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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902913/regulatory-considerations-for-the-approval-of-drugs-against-histomoniasis-blackhead-disease-in-turkeys-chickens-and-game-birds-in-the-united-states
#1
Prajwal R Regmi, Ashley L Shaw, Laura L Hungerford, Janis R Messenheimer, Tong Zhou, Padmakumar Pillai, Amy Omer, Jeffrey M Gilbert
Histomoniasis, commonly referred to as blackhead disease, is a serious threat to the turkey and game bird industries worldwide, and it is having an increasingly negative impact on the chicken industry as well. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), charged with the approval and regulation of new animal drugs in the United States, understands the rising need for the availability of therapeutic options against histomoniasis. CVM has actively engaged in discussions with the poultry industry, academic institutions, and animal health companies regarding the current status of histomoniasis in the United States and varied success of past and current management, prophylactic, and therapeutic interventions that have been used against the disease...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864134/biochemical-methane-potential-of-oil-extracted-microalgae-and-glycerol-in-co-digestion-with-chicken-litter
#2
José Carlos Meneses-Reyes, Guadalupe Hernández-Eugenio, David H Huber, Nagamani Balagurusamy, Teodoro Espinosa-Solares
The objective of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using both oil-extracted microalgae (M) and glycerol (G) in co-digestion with chicken litter (CL), thereby improving biochemical methane potential (BMP). Different feedstock ratios of M (0-30%), G (0-3%) and CL (67-100%) were investigated to determine the best co-digestion condition under mesophilic conditions. According to the modified Gompertz model, the best BMP (131.1mLCH4gVSfed(-1)) was obtained with the triple co-digestion (M:G:CL) in a proportion of 30:3:67...
November 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766900/pathogenicity-tissue-distribution-shedding-and-environmental-detection-of-two-strains-of-ibdv-following-infection-of-chickens-at-0-and-14-days-of-age
#3
Jayasundara Mudiyanselage Kanchana Ganga Kumari Jayasundara, Stephen William Walkden-Brown, Magaret Elizabeth Katz, A F M Fakhrul Islam, Katrin Gondola Renz, Jody McNally, Peter Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664201/characterisation-and-quantification-of-changes-in-odorants-from-litter-headspace-of-meat-chickens-fed-diets-varying-in-protein-levels-and-additives
#4
Nishchal K Sharma, Mingan Choct, Mark W Dunlop, Shu-Biao Wu, Hardy Z Castada, Robert A Swick
The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) and additives on odor flux from meat chicken litter was investigated using 180 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with three replicates of 12 birds each. A 5 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: diet (low CP, high CP, high CP+antibiotic, high CP+probiotic, high CP+saponin) and age (15, 29, 35 days). The antibiotic used was Zn bacitracin, the probiotic was a blend of three Bacillus subtilis strains and the saponin came from a blend of Yucca and Quillaja...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633837/stable-isotope-ratio-method-for-the-characterisation-of-the-poultry-house-environment
#5
Raminta Skipitytė, Agnė Mašalaitė, Andrius Garbaras, Rūta Mickienė, Ona Ragažinskienė, Violeta Baliukonienė, Bronius Bakutis, Jūratė Šiugždaitė, Saulius Petkevičius, Audrius Sigitas Maruška, Vidmantas Remeikis
Stable isotope analysis was applied to describe the poultry house environment. The poultry house indoor environment was selected for this study due to the relevant health problems in animals and their caretakers. Air quality parameters including temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, NH3, CO2 and total suspended particles, as well as mean levels of total airborne bacteria and fungi count, were measured. Carbon isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C) were obtained in size-segregated aerosol particles. The carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) isotope ratios were measured in feed, litter, scrapings from the ventilation system, feathers and eggs...
September 16, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470660/high-throughput-genomic-sequencing-of-bioaerosols-in-broiler-chicken-production-facilities
#6
Kate M O'Brien, Michael S Chimenti, Morgan Farnell, Tom Tabler, Thomas Bair, Joey L Bray, Matthew W Nonnenmann
Chronic inhalation exposure to agricultural dust promotes the development of chronic respiratory diseases among poultry workers. Poultry dust is composed of dander, chicken feed, litter bedding and microbes. However, the microbial composition and abundance has not been fully elucidated. Genomic DNA was extracted from settled dust and personal inhalable dust collected while performing litter sampling or mortality collection tasks. DNA libraries were sequenced using a paired-end sequencing-by-synthesis approach on an Illumina HiSeq 2500...
July 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397991/prevalence-of-coccidiosis-among-village-and-exotic-breed-of-chickens-in-maiduguri-nigeria
#7
Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal, Saleh Mohammed Jajere, Umar Isa Ibrahim, Yaqub Ahmed Geidam, Isa Adamu Gulani, Gambo Musa, Benjamin U Ibekwe
AIM: Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird's fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds...
June 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291674/listeria-species-in-broiler-poultry-farms-potential-public-health-hazards
#8
Hesham Dahshan, Abdallah Mohamed Amin Merwad, Taisir Saber Mohamed
Broiler meat production worldwide has been plagued by lethal food-poisoning bacteria diseases, including listeriosis. A fatality rate of 15.6% was recorded in human beings in the EU in 2015. During 2013, a total of 200 poultry farm samples, including litter, chicken breast, farm feed, and drinking water, were collected to generate baseline data for the characterization of the genus Listeria in broiler poultry farms. Listeria spp. were detected in a total of 95 (47.5%) poultry farm samples. The isolates of Listeria spp...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272142/responses-of-corn-physiology-and-yield-to-six-agricultural-practices-over-three-years-in-middle-tennessee
#9
Chih-Li Yu, Dafeng Hui, Qi Deng, Junming Wang, K Chandra Reddy, Sam Dennis
Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270394/evaluation-of-ionophore-sensitivity-of-eimeria-acervulina-and-eimeria-maxima-isolated-from-the-algerian-to-jijel-province-poultry-farms
#10
Samir Djemai, Abdeslam Mekroud, Mark C Jenkins
The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and intervening transcribed sequence 1 PCR (ITS1 PCR) revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima. A pool of these isolates were evaluated in broiler chickens (Cobb 500) for sensitivity to 5 anticoccidial compounds-diclazuril (1ppm), lasalocid (125ppm), monensin (125ppm), narasin (70ppm) and salinomycin (60ppm)...
July 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242676/intestinal-microbiota-of-broiler-chickens-as-affected-by-litter-management-regimens
#11
Lingling Wang, Mike Lilburn, Zhongtang Yu
Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200208/appraisal-of-chicken-production-with-associated-biosecurity-practices-in-commercial-poultry-farms-located-in-jos-nigeria
#12
C V Maduka, I O Igbokwe, N N Atsanda
A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111649/odour-emissions-from-poultry-litter-a-review-litter-properties-odour-formation-and-odorant-emissions-from-porous-materials
#13
REVIEW
Mark W Dunlop, Patrick J Blackall, Richard M Stuetz
Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110988/the-multidimensional-causal-factors-of-wet-litter-in-chicken-meat-production
#14
REVIEW
Mark W Dunlop, Amy F Moss, Peter J Groves, Stuart J Wilkinson, Richard M Stuetz, Peter H Selle
The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080201/high-dietary-biotin-levels-affect-the-footpad-and-hock-health-of-broiler-chickens-reared-at-different-stocking-densities-and-litter-conditions
#15
Z W Sun, Q H Fan, X X Wang, Y M Guo, H J Wang, X Dong
Responses to stocking density (SD), dietary biotin concentration and litter condition were evaluated on 2016 Ross 308 male broilers in the fattening period (day 22-day 42). The birds were placed in 48 pens with either dry or wet litter to simulate the final stocking density of 30 kg (12 broilers/m(2) ; normal stocking density, NSD) and 40 kg (16 broilers/m(2) ; high stocking density, HSD) of body weight (BW)/m(2) floor space. A corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with biotin to provide a normal (NB; 155 μg/kg) or high (HB, 1521 μg/kg) level of dietary biotin...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053624/the-epizootiology-of-eimeria-infections-in-commercial-broiler-chickens-where-anticoccidial-drug-programs-were-employed-in-six-successive-flocks-to-control-coccidiosis
#16
H D Chapman, J R Barta, M A Hafeez, P Matsler, T Rathinam, M Raccoursier
The course of natural Eimeria infections in 6 successive broiler flocks at a commercial farm comprising 4 houses, where different anticoccidial drug programs were employed, was studied by counting the number of oocysts in the litter at weekly intervals. The course of infection in all flocks followed a bell shaped curve in which oocyst numbers, initially low, increased to a peak ranging from 36 × 10(3) to 74 × 10(3) oocysts/g (OPG) of litter around 3 to 4 wk of age. Numbers subsequently declined to 3 × 10(3) to 15 × 10(3) OPG...
August 1, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005691/campylobacter-and-salmonella-are-prevalent-in-broiler-farms-in-kyushu-japan-results-of-a-2-year-distribution-and-circulation-dynamics-audit
#17
W Yamazaki, R Uemura, S Sekiguchi, J-B Dong, S Watanabe, Y Kirino, H Mekata, N Nonaka, J Norimine, M Sueyoshi, Y Goto, Y Horii, M Kurogi, S Yoshino, N Misawa
AIM: To elucidate the distribution and circulation dynamics of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Japanese chicken broiler flocks. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 2-year investigation of the distribution of Campylobacter and Salmonella was conducted in 25 broiler flocks at nine farms in Japan from 2013 to 2014. Campylobacter and Salmonella tested positive in 11 (44·0%) and 24 (96·0%) broiler flocks respectively. One hundred and ninety-five Campylobacter and 184 Salmonella isolates were characterized into 12 Campylobacter (including two novel genotypes) and three Salmonella MLST genotypes...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994205/symposium-animal-welfare-challenges-for-today-and-tomorrow
#18
Yvonne Vizzier Thaxton, Karen D Christensen, Joy A Mench, Elizabeth R Rumley, Christine Daugherty, Bruce Feinberg, Molly Parker, Paul Siegel, Colin G Scanes
The increasing separation of the public from production agriculture means there is often a lack of knowledge among consumers about current production practices and a perception that increased productivity and economic efficiency are necessarily associated with a decline in animal welfare. A symposium was organized to present information about animal welfare issues and the challenges they pose for both scientists and the poultry and allied industries. Companion papers provide information about understanding public attitudes and physiological/immunological approaches to welfare assessment, while this paper outlines current and future challenges to egg and meat production and industry responses to those challenges...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950416/comparison-of-fatty-acid-profile-in-the-chicken-meat-after-feeding-with-narasin-nicarbazin-and-salinomycin-sodium-and-phyto-additive-substances
#19
Mária Angelovičová, Simona Kunová, Jozef Čapla, Peter Zajac, Ondřej Bučko, Marek Angelovič
The purpose of this study was an experimental investigation and a statistical evaluation of the influence of various additives in feed mixtures of broiler chickens on fatty acids content and their ratio in breast and thigh muscles. First feed additive consisted of narasin, nicarbasin and salinomycin sodium, and other five additives were of phytogenic origin. In vivo experiment was realized on the poultry experimental station with deep litter breeding system. A total of 300 one-day-old hybrid chickens Cobb 500 divided into six groups were used for the experiment...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946169/water-activity-of-poultry-litter-relationship-to-moisture-content-during-a-grow-out
#20
Mark W Dunlop, Jim McAuley, Patrick J Blackall, Richard M Stuetz
Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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