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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796792/divergent-selection-on-home-pen-locomotor-activity-in-a-chicken-model-selection-program-genetic-parameters-and-direct-response-on-activity-and-body-weight
#1
Joergen B Kjaer
General locomotor activity (GLA) in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption) and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism). Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794394/review-of-toxicity-studies-of-carbon-nanotubes
#2
Norihiro Kobayashi, Hiroto Izumi, Yasuo Morimoto
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed studies on pulmonary, reproductive, and developmental toxicity caused by carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In paricular, we analyzed how CNT exposure affects the several processes of pulmonary toxicity, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, and pulmonary tumors. METHODS: In pulmonary toxicity, there are various processes, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, respiratory tumor in the lungs, and biopersistence of CNTs and genotoxicity as tumor-related factors, to develop the respiratory tumor...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756990/thermal-stability-of-biochar-and-its-effects-on-cadmium-sorption-capacity
#3
Fangjie Qi, Yubo Yan, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yanju Liu, Yong Sik Ok, Scott W Donne, Kirk T Semple
In this study, the thermal stability of a wood shaving biochar (WS, 650°C), a chicken litter biochar (CL, 550°C) and an activated carbon (AC, 1100°C) were evaluated by combustion at 375°C for 24h to remove the labile non-carbonized organic matter. Results showed that WS and CL biochars were not thermally stable and can lose most of the organic C during combustion. The combusted WS and CL biochars retained considerable amounts of negative charge and displayed higher sorption for Cd (from 5.46 to 68.9mg/g for WS and from 48...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735210/moisture-content-prediction-in-poultry-litter-using-artificial-intelligence-techniques-and-monte-carlo-simulation-to-determine-the-economic-yield-from-energy-use
#4
José Octavio Rico-Contreras, Alberto Alfonso Aguilar-Lasserre, Juan Manuel Méndez-Contreras, Jhony Josué López-Andrés, Gabriela Cid-Chama
The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730581/biogas-from-poultry-waste-production-and-energy-potential
#5
Karoline Carvalho Dornelas, Roselene Maria Schneider, Adriana Garcia do Amaral
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m(-2) were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687998/effects-of-low-to-moderate-levels-of-deoxynivalenol-on-feed-and-water-intake-weight-gain-and-slaughtering-traits-of-broiler-chickens
#6
A Lucke, B Doupovec, P Paulsen, Q Zebeli, J Böhm
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of low to moderate oral exposure to the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON; derived from culture material) on performance, water intake, and carcass parameters of broilers during early and late developmental phases. A total of 160 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four different feeding groups (n = 40/group) including 0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10 mg DON/kg wheat-soybean meal-based feed. Three consecutive replicates of the experiment were performed...
July 7, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637332/coarse-particle-inclusion-and-lignocellulose-rich-fiber-addition-in-feed-benefit-performance-and-health-of-broiler-chickens
#7
Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
Measures to improve gut health and nutrient digestibility have been sought due to in-feed antibiotics being phased out in poultry. The appropriate physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber may be beneficial in enhancing gut health in poultry. In this study, the effect of a lignocellulose-rich fiber source and corn particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, nutrient digestibility, cecal microflora, and litter quality was evaluated. A total of 684 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated to 6 treatments with 6 replicate pens, each housing 19 birds...
June 15, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627052/influence-of-different-protein-sources-in-the-broiler-diet-on-the-presence-of-campylobacter-spp-in-excreta-and-caecal-content
#8
C F Visscher, A Abd El-Wahab, M F E Ahmed, J Hankel, V Taube, J Kamphues
The aim of the present study was to examine possible effects of a different protein supply on the presence of Campylobacter in excreta and caecal content of broiler chickens. Therefore, 220 one-day-old chickens were fed five different diets in the experimental period (day 8 onwards). In the control group (CON; n = 3 boxes), a soya bean-based industrially produced complete diet containing 5-10% whole wheat and coccidiostats was fed, whereas in the remaining groups, four own-made complete diets with four protein sources and combinations (4 × 2 boxes; soya bean meal-based diet = SBM; rapeseed meal-containing diet = RSM; haemoglobin meal-containing diet = HGP; algae-containing diet = ALG) were offered...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619149/abortion-and-mortality-in-farm-mink-neovison-vison-associated-with-feed-born-clostridium-limosum
#9
Anne Sofie Hammer, Lars Andresen, Bent Aalbæk, Peter Damborg, Vilhelm Weiss, Mette Line Christiansen, Søren Selsing, Martin Iain Bahl
Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters. Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472118/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-lactobacillus-acidophilus-d2-csl-cect-4529-on-caecum-microbioma-and-productive-performance-in-broiler-chickens
#10
Alessandra De Cesare, Federico Sirri, Gerardo Manfreda, Paola Moniaci, Alberto Giardini, Marco Zampiga, Adele Meluzzi
This study examines the effects of the dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) (LA) on productive performances, incidence of foot pad dermatitis and caecum microbioma in broiler chickens. A total of 1,100 one-day old male Ross 308 chicks were divided into 2 groups of 16 replicates with 25 birds each and reared from 1-41 d. One group was fed a basal diet (CON) and the other group the same diet supplemented with LA. Caecum contents were collected from 4 selected birds at day one and 5 selected birds at the end of the rearing period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464112/association-between-environmental-predisposing-risk-factors-and-leg-disorders-in-broiler-chickens
#11
E Tullo, I Fontana, A Peña Fernandez, E Vranken, T Norton, D Berckmans, M Guarino
Footpad dermatitis and lameness are a major welfare concern in broiler chicken farming. In general, footpad lesions are linked to poor environmental conditions. Ulcers that arise from advanced lesions can negatively affect the gait of the birds, with effects on the animal welfare, including, in the worst cases, inability to reach the feed or water. In this study, the degree of footpad dermatitis and lameness was manually scored on 4 broiler farms across Europe, as part of an EU-wide welfare assessment program...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437653/effects-of-acidic-and-neutral-biochars-on-properties-and-cadmium-retention-of-soils
#12
Fangjie Qi, Zhaomin Dong, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yong Sik Ok, Cuixia Liu, Naser Khan, M A H Johir, Kirk T Semple
In this study, an acidic biochar and a neutral biochar were applied at 5 wt% into two soils for an 11-month incubation experiment. One Ferrosol soil (Ba) was slightly acidic with low organic matter and the other Dermosol soil (Mt) was slightly alkaline with high organic matter. The acidic (pH = 3.25) wood shaving (WS) biochar had no marked impact on nutrient levels, cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of either soil. By contrast, the neutral (pH = 7.00) chicken litter (CL) biochar significantly increased major soluble nutrients, pH, ANC of soil Ba...
August 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427257/effect-of-dietary-calcium-concentrations-in-low-non-phytate-phosphorus-diets-containing-phytase-on-growth-performance-bone-mineralization-litter-quality-and-footpad-dermatitis-incidence-in-growing-broiler-chickens
#13
Jong Hyuk Kim, Hyunjung Jung, Franco Martinez Pitargue, Gi Ppeum Han, Hyeon Seok Choi, Dong Yong Kil
OBJECTIVE: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. METHODS: A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4...
July 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398088/effects-of-fermented-cottonseed-meal-on-the-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-microflora-population-and-small-intestinal-morphology-in-broiler-chickens
#14
V Jazi, F Boldaji, B Dastar, S R Hashemi, A Ashayerizadeh
1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing dietary cottonseed meal (CSM) or fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) for soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, gastrointestinal microbial populations, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. 2. CSM was fermented with Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and A. oryzae for 7 d. A total of 300 one-d-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a 42-d experiment in which the birds were randomly allotted to one of 5 dietary treatments (containing 0%, 10% and 20% CSM or FCSM) in a completely randomised design...
June 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339770/characterization-of-indigenous-aseel-chicken-breed-for-morphological-growth-production-and-meat-composition-traits-from-india
#15
U Rajkumar, S Haunshi, C Paswan, M V L N Raju, S V Rama Rao, R N Chatterjee
Aseel is an important native chicken breed of India, known for its martial qualities (aggressive fighting abilities), pugnacity, and majestic gait. The aim of the study is to conserve and characterize the Aseel germplasm, which is considered to be endangered. The birds were maintained on deep litter under a simulated backyard type of housing having night shelter and a free-range area. A total of 313 chicks produced in the second generation from the flock collected from native tract in Andhra Pradesh was characterized for morphological, growth, production, and meat quality parameters...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321028/durability-of-alkaline-agents-bactericidal-efficacies-in-litter-under-field-conditions
#16
Hakimullah Hakim, Chiharu Toyofuku, Mari Ota, Mayuko Suzuki, Miyuki Komura, Masashi Yamada, Md Shahin Alam, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara
Alkaline agents are well-known for their disinfection capacities against pathogens even at the presence of organic materials, but the durability of their bactericidal efficacies under field conditions is unknown. Therefore, within the present study, two alkaline agents, namely bioceramic (BCX) derived from chicken feces and food additive grade Ca(OH)2 (FdCa(OH)2) derived from natural lime stone, were evaluated for the persistence of their bactericidal efficacies in litter, under simulated field conditions. BCX powder mixed at 50% concentration in litter or FdCa(OH)2 powder at 20% concentration in litter lost their bactericidal efficacies at 3 days post exposure of chicks, and thereafter, both mentioned alkaline agents could not inactivate bacteria down to the acceptable level (≥3 log10 CFU/ml reduction)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278292/salmonella-serovars-and-their-distribution-in-nigerian-commercial-chicken-layer-farms
#17
Idowu Oluwabunmi Fagbamila, Lisa Barco, Marzia Mancin, Jacob Kwaga, Sati Samuel Ngulukun, Paola Zavagnin, Antonia Anna Lettini, Monica Lorenzetto, Paul Ayuba Abdu, Junaidu Kabir, Jarlath Umoh, Antonia Ricci, Maryam Muhammad
Commercial poultry farms (n° 523), located in all the six regions of Nigeria were sampled with a view to generate baseline information about the distribution of Salmonella serovars in this country. Five different matrices (litter, dust, faeces, feed and water) were collected from each visited farm. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the five matrices in 228 farms, with a farm prevalence of 43.6% (CI95[39.7-48.3%]). Altogether, 370 of 2615 samples collected (14.1%, CI95[12.8; 15.5%]) contained Salmonella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258625/modelling-based-identification-of-factors-influencing-campylobacters-in-chicken-broiler-houses-and-on-carcasses-sampled-after-processing-and-chilling
#18
M L Hutchison, M J Taylor, M A Tchòrzewska, G Ford, R H Madden, T G Knowles
AIMS: To identify production and processing practices that might reduce Campylobacter numbers contaminating chicken broiler carcasses. METHODS AND RESULTS: The numbers of campylobacters were determined on carcass neck skins after processing or in broiler house litter samples. Supplementary information that described farm layouts, farming conditions for individual flocks, the slaughterhouse layouts and operating conditions inside plants was collected, matched with each Campylobacter test result...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066939/the-nutrition-of-poultry-as-a-factor-affecting-litter-quality-and-foot-pad-dermatitis-an-updated-review
#19
REVIEW
S Swiatkiewicz, A Arczewska-Wlosek, D Jozefiak
Foot pad dermatitis (FPD), a condition of inflammation and necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads, is commonly observed in fast-growing broiler chickens and turkeys. FPD negatively affects the welfare of birds, performance indices and the economic profit of poultry meat production. Nutrition is an important factor affecting water intake, excreta moisture and litter quality and, in this way, the occurrence and intensity of FPD in birds. This article reviews and discusses the recent results published in the literature on the effects of nutritional factors on litter quality and FPD severity in broiler chickens and turkeys...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053585/comparative-efficacy-of-different-approaches-to-managing-meloidogyne-incognita-on-green-bean
#20
Ahmad S Al-Hazmi, Ahmed A M Dawabah, Saleh N Al-Nadhari, Fahad A Al-Yahya
A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of different approaches to managing Meloidogyne incognita on green bean. These approaches included chemical (fumigant, non-fumigant, seed dressing, and seed dip), biological (the egg-parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp.), physical (soil solarization), and cultural (chicken litter and urea) methods. Accordingly, nine different control materials and application methods plus nematode-infected and non-infected controls were compared...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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