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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314607/mutagenic-activities-of-biochars-from-pyrolysis
#1
Anna V Piterina, J Kevin Chipman, J Tony Pembroke, Michael H B Hayes
Biochar production, from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks, agricultural residues, and animal and poultry manures are emerging globally as novel industrial and commercial products. It is important to develop and to validate a series of suitable protocols for the ecological monitoring of the qualities and properties of biochars. The highly sensitive Salmonella mutagenicity assays (the Ames test) are used widely by the toxicology community and, via the rat liver extract (S9), can reflect the potential for mammalian metabolic activation...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301246/persistence-of-highly-pathogenic-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-footbaths-and-poultry-manure
#2
R Hauck, B Crossley, D Rejmanek, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Surprisingly, quaternary ammonia- and quaternary ammonia + glutaraldehyde-based footbaths were not able to eliminate live HPAIV (H5N8) and LPAIV (H6N2) particles on boots, while a chlorine-based granulated disinfectant was able to destroy the virus at contact...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278292/salmonella-serovars-and-their-distribution-in-nigerian-commercial-chicken-layer-farms
#3
Idowu Oluwabunmi Fagbamila, Lisa Barco, Marzia Mancin, Jacob Kwaga, Sati Samuel Ngulukun, Paola Zavagnin, Antonia Anna Lettini, Monica Lorenzetto, Paul Ayuba Abdu, Junaidu Kabir, Jarlath Umoh, Antonia Ricci, Maryam Muhammad
Commercial poultry farms (n° 523), located in all the six regions of Nigeria were sampled with a view to generate baseline information about the distribution of Salmonella serovars in this country. Five different matrices (litter, dust, faeces, feed and water) were collected from each visited farm. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the five matrices in 228 farms, with a farm prevalence of 43.6% (CI95[39.7-48.3%]). Altogether, 370 of 2615 samples collected (14.1%, CI95[12.8; 15.5%]) contained Salmonella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177786/response-of-microbial-communities-to-roxarsone-under-different-culture-conditions
#4
Yaci Liu, Zhaoji Zhang, Yasong Li, Yuhong Fei
Roxarsone is a feed additive widely used in broiler and swine industry that has the potential to contaminate environment, mainly via the use of poultry manure as fertilizer, which results in release of inorganic arsenic to the soil and water. This study was conducted to investigate the roxarsone degradation and the response of microbial community under different culture conditions using high-throughput sequencing technology. Poultry litter was incubated for 288 h in the presence of roxarsone under light aerobic, dark aerobic, or dark anaerobic conditions, showing that roxarsone was completely degraded after 48 h of dark anaerobic incubation, while 79...
January 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100194/interspecies-transfer-of-vancomycin-erythromycin-and-tetracycline-resistance-among-enterococcus-species-recovered-from-agrarian-sources
#5
M Conwell, V Daniels, P J Naughton, J S G Dooley
BACKGROUND: Enterococci are now well recognised for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and for their association with nosocomial infections, but less is known regarding their relevance in the wider environment. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were isolated from a range of agrarian associated sources (low-flow water, septic tank, poultry litter, high flow water, slurry/soil) and were assessed for latent ability to transfer antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS: The isolates were tested for phenotypic clumping in the presence of cell-free supernatant from other isolates...
January 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066939/the-nutrition-of-poultry-as-a-factor-affecting-litter-quality-and-foot-pad-dermatitis-an-updated-review
#6
REVIEW
S Swiatkiewicz, A Arczewska-Wlosek, D Jozefiak
Foot pad dermatitis (FPD), a condition of inflammation and necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads, is commonly observed in fast-growing broiler chickens and turkeys. FPD negatively affects the welfare of birds, performance indices and the economic profit of poultry meat production. Nutrition is an important factor affecting water intake, excreta moisture and litter quality and, in this way, the occurrence and intensity of FPD in birds. This article reviews and discusses the recent results published in the literature on the effects of nutritional factors on litter quality and FPD severity in broiler chickens and turkeys...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046149/effects-of-forage-species-and-poultry-litter-application-timing-on-forage-preference-by-horses
#7
J K Clark, B C Shanks, K S Jogan, D Philipp, K P Coffey, N E Jack, J D Caldwell, R T Rhein
Bermudagrass ( L.) is a familiar forage in the equine industry and teff () is gaining popularity as well. However, it is unclear if the application of poultry litter as a fertilizer affects palatability of these forages in horses. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if forage species and timing of litter application as a fertilizer has an effect on preference by horses. Hay treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial treatment arrangement consisting of teff and bermudagrass harvested after no poultry litter application (NL), poultry litter applied to stubble immediately after removal of the previous cutting (L0), or poultry litter applied 14 d after the previous cutting (L14)...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041672/biochar-lowers-ammonia-emission-and-improves-nitrogen-retention-in-poultry-litter-composting
#8
Eunice Agyarko-Mintah, Annette Cowie, Lukas Van Zwieten, Bhupinder Pal Singh, Robert Smillie, Steven Harden, Flavio Fornasier
The poultry industry produces abundant quantities of nutrient-rich litter, much of which is composted before use as a soil amendment. However, a large proportion of nitrogen (N) in poultry litter is lost via volatilisation during composting, with negative environmental and economic consequences. This study examined the effect of incorporating biochar during composting of poultry litter on ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and N retention. Biochars produced at 550°C from greenwaste (GWB) and poultry litter (PLB) feedstocks were co-composted with a mixture of raw poultry litter and sugarcane straw [carbon (C):N ratio 10:1] in compost bins...
December 29, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031470/effectiveness-of-naturally-occurring-substances-added-to-duck-litter-in-reducing-emergence-and-landing-of-adult-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#9
Simon Lachance, Justine Shiell, Michele T Guerin, Cynthia Scott-Dupree
Poultry barns provide an ideal breeding environment for Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) owing to the controlled temperatures and litter (manure plus bedding material) accumulation. Management techniques that render the litter less suitable for immature stage development, such as the addition of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, could reduce fly infestations. The effectiveness of acetic, boric, and citric acids; diatomaceous earth; and hydrated lime at restricting female landing and growth of house flies in duck litter was evaluated...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006737/effects-of-spent-liquor-recirculation-in-hydrothermal-carbonization
#10
Arzu Kabadayi Catalkopru, Ismail Cem Kantarli, Jale Yanik
In this study, the effect of the recirculation of spent liquor from hydrothermal carbonization was investigated depending on the biomass type (grape pomace, orange pomace and poultry litter). The yield and fuel properties of hydrochars and spent liquor characteristics were determined for each recirculation step. By recirculation, mass and energy yields of the hydrochar increased, but their combustion characteristics changed: the ignition temperature and combustion reactivity decreased. The organic and inorganic load of liquor was increased with recirculation number, but not as much as would be expected after the first recycle...
February 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940078/biochar-increases-nitrogen-retention-and-lowers-greenhouse-gas-emissions-when-added-to-composting-poultry-litter
#11
REVIEW
Eunice Agyarko-Mintah, Annette Cowie, Bhupinder Pal Singh, Stephen Joseph, Lukas Van Zwieten, Alan Cowie, Steven Harden, Robert Smillie
Biochar has intrinsic and nascent structural and sorption properties that may alter the physical and chemical properties of a composting mixture thus influencing the production of greenhouse gases [GHGs; nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)]. In this study, contrasting biochars produced from greenwaste (GWB) or poultry litter (PLB) were incorporated into a composting mixture containing poultry litter and straw, and GHG emissions were measured in situ during composting using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)...
December 8, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932039/anaerobic-digestion-of-nitrogen-rich-poultry-manure-impact-of-thermophilic-biogas-process-on-metal-release-and-microbial-resistances
#12
Reshma Anjum, Elisabeth Grohmann, Niclas Krakat
Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902913/regulatory-considerations-for-the-approval-of-drugs-against-histomoniasis-blackhead-disease-in-turkeys-chickens-and-game-birds-in-the-united-states
#13
Prajwal R Regmi, Ashley L Shaw, Laura L Hungerford, Janis R Messenheimer, Tong Zhou, Padmakumar Pillai, Amy Omer, Jeffrey M Gilbert
Histomoniasis, commonly referred to as blackhead disease, is a serious threat to the turkey and game bird industries worldwide, and it is having an increasingly negative impact on the chicken industry as well. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), charged with the approval and regulation of new animal drugs in the United States, understands the rising need for the availability of therapeutic options against histomoniasis. CVM has actively engaged in discussions with the poultry industry, academic institutions, and animal health companies regarding the current status of histomoniasis in the United States and varied success of past and current management, prophylactic, and therapeutic interventions that have been used against the disease...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876951/prevalence-of-dermanyssus-and-ornithonyssus-species-of-mites-in-poultry-farms-of-vikarabad-area-of-hyderabad
#14
G S Sreenivasa Murthy, Rasmita Panda
The common blood feeder mites of poultry are from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production or sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on workers. They also cause anaemia in birds and play a vector role for several human and animal diseases. Five poultry farm buildings of Vikarabad area of Rangareddy district were visited. Samples were collected from a variety of sites, including beneath feed troughs, inside cage fittings and fastening clips, under egg conveyer belts and under manure belts...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848110/changing-agricultural-practices-potential-consequences-to-aquatic-organisms
#15
Peter J Lasier, Matthew L Urich, Sayed M Hassan, Whitney N Jacobs, Robert B Bringolf, Kathleen M Owens
Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795245/draft-genome-sequence-of-ureolytic-environmental-isolate-bacillus-galactosidilyticus-pl133
#16
Jonathan R Gaiero, Philip A Formusa, Tom Hsiang, Rob W Nicol, Marc Habash
We report here the 5.19-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus galactosidilyticus PL133 isolated from poultry litter. The isolate was an important member of the cultivable aerobic bacteria identified to have ureolytic activity, which is responsible for ammonia generation in poultry litter residue.
October 6, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795244/draft-genome-sequence-of-ureolytic-environmental-isolate-staphylococcus-sp-na309
#17
Jonathan R Gaiero, Tom Hsiang, Rob W Nicol, Marc Habash
We report the 2.7 Mb draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus sp. NA309 isolated from poultry litter. The isolate was a dominant member of the cultivable aerobic bacteria identified to have ureolytic activity, responsible for ammonia generation in poultry litter residue.
October 6, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766900/pathogenicity-tissue-distribution-shedding-and-environmental-detection-of-two-strains-of-ibdv-following-infection-of-chickens-at-0-and-14-days-of-age
#18
J M K G K Jayasundara, S W Walkden-Brown, M E Katz, A F M F Islam, K G Renz, J McNally, P W Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in SPF chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
December 12, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760584/assessment-of-the-effect-of-housing-on-feather-damage-in-laying-hens-using-ir-thermography
#19
K Pichová, B Bilčík, L' Košt'ál
Plumage damage represents one of the animal-based measures of laying hens welfare. Damage occurs predominantly due to age, environment and damaging pecking. IR thermography, due to its non-invasiveness, objectivity and repeatability is a promising alternative to feather damage scoring systems such as the system included in the Welfare Quality ® assessment protocol for poultry. The aim of this study was to apply IR thermography for the assessment of feather damage in laying hens kept in two housing systems and to compare the results with feather scoring...
October 20, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730448/characterization-of-broiler-poultry-production-system-in-rwanda
#20
Francis Mbuza, Rosine Manishimwe, Janvier Mahoro, Thomas Simbankabo, Kizito Nishimwe
A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48...
January 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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