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Litter ammonia

P B DeLaune, P A Moore
Regions with long-term animal manure applications based on nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns regarding elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Composting is a potential management practice that can reduce total manure mass and volume while creating a stabilized product that has less odor and fewer pathogens. However, composting animal manures can lead to high N loss via ammonia volatilization and increased concentrations of nonvolatile nutrients...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Nishchal K Sharma, Mingan Choct, Mark W Dunlop, Shu-Biao Wu, Hardy Z Castada, Robert A Swick
The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) and additives on odor flux from meat chicken litter was investigated using 180 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with three replicates of 12 birds each. A 5 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: diet (low CP, high CP, high CP+antibiotic, high CP+probiotic, high CP+saponin) and age (15, 29, 35 days). The antibiotic used was Zn bacitracin, the probiotic was a blend of three Bacillus subtilis strains and the saponin came from a blend of Yucca and Quillaja...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
Giselle B Nuernberg, Marcelo A Moreira, Paulo R Ernani, Jaime A Almeida, Tais M Maciel
Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH3) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Robin C Anderson, Michael E Hume, Jonatan Corrales-Millan, Yamicela Castillo-Castillo, Agustin Corral-Luna, Jose Luis Guevara-Valdez, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Carlos Rodriguez-Muela, Claudio Arzola-Alvarez
The current study was conducted to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of several nitrocompounds against pathogens in layer hen manure and litter. Evidence from an initial study indicated that treatment of layer hen manure with 12 mM nitroethane decreased populations of generic E. coli and total coliforms by 0.7 and 2.2 log10 colony forming units (CFU) g(-1), respectively, after 24 h aerobic incubation at ambient temperature when compared to untreated populations. Salmonella concentrations were unaffected by nitroethane in this study...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Silvia Pajares, Brendan J M Bohannan
Soil microorganisms play important roles in nitrogen cycling within forest ecosystems. Current research has revealed that a wider variety of microorganisms, with unexpected diversity in their functions and phylogenies, are involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously thought, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, and anammox bacteria, as well as denitrifying bacteria, archaea, and fungi. However, the vast majority of this research has been focused in temperate regions, and relatively little is known regarding the ecology of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms within tropical and subtropical ecosystems...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Philip A Moore
Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH) emissions. However, alum prices have increased substantially during the past decade. The goal of this research was to develop inexpensive manure amendments that are as effective as alum in reducing NH volatilization and P runoff. Sixteen amendments were developed using mixtures of alum mud, bauxite ore, sulfuric acid, liquid alum, and water. Alum mud is the residual left over from alum manufacture when produced by reacting bauxite with sulfuric acid...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Lidong Huang, Philip A Moore, Peter J A Kleinman, Kyle R Elkin, Mary C Savin, Daniel H Pote, Dwayne R Edwards
Treating poultry litter with alum has been shown to lower ammonia (NH) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. Two long-term studies were conducted to assess the effects of alum-treated poultry litter on P availability, leaching, and runoff under pasture conditions. From 1995 to 2015, litter was applied annually in a paired watershed study comparing alum-treated and untreated litter and in a small plot study comparing 13 treatments (an unfertilized control, four rates of alum-treated litter, four rates of untreated litter, and four rates of NHNO)...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Eija Kaukonen, Marianna Norring, Anna Valros
Foot pad and hock lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined...
June 3, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Nanh Lovanh, John Loughrin, Phil Silva
UNLABELLED: Inorganic emissions from livestock production and subsequent deposition of these ions can be a major source of pollution, causing nitrogen enrichment, eutrophication, acidification of soils and surface waters, and aerosol formation. In the poultry house, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions can also adversely affect the health, performance, and welfare of both animals and human operators. The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matter (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and other inorganic compounds (e...
July 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
A F Schneider, D S De Almeida, F M Yuri, O F Zimmermann, M W Gerber, C E Gewehr
This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield...
April 2016: British Poultry Science
Tae Ho Chung, Chul Park, In Hag Choi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. METHODS: Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. RESULTS: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p < 0...
October 2015: Journal of Ginseng Research
Diana María Gutiérrez-Zapata, Luis Fernando Galeano-Vasco, Mario Fernando Cerón-Muñoz
Ammonia concentration (AMC) in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America). The objective of this study was to model daily AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on a daily basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation...
2016: PloS One
Jiacheng Shen, Jun Zhu
Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Branly Eugene, Philip A Moore, Hong Li, Dana Miles, Steven Trabue, Robert Burns, Michael Buser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of Environmental Quality
Alicia E Hunolt, Rory O Maguire, Jactone A Ogejo, Brian D Badgley, W Hunter Frame, Mark S Reiter
Ammonia (NH) emissions from animal manures can cause air and water quality problems. Poultry litter treatment (PLT, sodium bisulfate; Jones-Hamilton Co.) is an acidic amendment that is applied to litter in poultry houses to decrease NH emissions, but currently it can only be applied once before birds are placed in the houses. This project analyzed the effect of multiple PLT applications on litter properties and NH release. Volatility chambers were used to compare multiple, single, and no application of PLT to poultry litter, all with and without fresh manure applications...
November 2015: Journal of Environmental Quality
Dexter B Watts, G Brett Runion, Katy W Smith Nannenga, H Allen Torbert
Enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers (EENFs) have the potential to increase crop yield while decreasing soil N loss. However, the effect of EENFs on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different agricultural systems is not well understood. Thus, studies from a variety of locations and cropping systems are needed to evaluate their impact. An experiment was initiated on a Coastal Plain soil under cotton ( L.) production for comparing EENFs to traditional sources. Nitrogen sources included urea, ammonia sulfate (AS), urea-ammonia sulfate (UAS), controlled-release, polymer-coated urea (Environmental Smart Nitrogen [ESN]), stabilized granular urea (SuperU), poultry litter (PL), poultry litter plus AgrotainPlus (PLA), and an unfertilized control...
November 2015: Journal of Environmental Quality
W W Liu, L F Xian, G M Tang, Z Y Cai, J Zheng, W G Xu
We are living in an environment full of gases, and any change in the concentration of a component of the air or contaminants (usually toxic) in the air may significantly threaten human health. Thus, to investigate the influence of gases in animal models it is helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of gas-related injury. Although there are devices used for gas exposure in animals, there are still limitations in the establishment of these animal models, such as the change in gas concentration during the refreshing of water, food and litter, and the contamination of toxic gases released by animals...
September 2015: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Philip-Edouard Shay, Richard S Winder, J A Trofymow
Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however, their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness, and evenness) and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analyzed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1), nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA) polymerase chain reaction amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Branly Eugene, Philip A Moore, Hong Li, Dana Miles, Steven Trabue, Robert Burns, Michael Buser
Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds...
September 2015: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hai-qin Zhang, Fan-fan Wang, Yue-han Li, Chong-jun Chen, Yao-liang Shen
Two anaerobic baffled reactors (ABR) were compared for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) enrichment using synthetic wastewater with different inoculated sludge, the mixed anaerobic flocculent sludge/granular sludge (R1) and anaerobic activated sludge (R2). The research showed the ANAMMOX activity occurred in both reactors allowing continuous removal of ammonium and nitrite, in which the ammonia and nitrite nitrogen loading was about 54.5-68.0 g (m3 x d)(-1), when maintaining the temperature at 30-35 degrees C, pH at 7...
June 2015: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
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