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Prostate cancer pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212112/cancer-as-robust-intrinsic-state-shaped-by-evolution-a-key-issues-review
#1
Ruoshi Yuan, Xiaomei Zhu, Gaowei Wang, Site Li, Ping Ao
Cancer is a complex disease: its pathology cannot be properly understood in terms of independent players-genes, proteins, molecular pathways, or their simple combinations. This is similar to many-body physics of a condensed phase that many important properties are not determined by a single atom or molecule. The rapidly accumulating large 'omics' data also require a new mechanistic and global underpinning to organize for rationalizing cancer complexity. A unifying and quantitative theory was proposed by some of the present authors that cancer is a robust state formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network, which is evolutionarily built for the developmental processes and physiological functions...
February 17, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209912/detection-efficacy-of-hybrid-68-ga-psma-ligand-pet-ct-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-biochemical-recurrence-after-primary-radiation-therapy-defined-by-phoenix-criteria
#2
Ingo Einspieler, Isabel Rauscher, Charlotte Düwel, Markus Krönke, Christoph Rischpler, Gregor Habl, Sabrina Dewes, Armin Ott, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Markus Schwaiger, Tobias Maurer, Matthias Eiber
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detection rate of Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[(68)Ga(HBED-CC)] ((68)Ga-PSMA ligand) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer (PC) defined by Phoenix criteria after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy as primary treatment. Methods: 118 patients were finally eligible for this retrospective analysis with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 6.4 ng/mL (range: 2.2-158...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207388/segmentation-of-pathological-structures-by-landmark-assisted-deformable-models
#3
Bulat Ibragimov, Robert Korez, Bostjan Likar, Franjo Pernus, Lei Xing, Tomaz Vrtovec
Computerized segmentation of pathological structures in medical images is challenging, as, in addition to unclear image boundaries, image artifacts and traces of surgical activities, the shape of pathological structures may be very different from the shape of normal structures. Even if a sufficient number of pathological training samples are collected, statistical shape modeling cannot always capture shape features of pathological samples as they may be suppressed by shape features of a considerably larger number of healthy samples...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206697/heparanase-1-involvement-in-prostate-physiopathology
#4
REVIEW
Guilherme O Barbosa, Nilva K Cervigne, Hernandes F Carvalho, Taize M Augusto
The prostate is a compound exocrine gland of the male reproductive tract universally present in mammals. It is highly responsive to androgen and can be committed by a variety of pathological complications as prostatitis, benign and malignant proliferative changes, which may be intensified by aging. Prostate intensively turnover its extracellular matrix (ECM) either at homeostasis or disease which includes a dynamically change of glycosaminoglycan composition during the life of an individual. Among the different enzymes playing a role in such changes, Heparanase-1 is responsible for cleaving heparan sulfate (HS) at a limited number of sites, clearly involved in tissue remodeling...
February 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194370/peptide-agonists-of-vasopressin-v2-receptor-reduce-expression-of-neuroendocrine-markers-and-tumor-growth-in-human-lung-and-prostate-tumor-cells
#5
Marina Pifano, Juan Garona, Carla S Capobianco, Nazareno Gonzalez, Daniel F Alonso, Giselle V Ripoll
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies that express neuropeptides as synaptophysin, chromogranin A (CgA), and specific neuronal enolase (NSE), among others. Vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with an endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effect in normal and pathological tissues. AVP receptors are present in human lung, breast, pancreatic, colorectal, and gastrointestinal tumors. While AVP V1 receptors are associated with stimulation of cellular proliferation, AVP V2 receptor (V2r) is related to antiproliferative effects...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192399/c-met-mir-130b-axis-as-novel-mechanism-and-biomarker-for-castration-resistance-state-acquisition
#6
A Cannistraci, G Federici, A Addario, A L Di Pace, L Grassi, G Muto, D Collura, M Signore, L De Salvo, S Sentinelli, G Simone, M Costantini, S Nanni, A Farsetti, V Coppola, R De Maria, D Bonci
Although a significant subset of prostate tumors remain indolent during the entire life, the advanced forms are still one of the leading cause of cancer-related death. There are not reliable markers distinguishing indolent from aggressive forms. Here we highlighted a new molecular circuitry involving microRNA and coding genes promoting cancer progression and castration resistance. Our preclinical and clinical data demonstrated that c-Met activation increases miR-130b levels, inhibits androgen receptor expression, promotes cancer spreading and resistance to hormone ablation therapy...
February 13, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191295/small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-prostate-in-an-elderly-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Dale Alan Whitaker, Daniel H Miller, Niveditha Jagadesh, Gerald W Strong, Lauren Hintenlang, William B Schenk, Gregory A Broderick, Katherine S Tzou, Steven J Buskirk
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy of men in the United States. Small-cell carcinoma (SCC), which typically presents as an aggressive lung malignancy, is a rare diagnosis within the setting of prostate cancer pathology. Due to its limited prevalence, little information regarding the treatment and prognosis of this disease in large populations is available. To date our current knowledge base is largely limited to case reports and retrospective case reviews. The mainstay of treatment for this particular histology most often involves a multimodality approach utilizing chemotherapy in conjunction with radiation therapy, androgen deprivation therapy, or prostatectomy...
November 17, 2016: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188414/a-potential-panel-of-four-long-noncoding-rna-signature-in-prostate-cancer-predicts-biochemical-recurrence-free-survival-and-disease-free-survival
#8
Tian-Bao Huang, Chuan-Peng Dong, Guang-Chen Zhou, Sheng-Ming Lu, Yang Luan, Xiao Gu, Lei Liu, Xue-Fei Ding
PURPOSES: Growing evidences showed that lncRNAs abnormally expressed in cancer tissues and played irreplaceable roles in tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. In present study, we aimed to identify lncRNA expression signature that can predict biochemical recurrence-free (BCR-free) survival of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS: A total of 291 patients with pathologic confirmed PCa in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset were recruited and included. With the specific risk score formula, patients were further classified into high-risk group and low-risk group...
February 10, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187449/low-pca3-expression-is-a-marker-of-poor-differentiation-in-localized-prostate-tumors-exploratory-analysis-from-12-076-patients
#9
Mohammed Alshalalfa, Gerald W Verhaegh, Ewan A Gibb, Maria Santiago-Jiménez, Nicholas Erho, Jennifer Jordan, Kasra Yousefi, Lucia L C Lam, Tyler Kolisnik, Jijumon Chelissery, Roland Seiler, Ashley E Ross, R Jeffrey Karnes, Edward M Schaeffer, Tamara T Lotan, Robert B Den, Stephen J Freedland, Elai Davicioni, Eric A Klein, Jack A Schalken
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is a prostate cancer diagnostic biomarker that has been clinically validated. The limitations of the diagnostic role of PCA3 in initial biopsy and the prognostic role are not well established. Here, we elucidate the limitations of tissue PCA3 to predict high grade tumors in initial biopsy. RESULTS: PCA3 has a bimodal distribution in both biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) tissues, where low PCA3 expression was significantly associated with high grade disease (p<0...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184030/genetic-variants-in-rhoa-and-rock1-genes-are-associated-with-the-development-progression-and-prognosis-of-prostate-cancer
#10
Kang Liu, Xiao Li, Jie Wang, Yichun Wang, Huiyu Dong, Jie Li
The contribution of genetic variants in RhoA and ROCK1 genes towards prostate cancer risk has not been reported before. We genotyped six potentially functional genetic variants in a case-control study of 1699 subjects. Overall, we found rs2410 mutant allele and rs2269736 wild allele were risk factors for prostate cancer. Individuals carrying more than two risk alleles were exposed to hazard of prostate cancer. In addition, we demonstrated that the risk of biochemical recurrence might be linked with clinico-pathological characteristics and also genetic factors...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181678/safety-and-immunological-efficacy-of-a-dna-vaccine-encoding-the-androgen-receptor-ligand-binding-domain-ar-lbd
#11
Brian M Olson, Eric S Bradley, Thomas Sawicki, Weixiong Zhong, Erik A Ranheim, Jordan E Bloom, Viswa T Colluru, Laura E Johnson, Brian T Rekoske, Jens C Eickhoff, Douglas G McNeel
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is a key oncogenic driver of prostate cancer, and has been the primary focus of prostate cancer treatment for several decades. We have previously demonstrated that the AR is also an immunological target antigen, recognized in patients with prostate cancer, and targetable by means of vaccines in rodent models with delays in prostate tumor growth. The current study was performed to determine the safety and immunological efficacy of a GMP-grade plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the AR, pTVG-AR...
February 9, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177964/contemporary-gleason-grading-of-prostatic-carcinoma-an-update-with-discussion-on-practical-issues-to-implement-the-2014-international-society-of-urological-pathology-isup-consensus-conference-on-gleason-grading-of-prostatic-carcinoma
#12
Jonathan I Epstein, Mahul B Amin, Victor E Reuter, Peter A Humphrey
The primary proceedings of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Grading Conference were published promptly in 2015 and dealt with: (1) definition of various grading patterns of usual acinar carcinoma, (2) grading of intraductal carcinoma; and (3) support for the previously proposed new Grade Groups. The current manuscript in addition to highlighting practical issues to implement the 2014 recommendations, provides an updated perspective based on numerous studies published after the 2014 meeting...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177766/functional-assessment-of-mecp2-in-rett-syndrome-and-cancers-of-breast-colon-and-prostate
#13
Somnath Pandey, Kevin Pruitt
Ever since the first report that mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) causes Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurological disorder in females world-wide, there has been a keen interest to gain a comprehensive understanding of this protein. While the classical model associated with MeCP2 function suggests its role in gene suppression via recruitment of co-repressor complexes and histone deacetylases to methylated CpG-sites, recent discoveries have brought to light its role in transcription activation, modulation of RNA splicing and chromatin compaction...
November 10, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174483/dual-effect-of-wisp-1-in-diverse-pathological-processes
#14
Mengmeng Feng, Shuqin Jia
Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway-1 (WISP-1), also known as CCN-4, belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WISP-1 is primarily expressed in embryonic stem cells and is involved in adult organ development. WISP-1 participates in many cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and adhesion. In addition, WISP-1 plays an important role in diverse pathophysiological processes, such as embryonic development, inflammation, injury repairs and cancers. Recent studies showed that WISP-1 was highly correlated with tumor progression and malignant transformation, whereas it played an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer...
December 2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173626/biopsy-undergrading-in-men-with-gleason-score%C3%A2-6-and-fatal-prostate-cancer-in-the-european-randomized-study-of-screening-for-prostate-cancer-rotterdam
#15
Arnout R Alberts, Leonard P Bokhorst, Charlotte F Kweldam, Ivo G Schoots, Theo H van der Kwast, Geert J van Leenders, Monique J Roobol
OBJECTIVES: A total of 15 men who died of prostate cancer had cT1/2 biopsy Gleason score ≤6 prostate cancer at prevalence screening in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Rotterdam. Our objective was to explain (part of) these prostate cancer deaths by undergrading with the classical Gleason score. METHODS: Biopsy specimens of 98 men with classical Gleason score ≤6 or 3 + 4 = 7 at prevalence screening in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Rotterdam were retrospectively reviewed by two pathologists using the International Society of Urological Pathology 2014 modified Gleason score...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169991/a-spatiotemporal-hypothesis-for-the-regulation-role-and-targeting-of-ampk-in-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Ayesha S Khan, Daniel E Frigo
The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of cellular homeostasis. Despite AMPK's known function in physiology, its role in pathological processes such as prostate cancer is enigmatic. However, emerging evidence is now beginning to decode the paradoxical role of AMPK in cancer and, therefore, inform clinicians if - and how - AMPK could be therapeutically targeted. Spatiotemporal regulation of AMPK complexes could be one of the mechanisms that governs this kinase's role in cancer. We hypothesize that different upstream stimuli will activate select subcellular AMPK complexes...
February 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168924/development-of-a-new-nomogram-to-predict-insignificant-prostate-cancer-in-patients-undergoing-radical-prostatectomy
#17
Tae Heon Kim, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Seong Soo Jeon, Han Yong Choi, Hyun Moo Lee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a nomogram to predict the probability of insignificant prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at a Korean hospital between January 2005 and December 2014. Patients with pathologically insignificant prostate cancer were defined as having organ-confined disease with tumor volume less than 0.5 cm³ without Gleason scores of 4 or 5...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168057/biomarkers-of-prostatic-cancer-an-attempt-to-categorize-patients-into-prostatic-carcinoma-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-or-prostatitis-based-on-serum-prostate-specific-antigen-prostatic-acid-phosphatase-calcium-and-phosphorus
#18
Shahana Sarwar, Mohammed Abdul Majid Adil, Parveen Nyamath, Mohammed Ishaq
Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P...
2017: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165461/structure-of-the-homodimeric-androgen-receptor-ligand-binding-domain
#19
Marta Nadal, Stefan Prekovic, Nerea Gallastegui, Christine Helsen, Montserrat Abella, Karolina Zielinska, Marina Gay, Marta Vilaseca, Marta Taulès, Adriaan B Houtsmuller, Martin E van Royen, Frank Claessens, Pablo Fuentes-Prior, Eva Estébanez-Perpiñá
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a crucial role in normal physiology, development and metabolism as well as in the aetiology and treatment of diverse pathologies such as androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS), male infertility and prostate cancer (PCa). Here we show that dimerization of AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is induced by receptor agonists but not by antagonists. The 2.15-Å crystal structure of homodimeric, agonist- and coactivator peptide-bound AR-LBD unveils a 1,000-Å(2) large dimerization surface, which harbours over 40 previously unexplained AIS- and PCa-associated point mutations...
February 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163032/impact-of-gleason-subtype-on-prostate-cancer-detection-using-multiparametric-mri-correlation-with-final-histopathology
#20
Matthew Truong, Gary Hollenberg, Eric Weinberg, Edward M Messing, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Thomas P Frye
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine whether Gleason pattern 4 architecture impacts tumor visibility on multiparametric (mpMRI) and correlate with final histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 83 tumor foci were identified within 22 radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with a prior negative biopsy who underwent MR/US fusion biopsy followed by radical prostatectomy from January 2015-July 2016. A genitourinary pathologist re-reviewed tumor foci for Gleason architectural subtype...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Urology
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