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Poultry litter

Richard D Foust, Michael Phillips, Killian Hull, Dariia Yehorova
Twelve applications of poultry litter were made to a 2.1-ha field located in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, United States (USA), between March 1999 and August 2014. The field was planted with bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) and used as a pasture on an active farm. Copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and arsenic concentrations in the poultry litter were measured, and the application rates of these metals were calculated. The median application rates were: Cu, 1.32 kg/ha, Fe, 5.57 kg/ha, Mn, 1.80 kg/ha, Zn, 1...
May 14, 2018: Toxics
Bussarakam Chuppava, Christian Visscher, Josef Kamphues
Litter quality has a significant influence on the performance and foot pad health in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on the performance and foot pad health in fattening broilers and turkeys. Three trials were conducted for each species using a total of 720 Ross 308 broilers and 720 Big 6 turkeys. After day seven, animals were randomly assigned to four groups with three subgroups each: G1—floor pens with litter, G2—floor pens with litter and floor heating, G3—partially-slatted flooring, including a littered area, and G4—fully-slatted flooring with a sand bath (900 cm²)...
May 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Shumei Wang, Li Chen, Maozhang He, Junda Shen, Guoqin Li, Zhengrong Tao, Rurong Wu, Lizhi Lu
Emerging evidences have linked the gut microbiota to poultry physiology. Gut microbiota composition in Shaoxing ducks were profiled under different rearing conditions: raised on the litter floor and the plastic mesh floor. A total of 46 and 39 luminal content samples from the duodenum, ileum, and cecum of the ducks reared under the two conditions were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis. Proteobacteria (48.66%), Proteobacteria (33.38%), and Bacteroidetes (55.35%) were the dominant phyla in the duodenum, ileum, and cecum of the ducks reared on the litter floor respectively, while Firmicutes (30...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard Ducatelle, Evy Goossens, Fien De Meyer, Venessa Eeckhaut, Gunther Antonissen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Van Immerseel
Intestinal health is determined by host (immunity, mucosal barrier), nutritional, microbial and environmental factors. Deficiencies in intestinal health are associated with shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), leakage of the mucosal barrier and/or inflammation. Since the ban on growth promoting antimicrobials in animal feed, these dysbiosis-related problems have become a major issue, especially in intensive animal farming. The economical and animal welfare consequences are considerable...
May 8, 2018: Veterinary Research
Sadia Naseem, Annie J King
Due to greater consumption of poultry products and an increase in exports, more poultry houses will be needed. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways that poultry facilities can coexist in close proximity to residential areas without odors and environmental challenges. Ammonia (NH3 ) is the greatest concern for environmental pollution from poultry production. When birds consume protein, they produce uric acid, ultimately converted to NH3 under favorable conditions. Factors that increase production include pH, temperature, moisture content, litter type, bird age, manure age, relative humidity, and ventilation rate (VR)...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bussarakam Chuppava, Birgit Keller, Jessica Meißner, Manfred Kietzmann, Christian Visscher
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from turkeys treated with enrofloxacin. Two trials were performed with same feed, housing conditions and fattening duration, but with different flooring designs. Furthermore, the first trial was performed in an unchanged environment and the second trial in a changed environment. The flooring designs of the pens were assigned to four groups; G1 - entire floor pen covered with litter, G2 - floor pen with heating, G3 - partially slatted flooring including an area that was littered, G4 - fully slatted flooring with a sand bath...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
C G Velasquez, K S Macklin, S Kumar, M Bailey, P E Ebner, H F Oliver, F S Martin-Gonzalez, M Singh
Salmonella spp. are among the most common foodborne pathogens, and increase in the occurrence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella poses a severe risk to public health. The main objective of this study was to determine changes in Salmonella prevalence and their antimicrobial resistance on poultry farms following recommendations to changes in biosecurity practices. Four poultry farms were sampled by collecting cloacal swabs, drag swabs, and litter samples prior to recommended biosecurity changes (March-April) and post recommendations (October-November)...
March 27, 2018: Poultry Science
Myrthe Suzanne Gilbert, Noortje Ijssennagger, Arie K Kies, Saskia W C van Mil
The amount of dietary protein is associated with intestinal disease in different vertebrate species. In humans, this is exemplified by the association between high protein intake and fermentation metabolite concentrations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In production animals, dietary protein intake is associated with post-weaning diarrhea in piglets and with the occurrence of wet litter in poultry. The underlying mechanisms by which dietary protein contributes to intestinal problems remain largely unknown...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
A Yakubu, O I A Oluremi, E I Ekpo
There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR)...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Kingsley K Duah, Edward K Essuman, Osca S Olympio, Worlah Akwetey, Vida Gyimah, Jeremiah O Yeboah
Commercial poultry production, although fairly well developed, continues to develop rapidly in Africa and other areas of the world. The local chickens, which may perhaps be harnessed and exploited for poverty alleviation, form part of the many local assets of underprivileged people living in the rural areas. In view of this, the study aims to investigate consumer acceptability of indigenous chicken meats using survey and sensory evaluation. The survey is comprised mainly of interviewing market women and supplying birds to them for sale in order to find answers to questions related to marketability or otherwise of the naked-neck, frizzled naked-neck, and normal-feathered cockerels...
March 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Henrik Christensen, Susanne Kabell, Magne Bisgaard
Pododermatitis has been observed in several layer flocks in Denmark during 2015. The aetiology is complex, including litter quality, nutrition and management. Bacterial pathogens associated with pododermatitis, however, have not received much attention. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to identify 106 bacterial isolates obtained from pododermatitis in table egg layers in addition to five isolates from spleen/bursa presternalis. Isolates were obtained from layers from six affected flocks. All isolates were identified by standard bacterial methods, species-specific PCRs, 16S rRNA sequencing or matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization identification...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Jannigje G Kers, Francisca C Velkers, Egil A J Fischer, Gerben D A Hermes, J A Stegeman, Hauke Smidt
The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
D B Abdala, P A Moore, M Rodrigues, W F Herrera, P S Pavinato
Whereas soil test information on the fertility and chemistry of soils has been important to elaborate safe and sound agricultural practices, micro-scale information can give a whole extra dimension to understand the chemical processes occurring in soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects that the consecutive application of untreated poultry litter, alum-treated litter or ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3 ) had on P solubility in soils over 20 years. For this, we used soil test data, sequential chemical fractionation (SCF) of P, and P K-edge XANES and μ-fluorescence spectroscopies...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Seunggun Won, Naveed Ahmed, Byung-Gu You, Soomin Shim, Seung-Su Kim, Changsix Ra
Background: Poultry breeding has increased by 306% in Korea, inevitably increasing the production of manure which may contribute to environmental pollution. The nutrients (NP) in the manure are essential for crop cultivation and soil fertility when applied as compost. Excess nutrients from manure can be accumulated on the land and can lead to eutrophication. Therefore, a nutrient load on the finite land should be calculated. Methods: This study calculates the nutrient production from Korean poultry by investigating 11 broiler and 16 laying hen farms...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Sanjay K Gupta, X Chris Le, Gary Kachanosky, Martin J Zuidhof, Tariq Siddique
Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen-1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen-1 ) during the growth phase of 35days...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Barbara J Cade-Menun, Kyle R Elkin, Corey W Liu, Ray B Bryant, Peter J A Kleinman, Philip A Moore
Phosphorus (P) can limit crop production in many soils, and soil testing is used to guide fertilizer recommendations. The Mehlich III (M3) soil test is widely used in North America, followed by colorimetric analysis for P, or by inductively coupled plasma-based spectrometry (ICP) for P and cations. However, differences have been observed in M3 P concentrations measured by these methods. Using 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), we characterized P forms in M3 extracts. In addition to the orthophosphate that would be detected during colorimetric analysis, several organic P forms were present in M3 extracts that would be unreactive colorimetrically but measured by ICP (molybdate unreactive P, MUP)...
February 21, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
F Khattak, V Paschalis, M Green, J G M Houdijk, P Soultanas, J Mahdavi
Reducing Campylobacter spp. carriage in poultry is challenging, but essential to control this major cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although much is known about the mechanisms and route of Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry, the literature is scarce on antibiotic-free solutions to combat Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the role of TYPLEX® Chelate (ferric tyrosine), a novel feed additive, in inhibiting Campylobacter jejuni (C...
April 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Grace A Albanese, Laura R Tensa, Emily J Aston, Deborah A Hilt, Brian J Jordan
Coccidiosis is an economically significant disease of poultry caused by species of Eimeria, a parasitic protozoan. Disease can result in poor feed conversion, reduced weight gain, and can lead to the development of necrotic enteritis. For prevention of coccidiosis, poultry are commonly vaccinated with a live, sporulated oocysts mass applied with a vaccination cabinet in the hatchery. Traditionally, coccidia vaccines have been applied by coarse spray in a water based diluent, however, new technology using gel diluents has entered the US market...
May 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Hung-Yueh Yeh, John E Line, Arthur Hinton
Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is ubiquitous in the environment and is considered as the normal microflora in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often causing urinary tract infections. Moreover, Proteus has been frequently isolated from food animals, including poultry. Whether this bacterium contributes to the foodborne illness in humans is unclear. In this report, P. mirabilis isolates recovered from broilers during housing in the units were characterized, their antimicrobial activity was assayed, and broiler immune response to the soluble proteins was determined...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science
Z Chen, J Kim, X Jiang
AIM: Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in animal waste-based composts was studied with different compost types, storage conditions and inoculum levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cocktail of three E. coli O157:H7 or S. enterica strains was inoculated into dairy manure-based composts (A and B) or poultry litter-based composts (C and D), respectively, at final concentrations of c. 5 or 2 log CFU per gram. Composts were then stored at 5 and 22°C, and under greenhouse condition...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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