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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127794/novel-biochar-concrete-composites-manufacturing-characterization-and-evaluation-of-the-mechanical-properties
#1
Ali Akhtar, Ajit K Sarmah
In this study, biochar, a carbonaceous solid material produced from three different waste sources (poultry litter, rice husk and pulp and paper mill sludge) was utilized to replace cement content up to 1% of total volume and the effect of individual biochar mixed with cement on the mechanical properties of concrete was investigated through different characterization techniques. A total of 168 samples were prepared for mechanical testing of biochar added concrete composites. The results showed that pulp and paper mill sludge biochar at 0...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126051/oxidation-resistance-of-biochars-as-a-function-of-feedstock-and-pyrolysis-condition
#2
Lanfang Han, Kyoung S Ro, Yu Wang, Ke Sun, Haoran Sun, Judy A Libra, Baoshan Xing
Assessing biochar's ability to resist oxidation is fundamental to understanding its potential to sequester carbon. Chemical oxidation exhibits good performance in estimating the oxidation resistance of biochar. Herein, oxidation resistance of 14 types of biochars produced from four feedstocks at different pyrolysis conditions (hydrothermal versus thermal carbonization) was investigated via hydrogen peroxide oxidation with varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of organic carbon (C) of hydrochars was relatively higher than that of 250°C pyrochars (P250) but was comparable to that of 450°C pyrochars (P450)...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097128/characteristics-and-synergistic-effects-of-co-combustion-of-carbonaceous-wastes-with-coal
#3
Sermin Onenc, Stefan Retschitzegger, Nikola Evic, Norbert Kienzl, Jale Yanik
This study presents combustion behavior and emission results obtained for different fuels: poultry litter (PL) and its char (PLC), scrap tires (ST) and its char (STC) and blends of char/lignite (PLC/LIG and STC/LIG). The combustion parameters and emissions were investigated via a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method and experiments in a lab-scale reactor. Fuel indexes were used for the prediction of high temperature corrosion risks and slagging potentials of the fuels used. The addition of chars to lignite caused a lowering of the combustion reactivity (anti-synergistic effect)...
October 31, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094676/a-large-outbreak-of-bovine-botulism-possibly-linked-to-a-massive-contamination-of-grass-silage-by-type-d-c-clostridium-botulinum-spores-on-a-farm-with-dairy-and-poultry-operations
#4
A Relun, L Dorso, A Douart, C Chartier, R Guatteo, C Mazuet, M R Popoff, S Assié
Type D bovine botulism outbreaks associated with poultry litter are increasingly reported in European countries, but the circumstances of exposure to Clostridium botulinum toxins remain unclear. In spring 2015, a large type D/C bovine botulism outbreak affected a farm with dairy and poultry operations. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations strongly suggest that the outbreak was caused by feeding cattle with insufficiently acidified grass silage that was contaminated by type D/C C. botulinum spores. The source of the spores remains unclear, but could have been a stack of poultry litter stored in the grass silage pasture before harvesting...
November 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091841/pilot-scale-flat-panel-photobioreactor-system-for-mass-production-of-ulva-lactuca-chlorophyta
#5
Akanksha Mhatre, Mahesh Navale, Nitin Trivedi, Reena Pandit, Arvind M Lali
Conventional open-sea cultivation constrained by environmental factors is singly incompetent to sustain the rising seaweed demand. This necessitates a complementary strategy to reinforce the existing cultivation system and expand the global seaweed industry. Present study proposes cultivation of Ulva lactuca in temperature controlled flat panel photobioreactors under natural illumination. Adaptability of U. lactuca to the flat panel system is apparent through growth studies and photosynthetic performance (Fv/Fm) across individual panels...
October 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045630/field-assessments-to-control-the-lesser-mealworm-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-using-diatomaceous-earth-in-poultry-houses
#6
D G P Oliveira, A K Bonini, L F A Alves
Control of the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer, 1797 [Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae]) is usually conducted with chemical insecticides, which have limited efficacy as well as environmental and health risks. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is safe and effective in controlling many insects including lesser mealworm. However, little is known of DE efficacy against this pest. Thus, an assessment of DE was conducted for the first time in commercial broiler houses in Brazil, with the aim of developing a strategy for the use of DE in the control of this insect...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991982/ammonia-oxidizers-in-a-grazing-land-with-a-history-of-poultry-litter-application
#7
Abha Mundepi, Jeanette Norton, Miguel Cabrera, Dorcas Franklin, Mussie Y Habteselassie
Poultry litter (PL) is widely applied on grazing lands in Georgia. However, it is not clear how its long-term use affects soil microorganisms and their function. We examined changes in activity and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in a grazing land with a history of PL application and compared it to treatment with urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). Soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected in 2009 (after 15 yr of PL application) and in 2013 (after 2 yr of no application). The abundance and community composition of ammonia oxidizers (AO) were determined with molecular techniques that targeted Nitrification potential (NP) was used for measuring their activity...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991967/within-house-spatial-distribution-of-fecal-indicator-bacteria-in-poultry-litter
#8
Scott Winkler, Craig Coufal, Daren Harmel, Emily Martin, John P Brooks, Sheena Popham, Terry J Gentry
Land application of poultry litter is often considered to be a major source of water pollutants in poultry-producing regions. However, reported levels of fecal indicator microorganisms in litter vary widely, with considerable variation possible within houses and across farms, depending on management practices. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the levels and distribution of indicator microorganisms within 12 broiler farms representing three companies. Within each house, litter samples were collected from around the feed line, water line, north wall, cool pad end, middle, and fan end...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952731/elucidating-the-stimulatory-and-inhibitory-effects-of-dissolved-organic-matter-from-poultry-litter-on-photodegradation-of-antibiotics
#9
Kiranmayi P Mangalgiri, Lee Blaney
This study examined the photolytic fate of the chlortetracycline (CTC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), roxarsone (ROX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotics in agriculturally relevant matrices. The observed photodegradation kinetics for antibiotics in solutions containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from three poultry litter extracts was modeled to identify contributions from direct and indirect photolysis. Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRN) was used as a surrogate DOM standard. Poultry litter-derived DOM generated lower concentrations of reactive species compared to SRN...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950138/enhanced-ethanol-production-by-clostridium-ragsdalei-from-syngas-by-incorporating-biochar-in-the-fermentation-medium
#10
Xiao Sun, Hasan K Atiyeh, Ajay Kumar, Hailin Zhang
Biochar contains minerals and metals that can serve as nutrients for acetogens to produce ethanol via syngas fermentation. In this study, four fermentation media containing biochar from switchgrass (SGBC), forage sorghum (FSBC), red cedar (RCBC) and poultry litter (PLBC) were compared with standard yeast extract (YE) medium for syngas fermentation using Clostridium ragsdalei. Fermentations were performed in 250mL bottle reactors at 150rpm and 37°C with syngas containing CO:H2:CO2 (40:30:30) by volume. Results showed that media containing RCBC and PLBC improved ethanol production by 16...
September 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925562/the-horizontal-transfer-of-salmonella-between-the-lesser-mealworm-alphitobius-diaperinus-and-poultry-manure
#11
T L Crippen, C L Sheffield, R C Beier, D J Nisbet
There is need to determine the nature of enduring reservoirs of Salmonella contributing to perpetual contamination within poultry flocks. The dispersal of Salmonella between birds, litter and the lesser mealworm has been established, but the extent that these act as critical components in the epidemiology of Salmonella infection during broiler grow-out and flock rotation has not been delineated; in particular, the level of participation by the lesser mealworm beetles (LMB) as agents of retention and dispersal...
September 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919677/influence-of-microclimatic-ammonia-levels-on-productive-performance-of-different-broilers-breeds-estimated-with-univariate-and-multivariate-approaches
#12
Essam S Soliman, Sherif A Moawed, Rania A Hassan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910723/sorption-desorption-equilibrium-and-diffusion-of-tetracycline-in-poultry-litter-and-municipal-biosolids-soil-amendments
#13
E D'Angelo
Tetracycline (TET) is commonly used to treat bacterial diseases in humans and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is largely excreted, and is found at elevated concentrations in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) and poultry litter (excrement plus bedding materials). Routine application of these nutrient-and carbon-enriched materials to soils improves fertility and other characteristics, but the presence of antibiotics (and other pharmaceuticals) in amendments raises questions about potential adverse effects on biota and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903878/thermal-inactivation-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-poultry-litter-as-a-method-to-decontaminate-poultry-houses
#14
Christopher B Stephens, Erica Spackman
Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888640/a-bovine-botulism-outbreak-associated-with-a-suspected-cross-contamination-from-a-poultry-farm
#15
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, F Mahé, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In October 2014, an outbreak of botulism type D/C occurred on two cattle farms in close proximity. A poultry farm located nearby with no history of botulism had transferred poultry manure to both bovine farms before the beginning of the outbreak. Given this context, epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine if the poultry farm was a reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and to identify the source of contamination on the cattle farms. Environmental samples were collected at three houses on the poultry farm (boot swabs from the surroundings, swabs from the ventilation system, boot swabs from the poultry litter and darkling beetles samples), and on the two cattle farms (silage samples, boot swabs from the cattle stalls, boot swabs from the cattle pasture and poultry manure samples)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854751/poultry-rearing-on-perforated-plastic-floors-and-the-effect-on-air-quality-growth-performance-and-carcass-injuries-experiment-1-thermal-comfort
#16
Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Lilian Francisco Arantes de Souza, Aline Cristina Sant'Anna, Raphael Nogueira Bahiense, Marcos Macari, Renato Luis Furlan
The present study investigated the use of perforated plastic floors in the rearing of male and female poultry under thermal comfort conditions. The study was conducted in 2 climate chambers, in one was conventional poultry litter (wood shavings) and in the other was a perforated plastic floor. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with the factors wood shavings and plastic floor. In each chamber, the animals were divided into 16 experimental pens (8 with males and 8 with females) with a density of 12 birds/m2...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821002/modeling-the-fate-and-transport-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-the-south-river-watershed-in-virginia
#17
Xiaomin Zhao, Wu-Seng Lung
Hormones excreted by livestock metabolisms often enter surface water through feces and urine and can potentially cause adverse impacts to aquatic biota. This study involved a modeling analysis of 17β-estradiol (E2), a prevalent estrogen, in the South River watershed located in Augusta County, Virginia from 2013 to 2015. Cattle manure, poultry litter, biosolids, septic systems, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered as sources of E2 in this study. The EPA's BASINS modeling framework was configured to track the fate and transport of E2...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796792/divergent-selection-on-home-pen-locomotor-activity-in-a-chicken-model-selection-program-genetic-parameters-and-direct-response-on-activity-and-body-weight
#18
Joergen B Kjaer
General locomotor activity (GLA) in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption) and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism). Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735210/moisture-content-prediction-in-poultry-litter-using-artificial-intelligence-techniques-and-monte-carlo-simulation-to-determine-the-economic-yield-from-energy-use
#19
José Octavio Rico-Contreras, Alberto Alfonso Aguilar-Lasserre, Juan Manuel Méndez-Contreras, Jhony Josué López-Andrés, Gabriela Cid-Chama
The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730581/biogas-from-poultry-waste-production-and-energy-potential
#20
Karoline Carvalho Dornelas, Roselene Maria Schneider, Adriana Garcia do Amaral
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m(-2) were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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