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Urothelial carcinoma pathology

James P Solomon, Brett M Lowenthal, A Karim Kader, J Kellogg Parsons, Thomas W Flaig, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke, Lars Dyrskjøt, Donna E Hansel
Urothelial carcinoma can exhibit a wide variety of histopathological phenotypes or variant morphologies, classifications of which have recently been revised in the 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. Many of these variants not only present diagnostic challenges, but also have clinical implications that affect patient prognosis and treatment strategies. This review will discuss these variant morphologies and their relationship to current understanding of the underlying biology of urothelial carcinoma and molecular classification paradigms...
October 18, 2016: Urology
Makoto Kawaguchi, Noboru Hara, Vladimir Bilim, Hiroshi Koike, Mituko Suzuki, Tae-Sun Kim, Nan Gao, Yu Dong, Sheng Zhang, Yuji Fujinawa, Osamu Yamamoto, Hiromi Ito, Yoshihiko Tomita, Yuchi Naruse, Akira Sakamaki, Yoko Ishii, Koichi Tsuneyama, Masaaki Inoue, Johbu Itoh, Masanori Yasuda, Nobuo Sakata, Cha-Gyun Jung, Satoshi Kanazawa, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Hiroshi Minato, Takayuki Nojima, Kiyofumi Asai, Yutaka Miura
BACKGROUND: Pathological stage and grade have limited ability to predict the outcomes of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma at initial transurethral resection (TUR). AT-motif binding factor 1 (ATBF1) is a tumor suppressive transcription factor that is normally localized to the nucleus but has been detected in the cytoplasm in several cancers. Here, we examined the diagnostic value of the intracellular localization of ATBF1 as a marker for the identification of high risk urothelial bladder carcinoma...
October 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
Nobuyuki Hinata, Ahmed Aly Hussein, Saby George, Donald L Trump, Ellis G Levine, Kawa Omar, Prokar Dasgupta, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Abolfazl Hosseini, Peter Wiklund, Khurshid A Guru
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of suboptimal dosing on the outcomes of patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 336 consecutive patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who were treated with NAC and RARC at three academic institutions. Outcomes were compared between 3 groups: patients who received optimal NAC; patients who received suboptimal NAC; and those who did not receive NAC...
October 15, 2016: BJU International
Orietta Dalpiaz, Daniel Krieger, Georg C Ehrlich, Kristof Pohlmann, Tatjana Stojakovic, Karl Pummer, Richard Zigeuner, Martin Pichler, Georg C Hutterer
INTRODUCTION: This study is aimed at investigating the potential prognostic impact of the preoperatively assessed platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in a European cohort of patients with non-metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological data from 180 consecutive non-metastatic UTUC patients, operated between 1990 and 2012 at a single tertiary academic center, were evaluated retrospectively. The preoperative PLR was assessed one day before surgery...
October 13, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
G J Wirth, A Haitel, M Moschini, F Soria, T Klatte, M R Hassler, K Bensalah, A Briganti, J A Karam, Y Lotan, V Margulis, J D Raman, M Remzi, N Rioux-Leclercq, B D Robinson, M Rouprêt, C G Wood, S F Shariat
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the significance of androgen receptor (AR) expression in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UTUC). METHODS: AR expression was assessed on tissue microarrays containing specimens of 737 patients with UTUC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy with curative intent. AR expression was correlated with clinical and pathological tumor features as well as recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS)...
October 11, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Gilhyang Kim, Yul Ri Chung, Bohyun Kim, Boram Song, Kyung Chul Moon
Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the known oncogenes in urothelial carcinoma. However, the association between HER2 and the prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate HER2 expression using the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria and American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) criteria and compare their prognostic significance in UUTUC...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Holly L Harper, Jesse K McKenney, Brandie Heald, Andrew Stephenson, Steven C Campbell, Thomas Plesec, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi
Increased risk for upper tract urothelial carcinoma is described in patients with Lynch syndrome, caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. We aimed to identify the frequency of mismatch repair protein loss in upper tract urothelial carcinoma and its potential for identifying an association with Lynch syndrome. We queried our database to identify upper tract urothelial carcinomas. Patients were cross-referenced for history of colorectal carcinoma or other common Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms to enrich for potential Lynch syndrome cases...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Jianqi Yang, Lance T Platt, Biswanath Maity, Katelin E Ahlers, Zili Luo, Zhibo Lin, Bandana Chakravarti, Stella-Rita Ibeawuchi, Ryan W Askeland, Jolanta Bondaruk, Bogdan A Czerniak, Rory A Fisher
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is largely caused by exposure to toxic chemicals including those in cigarette smoke (i.e. BBN). An activating SNP in RGS6 is associated with a pronounced reduction in UBC risk, especially among smokers. However, the mechanism underlying this reduction remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that RGS6 is robustly expressed in human urothelium, where urothelial cell carcinoma originates, and is downregulated in human UBC. Utilizing RGS6-/- mice we interrogated a possible role for RGS6 as a tumor suppressor using the BBN-induced bladder carcinogenesis model that closely recapitulates human disease...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Hiroaki Matsumoto, Masaru Munemori, Kosuke Shimizu, Nakanori Fujii, Keita Kobayashi, Ryo Inoue, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Nagao, Hideyasu Matsuyama
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression levels of E-cadherin, Snail, Twist and Bmi-1 in the human upper tract urothelial carcinoma, and to assess whether these factors could be prognostic markers. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was carried out to determine the expression of E-cadherin, Snail, Twist and Bmi-1 in upper tract urothelial carcinoma samples from 144 patients that underwent total nephroureterectomy between January 1995 and December 2010. The patient population had a median age of 71 years, and comprised 104 men and 40 women, with a median follow-up period of 40 months...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Ya-Lan Wu, Yong-Mei Liu, Hui-Jiao Chen, Yong-Sheng Wang, You Lu
Ureteral urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a rare malignant tumor. The most common clinical manifestations of ureteral UC are hematuria, increased urinary frequency, dysuria and pain. The diagnosis of ureteral UC is made via radiography, endoscopy and pathology. Although osteoblastic destruction is usually observed in metastasis of prostate cancer, UC can also be a reason for osteoblastic metastasis. The present study reports the case of a 66-year-old man presenting with osteoblastic metastases, in which the primary tumor was finally diagnosed as a ureteral UC...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Takashige Abe, Junji Ishizaki, Hiroshi Kikuchi, Keita Minami, Ryuji Matsumoto, Toru Harabayashi, Ataru Sazawa, Tango Mochizuki, Satoshi Chiba, Tomoshige Akino, Masashi Murakumo, Naoto Miyajima, Kunihiko Tsuchiya, Satoru Maruyama, Sachiyo Murai, Nobuo Shinohara
AIM: To clarify prognostic factors of metatstatic urothelial carcinoma treated by systemic chemotherapy in real-world clinical practice in the Japanese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 228 patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma undergoing systemic chemotherapy between 2000 and 2013 were included in the present multi-institutional study. The gemcitabine plus cisplatin regimen was administered as first-line chemotherapy to 131 patients, whereas methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin or its modified regimen was given to 71 patients...
September 29, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Jovana Golijanin, Ali Amin, Anna Moshnikova, Joseph M Brito, Timothy Y Tran, Ramona-Cosmina Adochite, Gregory O Andreev, Troy Crawford, Donald M Engelman, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak, Dragan Golijanin
Bladder cancer is the fifth most common in incidence and one of the most expensive cancers to treat. Early detection greatly improves the chances of survival and bladder preservation. The pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye [indocyanine green (ICG)] targets low extracellular pH, allowing visualization of malignant lesions in human bladder carcinoma ex vivo. Cystectomy specimens obtained after radical surgery were immediately irrigated with nonbuffered saline and instilled with a solution of the ICG pHLIP construct, incubated, and rinsed...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vignesh Shanmugam, Brian Geraghty, Robert DeSimone, Rana S Hoda
INTRODUCTION: Urothelial carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. The performance of urine cytology (UCy) after radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion is quite variable and there is no consensus regarding its role in post-treatment surveillance. The goal of this study is to retrospectively review the diagnostic value of positive (suspicious or positive for malignancy) diverted urine cytology (DUCy) in the detection of urinary tract recurrence of UCC...
September 26, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
J Varinot, A Furudoï, M Roupret, E Compérat
OBJECTIVE: Comment the new WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary system and male genital organs 2016 and expose the state of art about urothelial carcinogenesis and molecular modifications of bladder cancer, with the consequences on the treatments. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A systematic review of the literature search was performed from the data base PubMed, focused on the following keywords: "bladder cancer", "molecular", "subtypes". RESULTS: The new WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary system 2016 confirm the importance of pathology in determining the care of patients, especially the grade, the histological type and the infiltration, while taking into account the difficulties...
September 20, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Shogo Tajima, Kenji Koda
Uroplakin II antibody is exclusively specific for urothelial carcinoma. Nonurothelial carcinoma has not been reported to be immunoreactive for uroplakin II. In the present study, we hypothesized that breast carcinoma showing apocrine differentiation, such as invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) and apocrine carcinoma (AC), stains positive for uroplakin II. We identified 6 cases of IPLC between 2000 and 2014 by searching a computerized pathological database. We randomly selected 10 cases of each classic invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) and AC and five cases of apocrine metaplasia (AM) that coexisted in a surgically resected breast carcinoma specimen...
2016: Disease Markers
Aaron Brant, Max Kates, Meera R Chappidi, Hiten D Patel, Nikolai A Sopko, George J Netto, Alex S Baras, Noah M Hahn, Phillip M Pierorazio, Trinity J Bivalacqua
PURPOSE: We estimated the proportion of patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer whose tumors were downstaged by transurethral resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with cT2 N0 urothelial carcinoma who underwent cystectomy at our institution from 2005 to 2014-overall, 139 underwent transurethral resection without chemotherapy, and 146 underwent transurethral resection with chemotherapy. Pathologic response was defined as<pT2 N0...
September 14, 2016: Urologic Oncology
D Fang, T Seisen, K Yang, P Liu, X Fan, N Singla, G Xiong, L Zhang, X Li, L Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the comparative studies reporting oncological and renal function outcomes of segmental ureterectomy (SU) versus radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search on Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane library was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, and a meta-analysis was performed to assess cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), intravesical recurrence free survival (IVRFS) and surgery-related variations in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
November 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Andrew J Cohen, Vignesh Packiam, Charles Nottingham, Gary Steinberg, Norm D Smith, Sanjay Patel
PURPOSE: To determine patient and pathologic characteristics as well as outcomes for patients with clinically localized, nonurothelial histology bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified patients between 2000 and 2010 diagnosed with bladder cancer as their only malignancy undergoing definitive surgical management. Patients were characterized as urothelial (n = 13,442), squamous (n = 789), small cell (n = 124), adenocarcinoma (n = 789), or other histology (n = 499)...
September 1, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Dana Kivlin, Carmen Tong, Justin Friedlander, Patricia Perosio, Jay Simhan
BACKGROUND: Staghorn calculi are well-established risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and subsequent renal deterioration. Less commonly, long-term urothelial irritation from a calculus may also pose a risk of malignant transformation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old male with multiple medical comorbidities presented with a chronic right renal pelvic staghorn calculus and findings concerning for emphysematous pyelonephritis. He was subsequently taken to the operating room for a planned laparoscopic right nephrectomy...
2016: J Endourol Case Rep
Volkan Sen, Ozan Bozkurt, Omer Demir, Ahmet Adil Esen, Ugur Mungan, Guven Aslan, Aykut Kefi, Ilhan Celebi
Background. There is not enough evidence about clinical behavior of bladder cancer in younger patients. Objective. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma patients under the age of 40 years. Methods. Medical records of patients listed in our cancer database were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 40 patients who were initially diagnosed with bladder urothelial carcinoma at the age less than 40 years were included in the study. Patients' records were reviewed for recurrence and progression rates, demographic data, medical history, and treatment modalities...
2016: Scientifica
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