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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902913/regulatory-considerations-for-the-approval-of-drugs-against-histomoniasis-blackhead-disease-in-turkeys-chickens-and-game-birds-in-the-united-states
#1
Prajwal R Regmi, Ashley L Shaw, Laura L Hungerford, Janis R Messenheimer, Tong Zhou, Padmakumar Pillai, Amy Omer, Jeffrey M Gilbert
Histomoniasis, commonly referred to as blackhead disease, is a serious threat to the turkey and game bird industries worldwide, and it is having an increasingly negative impact on the chicken industry as well. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), charged with the approval and regulation of new animal drugs in the United States, understands the rising need for the availability of therapeutic options against histomoniasis. CVM has actively engaged in discussions with the poultry industry, academic institutions, and animal health companies regarding the current status of histomoniasis in the United States and varied success of past and current management, prophylactic, and therapeutic interventions that have been used against the disease...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876951/prevalence-of-dermanyssus-and-ornithonyssus-species-of-mites-in-poultry-farms-of-vikarabad-area-of-hyderabad
#2
G S Sreenivasa Murthy, Rasmita Panda
The common blood feeder mites of poultry are from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production or sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on workers. They also cause anaemia in birds and play a vector role for several human and animal diseases. Five poultry farm buildings of Vikarabad area of Rangareddy district were visited. Samples were collected from a variety of sites, including beneath feed troughs, inside cage fittings and fastening clips, under egg conveyer belts and under manure belts...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848110/changing-agricultural-practices-potential-consequences-to-aquatic-organisms
#3
Peter J Lasier, Matthew L Urich, Sayed M Hassan, Whitney N Jacobs, Robert B Bringolf, Kathleen M Owens
Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795245/draft-genome-sequence-of-ureolytic-environmental-isolate-bacillus-galactosidilyticus-pl133
#4
Jonathan R Gaiero, Philip A Formusa, Tom Hsiang, Rob W Nicol, Marc Habash
We report here the 5.19-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus galactosidilyticus PL133 isolated from poultry litter. The isolate was an important member of the cultivable aerobic bacteria identified to have ureolytic activity, which is responsible for ammonia generation in poultry litter residue.
October 6, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795244/draft-genome-sequence-of-ureolytic-environmental-isolate-staphylococcus-sp-na309
#5
Jonathan R Gaiero, Tom Hsiang, Rob W Nicol, Marc Habash
We report the 2.7 Mb draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus sp. NA309 isolated from poultry litter. The isolate was a dominant member of the cultivable aerobic bacteria identified to have ureolytic activity, responsible for ammonia generation in poultry litter residue.
October 6, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766900/pathogenicity-tissue-distribution-shedding-and-environmental-detection-of-two-strains-of-ibdv-following-infection-of-chickens-at-0-and-14-days-of-age
#6
Jayasundara Mudiyanselage Kanchana Ganga Kumari Jayasundara, Stephen William Walkden-Brown, Magaret Elizabeth Katz, A F M Fakhrul Islam, Katrin Gondola Renz, Jody McNally, Peter Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760584/assessment-of-the-effect-of-housing-on-feather-damage-in-laying-hens-using-ir-thermography
#7
K Pichová, B Bilčík, L' Košt'ál
Plumage damage represents one of the animal-based measures of laying hens welfare. Damage occurs predominantly due to age, environment and damaging pecking. IR thermography, due to its non-invasiveness, objectivity and repeatability is a promising alternative to feather damage scoring systems such as the system included in the Welfare Quality ® assessment protocol for poultry. The aim of this study was to apply IR thermography for the assessment of feather damage in laying hens kept in two housing systems and to compare the results with feather scoring...
October 20, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730448/characterization-of-broiler-poultry-production-system-in-rwanda
#8
Francis Mbuza, Rosine Manishimwe, Janvier Mahoro, Thomas Simbankabo, Kizito Nishimwe
A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48...
October 11, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695743/copper-and-zinc-runoff-from-land-application-of-composted-poultry-litter
#9
P B DeLaune, P A Moore
Regions with long-term animal manure applications based on nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns regarding elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Composting is a potential management practice that can reduce total manure mass and volume while creating a stabilized product that has less odor and fewer pathogens. However, composting animal manures can lead to high N loss via ammonia volatilization and increased concentrations of nonvolatile nutrients...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651670/body-weight-egg-production-and-egg-quality-traits-of-gray-brown-and-white-varieties-of-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica-in-coastal-climatic-condition-of-odisha
#10
Jessy Bagh, B Panigrahi, N Panda, C R Pradhan, B K Mallik, B Majhi, S S Rout
AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar...
August 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639299/efficiency-of-basalt-zeolite-and-cuban-zeolite-to-adsorb-ammonia-released-from-poultry-litter
#11
Giselle B Nuernberg, Marcelo A Moreira, Paulo R Ernani, Jaime A Almeida, Tais M Maciel
Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH3) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633837/stable-isotope-ratio-method-for-the-characterisation-of-the-poultry-house-environment
#12
Raminta Skipitytė, Agnė Mašalaitė, Andrius Garbaras, Rūta Mickienė, Ona Ragažinskienė, Violeta Baliukonienė, Bronius Bakutis, Jūratė Šiugždaitė, Saulius Petkevičius, Audrius Sigitas Maruška, Vidmantas Remeikis
Stable isotope analysis was applied to describe the poultry house environment. The poultry house indoor environment was selected for this study due to the relevant health problems in animals and their caretakers. Air quality parameters including temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, NH3, CO2 and total suspended particles, as well as mean levels of total airborne bacteria and fungi count, were measured. Carbon isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C) were obtained in size-segregated aerosol particles. The carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) isotope ratios were measured in feed, litter, scrapings from the ventilation system, feathers and eggs...
September 16, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628961/short-chain-nitrocompounds-as-a-treatment-of-layer-hen-manure-and-litter-effects-on-in-vitro-survivability-of-salmonella-generic-e-coli-and-nitrogen-metabolism
#13
Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Robin C Anderson, Michael E Hume, Jonatan Corrales-Millan, Yamicela Castillo-Castillo, Agustin Corral-Luna, Jose Luis Guevara-Valdez, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Carlos Rodriguez-Muela, Claudio Arzola-Alvarez
The current study was conducted to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of several nitrocompounds against pathogens in layer hen manure and litter. Evidence from an initial study indicated that treatment of layer hen manure with 12 mM nitroethane decreased populations of generic E. coli and total coliforms by 0.7 and 2.2 log10 colony forming units (CFU) g(-1), respectively, after 24 h aerobic incubation at ambient temperature when compared to untreated populations. Salmonella concentrations were unaffected by nitroethane in this study...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580466/solanum-lycopersicum-tomato-hosts-robust-phyllosphere-and-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-when-grown-in-soil-amended-with-various-organic-and-synthetic-fertilizers
#14
Sarah M Allard, Christopher S Walsh, Anna E Wallis, Andrea R Ottesen, Eric W Brown, Shirley A Micallef
Due to the intimate association between plants and their microbial symbionts, an examination of the influence of agricultural practices on phytobiome structure and diversity could foster a more comprehensive understanding of plant health and produce safety. Indeed, the impact of upstream crop producti006Fn practices cannot be overstated in their role in assuring an abundant and safe food supply. To assess whether fertilizer type impacted rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial communities associating with tomato plants, the bacterial microbiome of tomato cv...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566727/effects-of-litter-provision-during-early-rearing-and-environmental-enrichment-during-the-production-phase-on-feather-pecking-and-feather-damage-in-laying-hens
#15
F M Tahamtani, M Brantsæter, J Nordgreen, E Sandberg, T B Hansen, A Nødtvedt, T B Rodenburg, R O Moe, A M Janczak
Feather pecking is a multi-factorial behavioral disorder and a serious welfare issue in the poultry industry. Several studies report early life experience with litter to be a major determinant in the development of feather pecking. The current study aimed to test the large-scale on-farm efficiency of a simple and cheap husbandry procedure applied during the rearing period with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of feather pecking and plumage damage during the production stage in laying hens. Five laying hen-rearing farmers from across Norway participated in the study...
August 26, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544913/phases-characteristics-of-poultry-litter-hydrothermal-carbonization-under-a-range-of-process-parameters
#16
Vivian Mau, Julie Quance, Roy Posmanik, Amit Gross
The aim of this work was to study the hydrothermal carbonization of poultry litter under a range of process parameters. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of HTC of poultry litter under a range of operational parameters (temperature, reaction time, and solids concentration) on the formation and characteristics of its phases. Results showed production of a hydrochar with caloric value of 24.4MJ/kg, similar to sub-bituminous coal. The gaseous phase consisted mainly of CO2. However, significant amounts of H2S dictate the need for (further) treatment...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470660/high-throughput-genomic-sequencing-of-bioaerosols-in-broiler-chicken-production-facilities
#17
Kate M O'Brien, Michael S Chimenti, Morgan Farnell, Tom Tabler, Thomas Bair, Joey L Bray, Matthew W Nonnenmann
Chronic inhalation exposure to agricultural dust promotes the development of chronic respiratory diseases among poultry workers. Poultry dust is composed of dander, chicken feed, litter bedding and microbes. However, the microbial composition and abundance has not been fully elucidated. Genomic DNA was extracted from settled dust and personal inhalable dust collected while performing litter sampling or mortality collection tasks. DNA libraries were sequenced using a paired-end sequencing-by-synthesis approach on an Illumina HiSeq 2500...
July 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440220/conversion-of-poultry-wastes-into-energy-feedstocks
#18
Ismail Cem Kantarli, Arzu Kabadayi, Suat Ucar, Jale Yanik
In this study, conversion of wastes from poultry farming and industry into biochar and bio-oil via thermochemical processes was investigated. Fuel characteristics and chemical structure of biochars and bio-oils have been investigated using standard fuel analysis and spectroscopic methods. Biochars were produced from poultry litter through both hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-250°C) and pyrolysis over a temperature range between 250 and 500°C. In comparison to hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis at lower temperatures produced biochar with greater energy yield due to the higher mass yield...
October 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432730/manure-and-sorbent-fertilisers-increase-on-going-nutrient-availability-relative-to-conventional-fertilisers
#19
M R Redding, R Lewis, T Kearton, O Smith
The key to better nutrient efficiency is to simultaneously improve uptake and decrease losses. This study sought to achieve this balance using sorbent additions and manure nutrients (spent poultry litter; SL) compared with results obtained using conventional sources (Conv; urea nitrogen, N; and phosphate-phosphorus; P). Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, a phosphorus pot trial involving two soils (sandy and clay) based on a factorial design (Digitaria eriantha/Pennisetum clandestinum). Subsequently, a factorial N and P field trial was conducted on the clay soil (D...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404466/predicting-sources-of-dissolved-organic-nitrogen-to-an-estuary-from-an-agro-urban-coastal-watershed
#20
Christopher L Osburn, Lauren T Handsel, Benjamin L Peierls, Hans W Paerl
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the nitrogen (N)-containing component of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and in aquatic ecosystems is part of the biologically reactive nitrogen pool that can degrade water quality in N-sensitive waters. Unlike inorganic N (nitrate and ammonium) DON is comprised of many different molecules of variable reactivity. Few methods exist to track the sources of DON in watersheds. In this study, DOM excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence of eight discrete DON sources was measured and modeled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the resulting model ("FluorMod") was fit to 516 EEMs measured in surface waters from the main stem of the Neuse River and its tributaries, located in eastern North Carolina...
August 16, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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