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Prostate cancer pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732389/loss-of-sun2-promotes-the-progression-of-prostate-cancer-by-regulating-fatty-acid-oxidation
#1
Cheng Yajun, Ye Chen, Li Xiaosa, Wang Xiao, Chen Jia, Wang Zhong, Xu Bin
The role of Sun2 has been described by previous studies in various types of cancers, including breast cancer and lung cancer. However, its role and potential molecular mechanism in the progression of prostate cancer have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that Sun2 expression was reduced in prostate cancer tissues compared with paired normal tissues, and that low expression of Sun2 was significantly correlated with Higher Gleason scores, postoperative T stage (pT), Lymph nodal invasion and Clinical pathological stages...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728994/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-cribriform-morphology-on-mr-us-fusion-biopsy-correlated-with-radical-prostatectomy-specimens
#2
Matthew Truong, Changyong Feng, Gary Hollenberg, Eric Weinberg, Edward M Messing, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Thomas P Frye
PURPOSE: Recently, a large body of evidence has emerged recognizing that cribriform morphology is an aggressive prostate cancer morphological pattern associated with higher cancer-specific mortality. In a comprehensive analysis, we compared traditional and contemporary prostate biopsy techniques for detection of prostate cancer with cribriform morphology and used radical prostatectomy as a reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospectively maintained single institution multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) database (n = 1,001) was queried to identify 240 patients who underwent MR/US fusion targeted biopsy (TB) and concurrent systematic biopsy (SB) from December 2014 to December 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725600/endogenous-and-exogenous-testosterone-and-prostate-cancer-decreased-increased-or-null-risk
#3
REVIEW
David S Lopez, Shailesh Advani, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Run Wang, Steven Canfield
For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725597/canine-prostate-models-in-preclinical-studies-of-minimally-invasive-interventions-part-i-canine-prostate-anatomy-and-prostate-cancer-models
#4
REVIEW
Fei Sun, Claudia Báez-Díaz, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo
The high prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa) in elderly men and technical advances in early detection of localized PCa have led to continued efforts to develop new therapeutic options of minimally invasive nature in current urologic oncology community. Increasing newly emerging therapies are undergoing preclinical tests on the technical feasibility, efficacy and safety in animal experiments. The dog is an ideal large animal because of its similar anatomy to human and the capability allowing the use of the same medical devices applied in future clinical trials...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725587/multi-parametric-mri-imaging-of-the-prostate-implications-for-focal-therapy
#5
REVIEW
James S Wysock, Herbert Lepor
The primary goal of a focal therapy treatment paradigm is to achieve cancer control through targeted tissue destruction while simultaneously limiting deleterious effects on peri-prostatic structures. Focal therapy approaches are employed in several oncologic treatment protocols, and have been shown to provide equivalent cancer control for malignancies such as breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Efforts to develop a focal therapy approach for prostate cancer have been challenged by several concepts including the multifocal nature of the disease and limited capability of prostate ultrasound and systematic biopsy to reliably localize the site(s) and aggressiveness of disease...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725582/co-registration-of-mri-and-ultrasound-accuracy-of-targeting-based-on-radiology-pathology-correlation
#6
REVIEW
Win Shun Lai, Jessica G Zarzour, Jennifer B Gordetsky, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
We reviewed the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) and methods of MRI guided biopsy including in-bore, cognitive fusion, and software-based fusion. MP-MRI has been developed, optimized, and studied as a means of improving prostate cancer detection beyond the standard evaluation that utilizes digital rectal examinations and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). MP-MRI has been proven to be an excellent diagnostic imaging modality that improves prostate cancer detection and risk stratification by guiding biopsy samples...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725433/macrophage-type-2-differentiation-in-a-patient-with-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma-to-the-cervical-lymph-nodes
#7
Michael C Topf, Madalina Tuluc, Larry A Harshyne, Adam Luginbuhl
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment often polarizes infiltrating macrophages towards a type 2, or M2 phenotype, that is characterized by expression of various cysteine-rich, scavenger receptors, including CD163. The primary function of M2 macrophages is to facilitate wound healing. As such, they are capable of providing metabolic support to a growing tumor, neovascularization, as well as protection from cytotoxic T cells. The tumor microenvironment contains a milieu of secreted factors and vesicles, which in certain circumstances can gain access to lymphatic vessels that drain to local lymph nodes...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724869/4-pathology-of-prostate-cancer
#8
Hideyuki Ohnuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723518/mid-term-outcomes-following-salvage-lymph-node-dissection-for-prostate-cancer-nodal-recurrence-status-post-radical-prostatectomy
#9
Fabio Zattoni, Avinash Nehra, Christopher R Murphy, Laureano Rangel, Lance Mynderse, Val Lowe, Eugene Kwon, R Jeffrey Karnes
BACKGROUND: Patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer lymph node recurrence can be treated with many options including salvage lymph node dissection (sLND). OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of outcomes of sLND and identification of clinicopathologic features in predicting further biochemical and radiological relapse after sLND for prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between November 1, 2009 and March 31, 2015, 117 patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) underwent sLND by a single surgeon after a standardized 11C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography...
December 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723472/human-prostate-tissue-derived-extracellular-matrix-as-a-model-of-prostate-microenvironment
#10
Walter Cazzaniga, Manuela Nebuloni, Erika Longhi, Irene Locatelli, Raffaele Allevi, Roberta Lucianò, Gelsomina Senatore, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Vito Cucchiara, Luca Genovese, Francesco Montorsi, Massimo Alfano, Andrea Salonia, Ilaria Cavarretta
BACKGROUND: Clinical experience highlights the wide heterogeneity of primary prostate cancer (PPCa), even when potentially related to the same grade and stage. Currently available prediction tools and biomarkers do not always allow for early recognition of PPCa aggressive phenotype, sometimes making it impossible to distinguish among men harbouring indolent tumours or life-threatening disease. OBJECTIVE: To establish a novel ex vivo/in vitro model suitable to estimate the invasive phenotype of PPCa cells (PPCaC)...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723469/inflammation-microbiota-and-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Martin Puhr, Angelo De Marzo, William Isaacs, Marshall Scott Lucia, Karen Sfanos, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Zoran Culig
CONTEXT: Chronic inflammation of the prostate has been associated with preneoplastic lesions and cancer development. Multiple causes have been considered for chronic inflammation of the prostate. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins are implicated in prostate carcinogenesis and development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate literature published on etiological factors, urinary microbiota, morphological features of proliferative inflammatory atrophy and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, genetic polymorphisms, inflammatory stress, and cytokine signaling...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722802/pathology-imagebase-a-reference-image-database-for-standardization-of-pathology
#12
Lars Egevad, John Cheville, Andrew J Evans, Jonas Hörnblad, James G Kench, Glen Kristiansen, Katia R M Leite, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Chin-Chen Pan, Hemamali Samaratunga, John R Srigley, Lawrence True, Ming Zhou, Mark Clements, Brett Delahunt
AIMS: Despite efforts to standardize histopathology practice through the development of guidelines, the interpretation of morphology is still hampered by subjectivity. We here describe Pathology Imagebase, a novel mechanism for establishing an international standard for the interpretation of pathology specimens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) established a reference image database through the input of experts in the field...
July 19, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721479/new-prostate-cancer-prognostic-grade-group-pgg-can-multiparametric-mri-mpmri-accurately-separate-patients-with-low-intermediate-and-high-grade-cancer
#13
Jamie N Holtz, Rachel Kloss Silverman, Kae Jack Tay, Jill T Browning, Jiaoti Huang, Thomas J Polascik, Rajan T Gupta
PURPOSE: Our objective is to determine the accuracy of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in predicting pathologic grade of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP) using simple apparent diffusion coefficient metrics and, specifically, whether mpMRI can accurately separate disease into one of two risk categories (low vs. higher grade) or one of three risk categories (low, intermediate, or high grade) corresponding to the new prognostic grade group (PGG) criteria. METHODS: This retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved study included 140 patients with PCa who underwent 3 T mpMRI with endorectal coil and transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS-G) biopsy before RP...
July 18, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720374/the-4kscore-predicts-the-grade-and-stage-of-prostate-cancer-in-the-radical-prostatectomy-specimen-results-from-a-multi-institutional-prospective-trial
#14
Sanoj Punnen, Bruno Nahar, Nachiketh S Prakash, Daniel D Sjoberg, Stephen M Zappala, Dipen J Parekh
BACKGROUND: The 4Kscore accurately predicts aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) on prostate biopsy. OBJECTIVE: We assessed how well the 4Kscore predicts pathology at radical prostatectomy (RP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Among 1312 men who prospectively underwent a 4Kscore and biopsy of the prostate at 26 sites throughout the United States from October 2013 to April 2014, we selected men who were diagnosed with cancer and underwent RP...
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720050/localized-prostate-cancer-and-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-radical-prostatectomy-a-retrospective-comparative-study-between-pre-and-post-operative-gleason-scores
#15
Michaël M E L Henderickx, Tim Brits, Tim Muilwijk, Thomas Adams, Hendrik Vandeursen
INTRODUCTION: To compare the pre- and post-operative Gleason scores (GS) in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single center, retrospective comparison between pre- and post-operative GS. Age, prostate volume, PSA, number of biopsies, number of positive cores, biopsy GS, cTNM, final pathology GS and pTNM of 286 patients were retrieved. They were divided into risk groups...
July 18, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716144/macrophage-type-2-differentiation-in-a-patient-with-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma-to-the-cervical-lymph-nodes
#16
Michael C Topf, Madalina Tuluc, Larry A Harshyne, Adam Luginbuhl
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment often polarizes infiltrating macrophages towards a type 2, or M2 phenotype, that is characterized by expression of various cysteine-rich, scavenger receptors, including CD163. The primary function of M2 macrophages is to facilitate wound healing. As such, they are capable of providing metabolic support to a growing tumor, neovascularization, as well as protection from cytotoxic T cells. The tumor microenvironment contains a milieu of secreted factors and vesicles, which in certain circumstances can gain access to lymphatic vessels that drain to local lymph nodes...
July 18, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715578/adverse-pathologic-findings-for-men-electing-immediate-radical-prostatectomy-defining-a-favorable-intermediate-risk-group
#17
Hiten D Patel, Jeffrey J Tosoian, H Ballentine Carter, Jonathan I Epstein
Importance: Active surveillance is recommended for patients with very low-risk (VLR) and low-risk (LR) prostate cancer. Despite controversy, recent clinical guidelines state surveillance may be considered for men with low-volume intermediate-risk (LVIR) disease. Objective: To compare rates of adverse pathologic findings among VLR, LR, and LVIR men electing immediate radical prostatectomy and evaluate criteria to define if a favorable intermediate-risk group minimizing risk exists...
July 13, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714919/overcoming-oncogenic-mediated-tumor-immunity-in-prostate-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Geoffrey Bryant, Lin Wang, David J Mulholland
Immunotherapy is being tested intensively in clinical trials for prostate cancer; it includes immune checkpoint inhibition, prostate specific antigen (PSA) vaccines and dendritic cell-based strategies. Despite increasing evidence for clinical responses, the consensus of multiple trials is that prostate cancers are poorly responsive to immunotherapy. Prostate cancer has a high degree of pathological and genetic heterogeneity compared to other cancer types, which may account for immunotherapeutic resistance. This hypothesis also implies that select types of prostate tumors may be differentially responsive to immune-based strategies and that the clinical stage, pathological grade and underlying genetic landscape may be important criteria in identifying tumors that respond to immune therapies...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709889/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-improves-classification-of-prostate-lesions-a-study-of-pathologic-outcomes-on-targeted-prostate-biopsy
#19
Sasha C Druskin, Ryan Ward, Andrei S Purysko, Allen Young, Jeffrey J Tosoian, Kamyar Ghabili, Darian Andreas, Eric Klein, Ashley E Ross, Katarzyna J Macura
PURPOSE: PIRADSv2 stipulates that dynamic-contrast-enhanced-imaging (DCE) be used to classify diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) score 3 (DWI3) peripheral-zone (PZ) lesions as PIRADS score 3 (PIRADS3; DCE-) or PIRADS4 (DCE+). However, it is unknown if DCE separates lesions into clinically-meaningful pathologic groups. We examined whether use of DCE improves detection of clinically-significant cancer. MATERIALS & METHODS: We identified patients without a prior diagnosis of prostate cancer undergoing multiparametric-MRI-transrectal-ultrasound fusion targeted-biopsy of PZ DWI3 or DWI4 lesions...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705708/perineural-invasion-by-prostate-cancer-on-mr-us-fusion-targeted-biopsy-is-associated-with-extraprostatic-extension-and-early-biochemical-recurrence-after-radical-prostatectomy
#20
Matthew Truong, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Jeffrey W Nix, Edward M Messing, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Jennifer B Gordetsky
In recent years, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR/ultrasound (US) fusion targeted biopsy (TB) have become more widely adopted to aid in prostate cancer (PCa) detection. Previously, TB has been found to increase the yield of clinically significant PCa and is more likely to sample the index tumor compared to traditional 12-core extended sextant biopsies. Currently the prognostic significance of perineural invasion (PNI) when identified on TB (PNI-TB) is unknown. We identified 95 men at two tertiary referral centers who underwent TB followed by radical prostatectomy between January 2014 and January 2017...
July 10, 2017: Human Pathology
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