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Poultry litter

Kingsley K Duah, Edward K Essuman, Osca S Olympio, Worlah Akwetey, Vida Gyimah, Jeremiah O Yeboah
Commercial poultry production, although fairly well developed, continues to develop rapidly in Africa and other areas of the world. The local chickens, which may perhaps be harnessed and exploited for poverty alleviation, form part of the many local assets of underprivileged people living in the rural areas. In view of this, the study aims to investigate consumer acceptability of indigenous chicken meats using survey and sensory evaluation. The survey is comprised mainly of interviewing market women and supplying birds to them for sale in order to find answers to questions related to marketability or otherwise of the naked-neck, frizzled naked-neck, and normal-feathered cockerels...
March 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Henrik Christensen, Susanne Kabell, Magne Bisgaard
Pododermatitis has been observed in several layer flocks in Denmark during 2015. The aetiology is complex including litter quality, nutrition, management etc. Bacterial pathogens associated with pododermatitis, however, have not received much attention. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify 106 bacterial isolates obtained from pododermatitis in table egg layers in addition to five isolates from spleen/bursa presternalis. Isolates were obtained from layers from six affected flocks. All isolates were identified by standard bacterial methods, species-specific PCRs, 16S rRNA sequencing or Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization identification...
March 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Jannigje G Kers, Francisca C Velkers, Egil A J Fischer, Gerben D A Hermes, J A Stegeman, Hauke Smidt
The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
D B Abdala, P A Moore, M Rodrigues, W F Herrera, P S Pavinato
Whereas soil test information on the fertility and chemistry of soils has been important to elaborate safe and sound agricultural practices, micro-scale information can give a whole extra dimension to understand the chemical processes occurring in soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects that the consecutive application of untreated poultry litter, alum-treated litter or ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3 ) had on P solubility in soils over 20 years. For this, we used soil test data, sequential chemical fractionation (SCF) of P, and P K-edge XANES and μ-fluorescence spectroscopies...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Seunggun Won, Naveed Ahmed, Byung-Gu You, Soomin Shim, Seung-Su Kim, Changsix Ra
Background: Poultry breeding has increased by 306% in Korea, inevitably increasing the production of manure which may contribute to environmental pollution. The nutrients (NP) in the manure are essential for crop cultivation and soil fertility when applied as compost. Excess nutrients from manure can be accumulated on the land and can lead to eutrophication. Therefore, a nutrient load on the finite land should be calculated. Methods: This study calculates the nutrient production from Korean poultry by investigating 11 broiler and 16 laying hen farms...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Sanjay K Gupta, X Chris Le, Gary Kachanosky, Martin J Zuidhof, Tariq Siddique
Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen-1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen-1 ) during the growth phase of 35days...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Barbara J Cade-Menun, Kyle R Elkin, Corey W Liu, Ray B Bryant, Peter J A Kleinman, Philip A Moore
Phosphorus (P) can limit crop production in many soils, and soil testing is used to guide fertilizer recommendations. The Mehlich III (M3) soil test is widely used in North America, followed by colorimetric analysis for P, or by inductively coupled plasma-based spectrometry (ICP) for P and cations. However, differences have been observed in M3 P concentrations measured by these methods. Using31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), we characterized P forms in M3 extracts. In addition to the orthophosphate that would be detected during colorimetric analysis, several organic P forms were present in M3 extracts that would be unreactive colorimetrically but measured by ICP (molybdate unreactive P, MUP)...
February 21, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
F Khattak, V Paschalis, M Green, J G M Houdijk, P Soultanas, J Mahdavi
Reducing Campylobacter spp. carriage in poultry is challenging, but essential to control this major cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although much is known about the mechanisms and route of Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry, the literature is scarce on antibiotic-free solutions to combat Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the role of TYPLEX® Chelate (ferric tyrosine), a novel feed additive, in inhibiting Campylobacter jejuni (C...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Grace A Albanese, Laura R Tensa, Emily J Aston, Deborah A Hilt, Brian J Jordan
Coccidiosis is an economically significant disease of poultry caused by species of Eimeria, a parasitic protozoan. Disease can result in poor feed conversion, reduced weight gain, and can lead to the development of necrotic enteritis. For prevention of coccidiosis, poultry are commonly vaccinated with a live, sporulated oocysts mass applied with a vaccination cabinet in the hatchery. Traditionally, coccidia vaccines have been applied by coarse spray in a water based diluent, however, new technology using gel diluents has entered the US market...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Hung-Yueh Yeh, John E Line, Arthur Hinton
Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is ubiquitous in the environment and is considered as the normal microflora in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often causing urinary tract infections. Moreover, Proteus has been frequently isolated from food animals, including poultry. Whether this bacterium contributes to the foodborne illness in humans is unclear. In this report, P. mirabilis isolates recovered from broilers during housing in the units were characterized, their antimicrobial activity was assayed, and broiler immune response to the soluble proteins was determined...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Zhao Chen, Jinkyung Kim, Xiuping Jiang
AIM: Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in animal wastes-based composts was studied with different compost types, storage conditions, and inoculum levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cocktail of 3 E. coli O157:H7 or S. enterica strains was inoculated into dairy manure-based composts (A and B) or poultry litter-based composts (C and D), respectively, at final concentrations of ca. 5 or 2 log cfu/g. Composts were then stored at 5°C and 22°C, and under greenhouse condition...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kyoung S Ro, Ariel A Szogi, Philip A Moore
In-house windrowing between flocks is an emerging sanitary management practice to partially disinfect the built-up litter in broiler houses. However, this practice may also increase ammonia (NH3) emission from the litter due to the increase in litter temperature. The objectives of this study were to develop mathematical models to estimate NH3 emission rates from broiler houses practicing in-house windrowing between flocks. Equations to estimate mass-transfer areas form different shapes windrowed litter (triangular, rectangular, and semi-cylindrical prisms) were developed...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Helen Kathleen Crabb, Joanne Lee Allen, Joanne Maree Devlin, Simon Matthew Firestone, Mark Anthony Stevenson, James Rudkin Gilkerson
To better understand factors influencing infectious agent dispersal within a livestock population information is needed on the nature and frequency of contacts between farm enterprises. This study uses social network analysis to describe the contact network within a vertically integrated broiler poultry enterprise to identify the potential horizontal and vertical transmission pathways for Salmonella spp. Nodes (farms, sheds, production facilities) were identified and the daily movement of commodities (eggs, birds, feed, litter) and people between nodes were extracted from routinely kept farm records...
May 2018: Food Microbiology
Warish Ahmed, Aldo Lobos, Jacob Senkbeil, Jayme Peraud, Javier Gallard, Valerie J Harwood
CrAssphage are recently-discovered DNA bacteriophages that are prevalent and abundant in human feces and sewage. We assessed the performance characteristics of a crAssphage quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for quantifying sewage impacts in stormwater and surface water in subtropical Tampa, Florida. The mean concentrations of crAssphage in untreated sewage ranged from 9.08 to 9.98 log10 gene copies/L. Specificity was 0.927 against 83 non-human fecal reference samples and the sensitivity was 1.0. Cross-reactivity was observed in DNA extracted from soiled poultry litter but the concentrations were substantially lower than untreated sewage...
December 24, 2017: Water Research
H P Lu, Z A Li, G Gascó, A Méndez, Y Shen, J Paz-Ferreiro
Modified biochars, including magnetic biochars, have been tested in water for the removal of inorganic pollutants. However, at present it is unknown if they possess benefits over conventional biochar materials in relation to land remediation. A paddy soil was collected near Liantang village in Lechang Pb-Zn mine area in Guangdong Province (China). The soil was polluted with Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, with total contents of 1.4mg/kg, 80mg/kg, 1638mg/kg and 2463mg/kg, respectively. We prepared magnetic and conventional biochar from two feedstocks (poultry litter and Eucalyptus) at a temperature of 300 and 500°C...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Asli Toptas Tag, Gozde Duman, Jale Yanik
In this study, the effect of process variables, such as temperature, biomass:water ratio and reaction time, in hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been studied for different type biomasses. Response surface methodology was used to study the influence of each factors as well as their combined interactive effect on the mass yield and energy density of hydrochars. The results showed that the temperature and time were significant factors effecting the mass yield and energy densification ratio in HTC of the sunflower stalk and algae, whereas temperature was only significant factor in HTC of poultry litter...
November 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ali Akhtar, Ajit K Sarmah
In this study, biochar, a carbonaceous solid material produced from three different waste sources (poultry litter, rice husk and pulp and paper mill sludge) was utilized to replace cement content up to 1% of total volume and the effect of individual biochar mixed with cement on the mechanical properties of concrete was investigated through different characterization techniques. A total of 168 samples were prepared for mechanical testing of biochar added concrete composites. The results showed that pulp and paper mill sludge biochar at 0...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lanfang Han, Kyoung S Ro, Yu Wang, Ke Sun, Haoran Sun, Judy A Libra, Baoshan Xing
Assessing biochar's ability to resist oxidation is fundamental to understanding its potential to sequester carbon. Chemical oxidation exhibits good performance in estimating the oxidation resistance of biochar. Herein, oxidation resistance of 14 types of biochars produced from four feedstocks at different pyrolysis conditions (hydrothermal versus thermal carbonization) was investigated via hydrogen peroxide oxidation with varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of organic carbon (C) of hydrochars was relatively higher than that of 250°C pyrochars (P250) but was comparable to that of 450°C pyrochars (P450)...
March 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sermin Onenc, Stefan Retschitzegger, Nikola Evic, Norbert Kienzl, Jale Yanik
This study presents combustion behavior and emission results obtained for different fuels: poultry litter (PL) and its char (PLC), scrap tires (ST) and its char (STC) and blends of char/lignite (PLC/LIG and STC/LIG). The combustion parameters and emissions were investigated via a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method and experiments in a lab-scale reactor. Fuel indexes were used for the prediction of high temperature corrosion risks and slagging potentials of the fuels used. The addition of chars to lignite caused a lowering of the combustion reactivity (anti-synergistic effect)...
January 2018: Waste Management
A Relun, L Dorso, A Douart, C Chartier, R Guatteo, C Mazuet, M R Popoff, S Assié
Type D bovine botulism outbreaks associated with poultry litter are increasingly reported in European countries, but the circumstances of exposure to Clostridium botulinum toxins remain unclear. In spring 2015, a large type D/C bovine botulism outbreak affected a farm with dairy and poultry operations. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations strongly suggest that the outbreak was caused by feeding cattle with insufficiently acidified grass silage that was contaminated by type D/C C. botulinum spores. The source of the spores remains unclear, but could have been a stack of poultry litter stored in the grass silage pasture before harvesting...
November 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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