Lin, Charles B Simone Ii
Limited therapeutic options exist for inoperable bilateral kidney tumors. We report the first ever use of proton therapy to treat primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the first report of proton stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for RCC in an inoperable patient with synchronous RCCs treated with proton SBRT. The patient is a 47-year-old 450-pound female with multiple medical comorbidities, including Stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD), who was found to have bilateral renal masses during work-up for cellulitis and sepsis...
October 24, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282004/pathologic-analysis-of-non-neoplastic-parenchyma-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-comprehensive-observation-in-radical-nephrectomy-specimens
#19
Xun Wang, Qiang Liu, Wen Kong, Jiwei Huang, Yonghui Chen, Yiran Huang, Jin Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study provides a comprehensive examination of the histological features of non-neoplastic parenchyma in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We prospectively collected radical nephrectomy (RN) specimens, to analyze the histological changes within peritumoral and distant parenchyma. METHODS: Data of patients who underwent RN and had no known history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or chronic kidney disease etc., were prospectively collected. Tumor pseudo-capsule (PC), and parenchyma within 2 cm from tumor margin, were pathologically assessed...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261620/68ga-psma-avid-primary-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung-with-complementary-low-18f-fdg-uptake
#20
Mads Ryø Jochumsen, Lars Christian Gormsen, Gitte Lund Nielsen
Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan on a 70-year-old man with recently diagnosed prostate cancer revealed a spiculating nodule in the apex of the left lung with intense Ga-PSMA uptake. The nodule had no pathological F-FDG uptake and turned out to be a primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Cases with complementary pattern of uptake in F-FDG and Ga-PSMA in metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma and in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma have previously been reported; however, this case illustrates that this unusual pattern can also be present in primary lung cancer...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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