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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333111/solanesol-biosynthesis-in-plants
#1
REVIEW
Ning Yan, Yanhua Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Yongmei Du, Xinmin Liu, Zhongfeng Zhang
Solanesol is a non-cyclic terpene alcohol composed of nine isoprene units that mainly accumulates in solanaceous plants. Solanesol plays an important role in the interactions between plants and environmental factors such as pathogen infections and moderate-to-high temperatures. Additionally, it is a key intermediate for the pharmaceutical synthesis of ubiquinone-based drugs such as coenzyme Q10 and vitamin K2, and anti-cancer agent synergizers such as N-solanesyl-N,N'-bis(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl) ethylenediamine (SDB)...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328644/identification-of-key-odorants-in-used-disposable-absorbent-incontinence-products
#2
Gunnar Hall, Susanne Alenljung, Ulla Forsgren-Brusk
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify key odorants in used disposable absorbent incontinence products. DESIGN: Descriptive in vitro study SUBJECTS AND SETTING:: Samples of used incontinence products were collected from 8 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area of Sweden. Products were chosen from a larger set of products that had previously been characterized by descriptive odor analysis. METHODS: Pieces of the used incontinence products were cut from the wet area, placed in glass bottles, and kept frozen until dynamic headspace sampling of volatile compounds was completed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298687/composition-of-volatile-aromatic-compounds-and-minerals-of-tarhana-enriched-with-cherry-laurel-laurocerasus-officinalis
#3
Hasan Temiz, Zekai Tarakçı
Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC-MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295904/a-fungal-n-dimethylallyltryptophan-metabolite-from-fusarium-fujikuroi
#4
Birgit Arndt, Slavica Janevska, Robin Schmid, Florian Hübner, Bettina Tudzynski, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
The range of secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi is quite broad. Several polyketides, nonribosomal peptides and terpenes have been identified. However, no products of dimethylallyltryptophan synthases (DMATSs) have been elucidated so far, though two putative DMATS genes are present in the F. fujikuroi genome. In this study, the product derived from one of the two DMATSs, DMATS1 (FFUJ_09179), has been identified in vivo with the help of the software MZmine 2. Detailed structure elucidation showed that this metabolite is a reversely N-prenylated tryptophan, depicting a rather rare form of prenylation...
March 10, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294491/an-efficient-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-dihydroartemisinic-aldehyde
#5
Melodi Demiray, Xiaoping Tang, Thomas Wirth, Juan A Faraldos, Rudolf K Allemann
Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua is the most potent pharmaceutical for the treatment of malaria. In the plant, the sesquiterpene cyclase amorphadiene synthase, a cytochrome-dependent CYP450, and an aldehyde reductase convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde (DHAAl), which is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and a semisynthetic precursor for its chemical synthesis. Here, we report a chemoenzymatic process that is able to deliver DHAAl using only the sesquiterpene synthase from a carefully designed hydroxylated FDP derivative...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293944/navigating-the-chiral-pool-in-the-total-synthesis-of-complex-terpene-natural-products
#6
Zachary G Brill, Matthew L Condakes, Chi P Ting, Thomas J Maimone
The pool of abundant chiral terpene building blocks (i.e., "chiral pool terpenes") has long served as a starting point for the chemical synthesis of complex natural products, including many terpenes themselves. As inexpensive and versatile starting materials, such compounds continue to influence modern synthetic chemistry. This review highlights 21st century terpene total syntheses which themselves use small, terpene-derived materials as building blocks. An outlook to the future of research in this area is highlighted as well...
March 15, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291990/medicinal-plants-in-the-treatment-of-colitis-evidence-from-preclinical-studies
#7
Marília T Santana, Luana M Cercato, Janaíne P Oliveira, Enilton A Camargo
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition whose treatment includes aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunomodulators. Medicinal plants seem to be an important alternative treatment for this condition. They have been the subject of a great number of studies in recent years. This study was conducted to systematically review the medicinal plants tested in experimental models of ulcerative colitis. We conducted a systematic literature search through specialized databases (PUBMED, SCOPUS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO, and SCISEARCH) and selected articles published between January 2000 and June 21, 2016 by using "medicinal plants" and "ulcerative colitis" as key words...
March 14, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291597/diel-rhythms-in-the-volatile-emission-of-apple-and-grape-foliage
#8
Valentino Giacomuzzi, Luca Cappellin, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Alan L Knight, Sergio Angeli
This study investigated the diel emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from intact apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) and grape (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Pinot Noir) foliage. Volatiles were monitored continuously for 48 h by proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). In addition, volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis (CLSA) and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later...
March 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290568/monomer-design-strategies-to-create-natural-product-based-polymer-materials
#9
REVIEW
Samantha L Kristufek, Kevin T Wacker, Yi-Yun Timothy Tsao, Lu Su, Karen L Wooley
Covering: 2010-Aug. 2016In an effort towards enhancing function and sustainability, natural products have become of interest in the field of polymer chemistry. This review details the blending of chemistries developed through synthetic organic chemistry and polymer chemistry. Through synthetic organic chemical transformations, such as functional group interconversion, a protection/deprotection series, or installation of a functional group, various designs towards novel, synthetic, bio-based polymer systems are described...
March 14, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289233/volatile-secondary-metabolites-as-aposematic-olfactory-signals-and-defensive-weapons-in-aquatic-environments
#10
Giuseppe Giordano, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Eleonora Silvano, Margherita Gavagnin, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney, I Wayan Mudianta, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Guido Villani, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Christian Zidorn, Adele Cutignano, Angelo Fontana, Michael T Ghiselin, Ernesto Mollo
Olfaction is considered a distance sense; hence, aquatic olfaction is thought to be mediated only by molecules dissolved in water. Here, we challenge this view by showing that shrimp and fish can recognize the presence of hydrophobic olfactory cues by a "tactile" form of chemoreception. We found that odiferous furanosesquiterpenes protect both the Mediterranean octocoral Maasella edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288764/acaricidal-activities-of-the-essential-oil-from-rhododendron-nivale-hook-f-and-its-main-compund-%C3%AE-cadinene-against-psoroptes-cuniculi
#11
Xiao Guo, Xiaofei Shang, Bing Li, Xu Zheng Zhou, Hao Wen, Jiyu Zhang
In this paper, the acaricidal activities of Rhododendron nivale Hook. f. and its main compound, δ-cadinene were investigated, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed. The results showed that among aqueous, 70% ethanols, acetic ether, chloroform, petroleum ether and essential oil extracts from the shoots and leaves, the essential oil showed the best in vitro acaricidal activity against adult P. cuniculi, which occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The median lethal time (LT50) values of four concentrations (33...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287431/cytotoxic-natural-products-from-marine-sponge-derived-microorganisms
#12
REVIEW
Huawei Zhang, Ziping Zhao, Hong Wang
A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds.
March 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286547/identification-of-the-aroma-compounds-in-vitex-doniana-sweet-free-and-bound-odorants
#13
Ola Lasekan
BACKGROUND: Most often, the glycosidically-bound aroma compounds are released during industrial processing or pre-treatment of fruits. This usually introduces modification to the aroma notes of such fruits. Therefore, there is the need to understand the contribution of these bound aroma compounds to the overall aroma of a given fruit. In recent years research studies have reported on the free- and bound volatile compounds of several fruits. However, there is no report yet on Vitex doniana sweet...
2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286413/optimising-terpene-synthesis-with-flow-biocatalysis
#14
Xiaoping Tang, Rudolf K Allemann, Thomas Wirth
Sesquiterpenes are an important family of natural products, many of which exhibit important pharmaceutical and agricultural properties. They are biosynthesised from farnesyl diphosphate in sesquiterpene synthase catalysed reactions. Here, we report the development of a highly efficient segmented flow system for the enzyme-catalysed continuous flow production of sesquiterpenes. Design of experiment (DoE) methods were used to optimise the performance of the flow biocatalysis, and quantitative yields were achieved by using an operationally simple but highly effective segmented flow system...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281107/cannabis-for-pain-and-headaches-primer
#15
REVIEW
Philip S Kim, Michael A Fishman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthetic cannabinoids are being developed and synthesized from the marijuana plant such as dronabinol and nabilone. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of dronabinol and nabilone for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) wasting...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272875/functional-and-structural-characterization-of-a-limonene-synthase-from-citrus-sinensis
#16
Benjamin Robert Morehouse, Ramasamy P Kumar, Jason O Matos, Sarah Naomi Olsen, Sonya Entova, Daniel D Oprian
Terpenes are the largest and most diverse class of natural compounds and have important commercial and medical applications. Limonene is a cyclic monoterpene (C10) present in nature as two enantiomers, (+) and (-), which are produced by different enzymes. The mechanism of production of the (-)-enantiomer has been studied in great detail, but to understand how enantiomeric selectivity is achieved in this class of enzymes, it is important to develop a thorough biochemical description of enzymes which generate (+)-limonene as well...
March 8, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272796/sustainable-stereoregular-and-optically-active-polyamides-via-cationic-polymerization-of-%C3%AE%C2%B5-lactams-derived-from-the-terpene-%C3%AE-pinene
#17
Malte Winnacker, Jacob Sag, Andreas Tischner, Bernhard Rieger
A convenient synthesis of sustainable polyamides, which contain side groups and stereocenters, starting from the biobased small terpene β-pinene is reported. The polyamides, which are obtained via the pinene-based lactam via ring-opening polymerization, show excellent thermal properties, rendering this approach very interesting for the utilization of novel biobased and structurally significant high-performance polymers and materials. Polymer masses and yields are shown to be dependent on different parameters, and the stereoinformation of the lactam monomer can thus be transferred into the polymer chain...
March 8, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272514/transcriptomic-insight-into-terpenoid-and-carbazole-alkaloid-biosynthesis-and-functional-characterization-of-two-terpene-synthases-in-curry-tree-murraya-koenigii
#18
Seema Meena, Sarma Rajeev Kumar, Varun Dwivedi, Anup Kumar Singh, Chandan S Chanotiya, Md Qussen Akhtar, Krishna Kumar, Ajit Kumar Shasany, Dinesh A Nagegowda
Curry tree (Murraya koenigii L.) is a rich source of aromatic terpenes and pharmacologically important carbazole alkaloids. Here, M. koenigii leaf transcriptome was generated to gain insight into terpenoid and alkaloid biosynthesis. Analysis of de novo assembled contigs yielded genes for terpene backbone biosynthesis and terpene synthases. Also, gene families possibly involved in carbazole alkaloid formation were identified that included polyketide synthases, prenyltransferases, methyltransferases and cytochrome P450s...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270685/cyclization-mechanism-of-phomopsene-synthase-mass-spectrometry-based-analysis-of-various-site-specifically-labeled-terpenes
#19
Sandip S Shinde, Atsushi Minami, Zhi Chen, Tetsuo Tokiwano, Tomonobu Toyomasu, Nobuo Kato, Takeshi Sassa, Hideaki Oikawa
Elucidation of the cyclization mechanism catalyzed by terpene synthases is important for the rational engineering of terpene cyclases. We developed a chemoenzymatic method for the synthesis of systematically deuterium-labeled geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), starting from site-specifically deuterium-labeled isopentenyl diphosphates (IPPs) using IPP isomerase and three prenyltransferases. We examined the cyclization mechanism of tetracyclic diterpene phomopsene with phomopsene synthase. A detailed EI-MS analysis of phomopsene labeled at various positions allowed us to propose the structures corresponding to the most intense peaks, and thus elucidate a cyclization mechanism involving double 1,2-alkyl shifts and a 1,2-hydride shift via a dolabelladien-15-yl cation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266270/therapeutic-strategies-of-plant-derived-compounds-for-diabetes-via-regulation-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#20
Jan Szopa, Yu Fu Wang, Anna Kulma, Magdalena Czemplik
BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the CC chemokine family that plays a key role in the inflammatory process. It has been broadly studied in the aspect of its role in obesity and diabetes related diseases. MCP-1 causes the infiltration of macrophages into obese adipose tissue via binding to the CCR2 receptor and is involved in the development of insulin resistance. METHODS: We reviewed the available literature regarding the importance of plant metabolites that regulate MCP-1 activity and are used in the treatment of diabetic disorders...
March 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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