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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083877/stimulation-of-phytoplankton-production-by-anthropogenic-dissolved-organic-nitrogen-in-a-coastal-plain-estuary
#1
Alexandria G Hounshell, Benjamin L Peierls, Christopher L Osburn, Hans W Paerl
There is increased focus on nitrogen (N)-containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a nutrient source supporting eutrophication in N-sensitive estuarine ecosystems. This is particularly relevant in watersheds undergoing urban and agricultural development, leading to increased dissolved organic N (DON) loading. To understand how this shift in N-loading influences estuarine phytoplankton production, nutrient addition bioassays were conducted in the N-limited Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina from 2014 to 2015...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024064/physiological-and-health-related-response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-diets-containing-raw-full-fat-soya-bean-meal-supplemented-with-microbial-protease
#2
M M Erdaw, R A Perez-Maldonado, P A Iji
A 2 × 3 factorial study (protease: 0 or 1,5000 PROT/kg and raw full-fat soya bean meal [RSBM] replacing the commercial SBM at 0, 45 and 75 g/kg of diet) was conducted to examine the performance of broilers. Phytase (2000 FYT/kg) was uniformly added to each diet, each also replicated six times, with eight birds per replicate. Birds were raised in climate-controlled rooms using sawdust as the bedding material and offered starter, grower and finisher diets. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were reduced (p < ...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938791/effects-of-a-high-dose-of-microbial-phytase-and-myo-inositol-supplementation-on-growth-performance-tibia-mineralization-nutrient-digestibility-litter-moisture-content-and-foot-problems-in-broiler-chickens-fed-phosphorus-deficient-diets
#3
D Farhadi, A Karimi, Gh Sadeghi, J Rostamzadeh, M R Bedford
A total of 660 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eleven dietary treatments. Treatments included a maize-soybean meal-based diet with recommended calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg), a NC diet plus 0.15% myo-inositol, and a NC diet with reduced Ca level (Ca to nPP ratio same as PC)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910723/sorption-desorption-equilibrium-and-diffusion-of-tetracycline-in-poultry-litter-and-municipal-biosolids-soil-amendments
#4
E D'Angelo
Tetracycline (TET) is commonly used to treat bacterial diseases in humans and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is largely excreted, and is found at elevated concentrations in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) and poultry litter (excrement plus bedding materials). Routine application of these nutrient-and carbon-enriched materials to soils improves fertility and other characteristics, but the presence of antibiotics (and other pharmaceuticals) in amendments raises questions about potential adverse effects on biota and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903878/thermal-inactivation-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-poultry-litter-as-a-method-to-decontaminate-poultry-houses
#5
Christopher B Stephens, Erica Spackman
Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892840/cadmium-solubility-and-bioavailability-in-soils-amended-with-acidic-and-neutral-biochar
#6
Fangjie Qi, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yubo Yan, Yong Sik Ok, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Girish Choppala
This study was designed to investigate the effects of acidic and neutral biochars on solubility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils with contrasting properties. Four Cd contaminated (50mg/kg) soils (EN: Entisol, AL: Andisol, VE: Vertisol, IN: Inceptisol) were amended with 5% acidic wood shaving biochar (WS, pH=3.25) and neutral chicken litter biochar (CL, pH=7.00). Following a 140-day incubation, the solubility and bioavailability/bioaccessibility of cadmium (Cd) were assessed. Results showed that both biochars had no effect on reducing soluble (pore water) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extractable) Cd for higher sorption capacity soils (AL, IN) while CL biochar reduced those in lower sorption capacity soils (EN, VE) by around 50%...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884072/ochroconis-gallopava-bronchitis-mimicking-haemoptysis-in-a-patient-with-bronchiectasis
#7
M Bernasconi, C Voinea, P M Hauser, L P Nicod, R Lazor
Ochroconis gallopava is an anamorphic mould characterized by slow growth rate and production of a maroon pigment, which has been isolated worldwide from soil, thermal springs, decaying vegetation, and chicken litter. It has been reported to cause localized, mostly pulmonary, and systemic infection in severely immunocompromised patients. We describe the case of a 76-year-old woman known for ulcerative colitis-related bronchiectasis treated with low dose oral steroids, who developed a fungal bronchitis with dark, bloody-like, sputum which was initially misinterpreted as haemoptysis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854751/poultry-rearing-on-perforated-plastic-floors-and-the-effect-on-air-quality-growth-performance-and-carcass-injuries-experiment-1-thermal-comfort
#8
Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Lilian Francisco Arantes de Souza, Aline Cristina Sant'Anna, Raphael Nogueira Bahiense, Marcos Macari, Renato Luis Furlan
The present study investigated the use of perforated plastic floors in the rearing of male and female poultry under thermal comfort conditions. The study was conducted in 2 climate chambers, in one was conventional poultry litter (wood shavings) and in the other was a perforated plastic floor. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with the factors wood shavings and plastic floor. In each chamber, the animals were divided into 16 experimental pens (8 with males and 8 with females) with a density of 12 birds/m2...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843753/anaerobic-digestion-co-digestion-kinetic-potentials-of-different-agro-industrial-wastes-a-comparative-batch-study-for-c-n-optimisation
#9
Zubayeda Zahan, Maazuza Z Othman, Tim H Muster
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of different agro-industrial wastes and their co-digestion potential has been exhaustively studied in this research. It explores variation of feedstock characteristics such as biodegradability and methane potential during AD and anaerobic co-digestion (ACoD) of chicken litter (CL) with yoghurt whey (YW), organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), hay grass (HG) and wheat straw (WS) under mesophilic conditions. Comparative performance was made at different loading concentrations (2%, 3% and 4% VS) with 1:2g/g VS of substrate to inoculum and carrying C/N ratio...
August 23, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796792/divergent-selection-on-home-pen-locomotor-activity-in-a-chicken-model-selection-program-genetic-parameters-and-direct-response-on-activity-and-body-weight
#10
Joergen B Kjaer
General locomotor activity (GLA) in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption) and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism). Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794394/review-of-toxicity-studies-of-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Norihiro Kobayashi, Hiroto Izumi, Yasuo Morimoto
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed studies on pulmonary, reproductive, and developmental toxicity caused by carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In paricular, we analyzed how CNT exposure affects the several processes of pulmonary toxicity, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, and pulmonary tumors. METHODS: In pulmonary toxicity, there are various processes, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, respiratory tumor in the lungs, and biopersistence of CNTs and genotoxicity as tumor-related factors, to develop the respiratory tumor...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756990/thermal-stability-of-biochar-and-its-effects-on-cadmium-sorption-capacity
#12
Fangjie Qi, Yubo Yan, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yanju Liu, Yong Sik Ok, Scott W Donne, Kirk T Semple
In this study, the thermal stability of a wood shaving biochar (WS, 650°C), a chicken litter biochar (CL, 550°C) and an activated carbon (AC, 1100°C) were evaluated by combustion at 375°C for 24h to remove the labile non-carbonized organic matter. Results showed that WS and CL biochars were not thermally stable and can lose most of the organic C during combustion. The combusted WS and CL biochars retained considerable amounts of negative charge and displayed higher sorption for Cd (from 5.46 to 68.9mg/g for WS and from 48...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735210/moisture-content-prediction-in-poultry-litter-using-artificial-intelligence-techniques-and-monte-carlo-simulation-to-determine-the-economic-yield-from-energy-use
#13
José Octavio Rico-Contreras, Alberto Alfonso Aguilar-Lasserre, Juan Manuel Méndez-Contreras, Jhony Josué López-Andrés, Gabriela Cid-Chama
The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730581/biogas-from-poultry-waste-production-and-energy-potential
#14
Karoline Carvalho Dornelas, Roselene Maria Schneider, Adriana Garcia do Amaral
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m(-2) were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687998/effects-of-low-to-moderate-levels-of-deoxynivalenol-on-feed-and-water-intake-weight-gain-and-slaughtering-traits-of-broiler-chickens
#15
A Lucke, B Doupovec, P Paulsen, Q Zebeli, J Böhm
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of low to moderate oral exposure to the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON; derived from culture material) on performance, water intake, and carcass parameters of broilers during early and late developmental phases. A total of 160 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four different feeding groups (n = 40/group) including 0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10 mg DON/kg wheat-soybean meal-based feed. Three consecutive replicates of the experiment were performed...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637332/coarse-particle-inclusion-and-lignocellulose-rich-fiber-addition-in-feed-benefit-performance-and-health-of-broiler-chickens
#16
Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
Measures to improve gut health and nutrient digestibility have been sought due to in-feed antibiotics being phased out in poultry. The appropriate physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber may be beneficial in enhancing gut health in poultry. In this study, the effect of a lignocellulose-rich fiber source and corn particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, nutrient digestibility, cecal microflora, and litter quality was evaluated. A total of 684 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated to 6 treatments with 6 replicate pens, each housing 19 birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627052/influence-of-different-protein-sources-in-the-broiler-diet-on-the-presence-of-campylobacter-spp-in-excreta-and-caecal-content
#17
C F Visscher, A Abd El-Wahab, M F E Ahmed, J Hankel, V Taube, J Kamphues
The aim of the present study was to examine possible effects of a different protein supply on the presence of Campylobacter in excreta and caecal content of broiler chickens. Therefore, 220 one-day-old chickens were fed five different diets in the experimental period (day 8 onwards). In the control group (CON; n = 3 boxes), a soya bean-based industrially produced complete diet containing 5-10% whole wheat and coccidiostats was fed, whereas in the remaining groups, four own-made complete diets with four protein sources and combinations (4 × 2 boxes; soya bean meal-based diet = SBM; rapeseed meal-containing diet = RSM; haemoglobin meal-containing diet = HGP; algae-containing diet = ALG) were offered...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619149/abortion-and-mortality-in-farm-mink-neovison-vison-associated-with-feed-born-clostridium-limosum
#18
Anne Sofie Hammer, Lars Andresen, Bent Aalbæk, Peter Damborg, Vilhelm Weiss, Mette Line Christiansen, Søren Selsing, Martin Iain Bahl
Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters. Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472118/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-lactobacillus-acidophilus-d2-csl-cect-4529-on-caecum-microbioma-and-productive-performance-in-broiler-chickens
#19
Alessandra De Cesare, Federico Sirri, Gerardo Manfreda, Paola Moniaci, Alberto Giardini, Marco Zampiga, Adele Meluzzi
This study examines the effects of the dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) (LA) on productive performances, incidence of foot pad dermatitis and caecum microbioma in broiler chickens. A total of 1,100 one-day old male Ross 308 chicks were divided into 2 groups of 16 replicates with 25 birds each and reared from 1-41 d. One group was fed a basal diet (CON) and the other group the same diet supplemented with LA. Caecum contents were collected from 4 selected birds at day one and 5 selected birds at the end of the rearing period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464112/association-between-environmental-predisposing-risk-factors-and-leg-disorders-in-broiler-chickens
#20
E Tullo, I Fontana, A Peña Fernandez, E Vranken, T Norton, D Berckmans, M Guarino
Footpad dermatitis and lameness are a major welfare concern in broiler chicken farming. In general, footpad lesions are linked to poor environmental conditions. Ulcers that arise from advanced lesions can negatively affect the gait of the birds, with effects on the animal welfare, including, in the worst cases, inability to reach the feed or water. In this study, the degree of footpad dermatitis and lameness was manually scored on 4 broiler farms across Europe, as part of an EU-wide welfare assessment program...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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