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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925562/the-horizontal-transfer-of-salmonella-between-the-lesser-mealworm-alphitobius-diaperinus-and-poultry-manure
#1
T L Crippen, C L Sheffield, R C Beier, D J Nisbet
There is need to determine the nature of enduring reservoirs of Salmonella contributing to perpetual contamination within poultry flocks. The dispersal of Salmonella between birds, litter and the lesser mealworm has been established, but the extent that these act as critical components in the epidemiology of Salmonella infection during broiler grow-out and flock rotation has not been delineated; in particular, the level of participation by the lesser mealworm beetles (LMB) as agents of retention and dispersal...
September 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919677/influence-of-microclimatic-ammonia-levels-on-productive-performance-of-different-broilers-breeds-estimated-with-univariate-and-multivariate-approaches
#2
Essam S Soliman, Sherif A Moawed, Rania A Hassan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910723/sorption-desorption-equilibrium-and-diffusion-of-tetracycline-in-poultry-litter-and-municipal-biosolids-soil-amendments
#3
E D'Angelo
Tetracycline (TET) is commonly used to treat bacterial diseases in humans and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is largely excreted, and is found at elevated concentrations in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) and poultry litter (excrement plus bedding materials). Routine application of these nutrient-and carbon-enriched materials to soils improves fertility and other characteristics, but the presence of antibiotics (and other pharmaceuticals) in amendments raises questions about potential adverse effects on biota and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903878/thermal-inactivation-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-poultry-litter-as-a-method-to-decontaminate-poultry-houses
#4
Christopher B Stephens, Erica Spackman
Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888640/a-bovine-botulism-outbreak-associated-with-a-suspected-cross-contamination-from-a-poultry-farm
#5
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, F Mahé, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In October 2014, an outbreak of botulism type D/C occurred on two cattle farms in close proximity. A poultry farm located nearby with no history of botulism had transferred poultry manure to both bovine farms before the beginning of the outbreak. Given this context, epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine if the poultry farm was a reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and to identify the source of contamination on the cattle farms. Environmental samples were collected at three houses on the poultry farm (boot swabs from the surroundings, swabs from the ventilation system, boot swabs from the poultry litter and darkling beetles samples), and on the two cattle farms (silage samples, boot swabs from the cattle stalls, boot swabs from the cattle pasture and poultry manure samples)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854751/poultry-rearing-on-perforated-plastic-floors-and-the-effect-on-air-quality-growth-performance-and-carcass-injuries-experiment-1-thermal-comfort
#6
Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Lilian Francisco Arantes de Souza, Aline Cristina Sant'Anna, Raphael Nogueira Bahiense, Marcos Macari, Renato Luis Furlan
The present study investigated the use of perforated plastic floors in the rearing of male and female poultry under thermal comfort conditions. The study was conducted in 2 climate chambers, in one was conventional poultry litter (wood shavings) and in the other was a perforated plastic floor. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with the factors wood shavings and plastic floor. In each chamber, the animals were divided into 16 experimental pens (8 with males and 8 with females) with a density of 12 birds/m2...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821002/modeling-the-fate-and-transport-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-the-south-river-watershed-in-virginia
#7
Xiaomin Zhao, Wu-Seng Lung
Hormones excreted by livestock metabolisms often enter surface water through feces and urine and can potentially cause adverse impacts to aquatic biota. This study involved a modeling analysis of 17β-estradiol (E2), a prevalent estrogen, in the South River watershed located in Augusta County, Virginia from 2013 to 2015. Cattle manure, poultry litter, biosolids, septic systems, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered as sources of E2 in this study. The EPA's BASINS modeling framework was configured to track the fate and transport of E2...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796792/divergent-selection-on-home-pen-locomotor-activity-in-a-chicken-model-selection-program-genetic-parameters-and-direct-response-on-activity-and-body-weight
#8
Joergen B Kjaer
General locomotor activity (GLA) in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption) and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism). Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735210/moisture-content-prediction-in-poultry-litter-using-artificial-intelligence-techniques-and-monte-carlo-simulation-to-determine-the-economic-yield-from-energy-use
#9
José Octavio Rico-Contreras, Alberto Alfonso Aguilar-Lasserre, Juan Manuel Méndez-Contreras, Jhony Josué López-Andrés, Gabriela Cid-Chama
The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730581/biogas-from-poultry-waste-production-and-energy-potential
#10
Karoline Carvalho Dornelas, Roselene Maria Schneider, Adriana Garcia do Amaral
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m(-2) were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724100/ammonia-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-broiler-houses-with-downtime-windrowed-litter
#11
Kyoung S Ro, Philip A Moore, Ariel A Szogi, Patricia D Millner
An emerging poultry manure management practice is in-house windrowing to disinfect the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) from the windrowed litter. The objective of this study was to quantitatively compare NH and NO emissions from broiler houses with and without in-house windrowing. Two broiler houses at a commercial farm were used to compare the NH and NO emissions. Gas emission measurements were conducted continuously and simultaneously for both the control house (without windrowing) and the house with windrowing during the same production periods...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712373/impact-of-animal-density-on-cattle-nutrition-in-dry-mediterranean-rangelands-a-faecal-near-ir-spectroscopy-aided-study
#12
S Y Landau, L Dvash, Y Yehuda, H Muklada, G Peleg, Z Henkin, H Voet, E D Ungar
In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688736/growth-studies-on-microalgae-euglena-sanguinea-in-various-natural-eco-friendly-composite-media-to-optimize-the-lipid-productivity
#13
Ajith J Kings, R Edwin Raj, L R Monisha Miriam, M Adhi Visvanathan
The environmental and culture conditions of a potential microalgae Euglena sanguinea were optimized for maximizing the biomass productivity. It was found that the organic macronutrient from poultry litter and organic micronutrient of seaweed extract are very effective to enhance the lipid production. Complementing, these organic nutrients with commercial NPK fertilizer, boost up the lipid productivity by 30.9% in comparison with the established standard Euglena medium. The fatty acid profile of the extracted oil by GC-MS reveals its conformity with commercial diesel...
June 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688255/natural-degradation-of-roxarsone-in-contrasting-soils-degradation-kinetics-and-transformation-products
#14
Qing-Long Fu, Lee Blaney, Dong-Mei Zhou
Roxarsone (ROX) is transformed to more toxic arsenicals after land application of ROX-containing poultry litter to agricultural soils. To date, no reports have compared ROX degradation in soils with contrasting properties. In this study, the impact of different incubation conditions on ROX degradation was investigated in red (C-Soil) and yellow-brown (H-Soil) soils. The degradation half-lives of extractable ROX in C-Soil and H-Soil were found to be 130-394d and 4-94d, respectively, indicating that the extractable ROX degraded faster in H-Soil...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687323/electrophoretic-pattern-of-glutathione-s-transferase-gst-in-antibiotic-resistance-gram-positive-bacteria-from-poultry-litter
#15
Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Sridevi Dhanarani, Congeevaram Shankar, Piruthiviraj Prakash, Kuppusamy Ranganathan, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Kaliannan Thamaraiselvi
The present study is aimed to assess the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in antibiotic resistance among the bacteria isolated from the poultry litter and to identify the effect of GST to reduce the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics. Induction of various antibiotics to Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Micrococcus sp. isolated from the poultry litter showed that the activity of GST was three to four folds higher than those of control. Analysis of the isozyme pattern of GST revealed that variation in the expression may be due to antibiotic resistance...
July 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652785/prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-poultry-farms-in-three-regions-of-ghana
#16
Vivian Etsiapa Boamah, Christian Agyare, Hayford Odoi, Francis Adu, Stephen Yao Gbedema, Anders Dalsgaard
The use of antibiotics in animal production has been associated with the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms including commensals. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species, which were until recently considered non-pathogenic, have been associated with opportunistic infections and high resistance to several antibiotics. This study sought to determine the prevalence, identity, and phenotypic resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from some selected poultry farms and farm workers in the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, and Greater Accra regions of Ghana...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651355/evaluation-of-welfare-parameters-in-laying-hens-on-the-basis-of-a-bavarian-survey
#17
H Louton, S M Bergmann, E Rauch, C Liebers, S Reese, M H Erhard, C Hoeborn, A Schwarzer
Health issues like infestation with poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and behavioral problems such as feather pecking and cannibalism are reported as current problems on laying hen farms. However, the epidemiological prevalence of these issues in Bavaria, Germany, is not known. The objective of the present survey was to determine the epidemiological prevalence of health and behavioral parameters and the management of hen farms in practice. The survey was sent to all laying hen farmers with more than 1,000 hens in Bavaria, Germany, and contained questions regarding flock management, behavior problems and health issues...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649571/impact-of-built-up-litter-and-commercial-antimicrobials-on-salmonella-and-campylobacter-contamination-of-broiler-carcasses-processed-at-a-pilot-mobile-poultry-processing-unit
#18
KaWang Li, Lacey Lemonakis, Brian Glover, Joseph Moritz, Cangliang Shen
The small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (MPPU) produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of USDA poultry products inspection act. Limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of MPPU-processed poultry carcasses. This study evaluated the Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on MPPU-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on broilers. In study I, straight-run Hubbard × Cobb broilers (147) were reared for 38 days on clean-shavings (CS, 75) or built-up-litter (BUL, 72) and processed at an MPPU...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637332/coarse-particle-inclusion-and-lignocellulose-rich-fiber-addition-in-feed-benefit-performance-and-health-of-broiler-chickens
#19
Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
Measures to improve gut health and nutrient digestibility have been sought due to in-feed antibiotics being phased out in poultry. The appropriate physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber may be beneficial in enhancing gut health in poultry. In this study, the effect of a lignocellulose-rich fiber source and corn particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, nutrient digestibility, cecal microflora, and litter quality was evaluated. A total of 684 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated to 6 treatments with 6 replicate pens, each housing 19 birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627067/a-by-product-of-swine-slaughtering-as-a-protein-source-in-broiler-diets-effects-on-performance-composition-of-excreta-litter-quality-and-on-foot-pad-health
#20
M Kölln, A Loi-Brügger, J Kamphues
Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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