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Veronika M Lieb, Patricia Esquivel, Elba Cubero Castillo, Reinhold Carle, Christof B Steingass
Volatiles of papaya purees from four Costa Rican cultivars were analysed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 83 volatiles was assigned in the purees, of which 19 were detected for the first time as papaya constituents. As revealed by multivariate statistics, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the purees may be allocated to terpene- and lactone-rich ('SH-5'), ester-containing ('Criolla'), and intermediate chemotypes ('Pococí' and 'Silvestre')...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hui Liu, Zhen-Long Wu, Xiao-Jun Huang, Yinghui Peng, Xiaojie Huang, Lei Shi, Ying Wang, Wen-Cai Ye
Two pairs of new diarylheptanoid-monoterpene adduct enantiomers, (±)-alpininoids A and B [(±)-1 and (±)-2], as well as three pairs of new diarylheptanoid-sesquiterpene adduct enantiomers, (±)-alpininoids C-E [(±)-3-(±)-5], together with four known diarylheptanoids (6-9) were isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum. Their structures with absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and computational calculation methods. The skeletons of these cyclohexene-containing hybrid natural products were hypothesized to be generated via a crucial Diels-Alder cycloaddition between the diarylheptanoids (7 and 8) and terpenes, of which 1 represents a new carbon skeleton...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Lorena Carro, Imen Nouioui, Vartul Sangal, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Martha E Trujillo, Maria Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Nevzat Sahin, Darren Lee Smith, Kristi E Kim, Paul Peluso, Shweta Deshpande, Tanja Woyke, Nicole Shapiro, Nikos C Kyrpides, Hans-Peter Klenk, Markus Göker, Michael Goodfellow
There is a need to clarify relationships within the actinobacterial genus Micromonospora, the type genus of the family Micromonosporaceae, given its biotechnological and ecological importance. Here, draft genomes of 40 Micromonospora type strains and two non-type strains are made available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project and used to generate a phylogenomic tree which showed they could be assigned to well supported phyletic lines that were not evident in corresponding trees based on single and concatenated sequences of conserved genes...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dennis Versluis, Bart Nijsse, Mohd Azrul Naim, Jasper J Koehorst, Jutta Wiese, Johannes F Imhoff, Peter J Schaap, Mark W J van Passel, Hauke Smidt, Detmer Sipkema
Pseudovibrio is a marine bacterial genus members of which are predominantly isolated from sessile marine animals, and particularly sponges. It has been hypothesised that Pseudovibrio spp. form mutualistic relationships with their hosts. Here, we studied Pseudovibrio phylogeny and genetic adaptations that may play a role in host colonization by comparative genomics of 31 Pseudovibrio strains, including 25 sponge isolates. All genomes were highly similar in terms of encoded core metabolic pathways, albeit with substantial differences in overall gene content...
January 8, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Kamla Pathak, Ankur Vaidya, Vijay Sharma
BACKGROUND: Improvisation of the nanosized vesicular systems has led to a series of useful developments including the deformable vesicles namely transfersomes, ethosomes and invasomes. While the former two have been explored extensively, literature on invasomes is relatively scanty. METHOD: Invasomal formulations researched for various applications have been reviewed using search engine "Scopus". The present review focuses on the update on the research activity on effectiveness and permeation enhancing effects of invasomes for dermal and topical delivery...
January 8, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Malte Winnacker, Jacob Sag
A sustainable lactam, which is derived from the renewable terpene β-pinene, is converted to polyamides via a convenient anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP), which can be easily handled without the use of a costly catalyst. The resulting polyamides have prosperous thermal properties, which enable their future use as high-performance polymers.
January 10, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Andrew C McKinnon, Ian B Hickie, Jan Scott, Shantel L Duffy, Louisa Norrie, Zoe Terpening, Ron R Grunstein, Jim Lagopoulos, Jennifer Batchelor, Simon J G Lewis, James M Shine, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated Default Mode Network (DMN) functional connectivity in subjects with a lifetime history of major depression, comparing those with and without current sleep disturbance. Controls were included to assess DMN abnormalities specific to depression. METHODS: A total of 93 adults aged 50 years and over were recruited from the Healthy Brain Ageing Clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, Australia. The sample comprised two groups, including 22 controls and 71 participants with a lifetime history of DSM-IV major depression (with depressive episode current or remitted)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sunil Kumar, Awantika Singh, Brijesh Kumar, Bikarma Singh, Lal Bahadur, Mohan Lal
A rapid, sensitive and reproducible method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QqQLIT-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of anticancer (vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine), antihypertensive (ajmaline, ajmalicine, reserpine), aphrodisiac (yohimbine), sedative (serpentine) agents, dietary supplement (vinpocetine, yohimbine) and precursor of vinblastine (vindoline) from crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Arooran Kanagendran, Leila Pazouki, Shuai Li, Bin Liu, Astrid Kännaste, Ülo Niinemets
Ozone is a strong oxidant and a key stress elicitor. The immediate and longer term impacts of ozone are poorly understood in species with emission of both de novo synthesized and stored volatiles, such a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which has terpene-containing glandular trichomes on the leaf surface. In this study, we exposed N. tabacum 'Wisconsin' leaves to acute ozone doses of 0 (control), 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppb for 30 min and studied the effects of ozone exposure on ozone uptake, gas-exchange characteristics, and emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Abith Vattekkatte, Stefan Garms, Wolfgang Brandt, Wilhelm Boland
The enormous diversity of terpenes found in nature is generated by enzymes known as terpene synthases, or cyclases. Some are also known for their ability to convert a single substrate into multiple products. This review comprises monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases that are multiproduct in nature along with the regulation factors that can alter the product specificity of multiproduct terpene synthases without genetic mutations. Variations in specific assay conditions with focus on shifts in product specificity based on change in metal cofactors, assay pH and substrate geometry are described...
January 3, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Milene Aparecida Andrade, Mariana Aparecida Braga, Pedro Henrique Souza Cesar, Marcus Vinicius Cardoso Trento, Mariana Araujo Esposito, Lucilene Fernandes Silva
BACKGROUND: Essential oils are complex mixtures of low molecular weight compounds extracted from plants. Their main constituents are terpenes and phenylpropanoids, which are responsible for their biological and pharmaceutical properties, such as insecticidal, parasiticidal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antinociceptive, anticarcinogenic, and antitumor properties. Cancer is a complex genetic disease considered as a serious public health problem worldwide, accounting for more than 8 million deaths annually...
January 1, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Rafal Sawicki, Elwira Sieniawska, Marta Swatko-Ossor, Joanna Golus, Grazyna Ginalska
In the past few years, there has been a significant increase in detection of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Search for new antimycobacterial drugs brought natural sources with their chemical diversity in focus. Especially essential oils, produced by plants also for toxic effect, are reservoir of potentially antitubercular compounds. In the present work, we exposed M. tuberculosis H37Ra ATCC 25177 strain to some terpenes commonly occurring in essential oils. Gene expression profiling was used to explore possible influence of these compounds on stress sensing and envelope preserving function...
December 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Adones Sales, Luana Ferreira Afonso, Juliana Alves Americo, Mauro de Freitas Rebelo, Glaucia Maria Pastore, Juliano Lemos Bicas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocatalytic potential of Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum nymphaeae for monoterpene biotransformation. RESULTS: C. acutatum and C. nymphaeae used limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, farnesene, citronellol, linalool, geraniol, perillyl alcohol, and carveol as sole carbon and energy sources. Both species biotransformed limonene and linalool, accumulating limonene-1,2-diol and linalool oxides, respectively. α-Pinene was only biotransformed by C...
December 29, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Priscilla Porto-Figueira, José A Figueira, Pedro Berenguer, José S Câmara
The effect of ripening on the evolution of the volatomic pattern from endemic Vaccinium padifolium L. (Uveira) berries was investigated using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and multivariate statistical analysis (MVA). The most significant HS-SPME parameters, namely fibre polymer, ionic strength and extraction time, were optimized in order to improve extraction efficiency. Under optimal experimental conditions (DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre coating, 40°C, 30min extraction time and 5g of sample amount), a total of 72 volatiles of different functionalities were isolated and identified...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Pau Matias-Guiu, Juan José Rodríguez-Bencomo, José R Pérez-Correa, Francisco López
Developing new distillation strategies can help the spirits industry to improve quality, safety and process efficiency. Batch stills equipped with a packed column and an internal partial condenser are an innovative experimental system, allowing a fast and flexible management of the rectification. In this study, the impact of four factors (heart-cut volume, head-cut volume, pH and cooling flow rate of the internal partial condenser during the head-cut fraction) on 18 major volatile compounds of Muscat spirits was optimized using response surface methodology and desirability function approaches...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Feriotto Giordana, Marchetti Nicola, Costa Valentina, Beninati Simone, Tagliati Federico, Mischiati Carlo
New drugs would be beneficial to fight resistant HIV strains, in particular those capable of interfering with essential viral functions other than those targeted by highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs. Despite the central role played by Tat protein in HIV transcription, a search for vegetable extracts able to hamper this important viral function was never carried out. In this work, we evaluated the chemical composition and possible interference of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris, Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus and Rosmarinus officinalis with the Tat/TAR-RNA interaction and with Tat-induced HIV-1 LTR transcription...
December 28, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Anita Loeschcke, Dennis Dienst, Vera Wewer, Jennifer Hage-Hülsmann, Maximilian Dietsch, Sarah Kranz-Finger, Vanessa Hüren, Sabine Metzger, Vlada B Urlacher, Tamara Gigolashvili, Stanislav Kopriva, Ilka M Axmann, Thomas Drepper, Karl-Erich Jaeger
Cyclic triterpenes constitute one of the most diverse groups of plant natural products. Besides the intriguing biochemistry of their biosynthetic pathways, plant triterpenes exhibit versatile bioactivities, including antimicrobial effects against plant and human pathogens. While prokaryotes have been extensively used for the heterologous production of other classes of terpenes, the synthesis of cyclic triterpenes, which inherently includes the two-step catalytic formation of the universal linear precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene, is still a major challenge...
2017: PloS One
Ahmad Sobhani Najafabadi, Mohammad Reza Naghavi
Ferula gummosa is a well-known medicinal and industrial plant for its oleo-gum-resin named galbanum. So far, there is no information about the role of miRNAs on the production of terpenes as the major secondary metabolite of galbanum. In the present study, RNA-seq data on the root and flower of the plant were used to predict miRNAs and their targets using computational approaches. Additionally, biological network analyses were used to unravel the direct or indirect regulatory effects of miRNAs on the targets involved in terpene biosynthesis...
December 19, 2017: Gene
Santana A L Thomas, Jacqueline L von Salm, Shane Clark, Steve Ferlita, Prasanth Nemani, Ala Azhari, Christopher A Rice, Nerida G Wilson, Dennis E Kyle, Bill J Baker
During a 2013 cruise in the Southern Ocean we collected specimens of the octocoral Plumarella delicatissima between 800 and 950 m depth. Five new furanocembranoid diterpenes, keikipukalides A-E (1-5), the known diterpene pukalide aldehyde (6), and the known norditerpenoid ineleganolide (7) were isolated from the coral. These Plumarella terpenes lack mammalian cytotoxicity, while 2-7 display activity against Leishmania donovani between 1.9 and 12 μM. Structure elucidation was facilitated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and keikipukalides A and E were confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Shawn A Christensen, Alisa Huffaker, James Sims, Charles T Hunter, Anna Block, Martha M Vaughan, Denis Willett, Maritza Romero, J Erik Mylroie, W Paul Williams, Eric A Schmelz
Chemical isolation and NMR-based structure elucidation revealed a novel keto-acidic sesquiterpenoid, termed zealexin A4 (ZA4). ZA4 is elicited by pathogens and herbivory, but attenuated by heightened levels of CO 2 . The identification of the labdane-related diterpenoids, termed kauralexins and acidic sesquiterpenoids, termed zealexins, demonstrated the existence of at least ten novel stress-inducible maize metabolites with diverse antimicrobial activity. Despite these advances, the identity of co-occurring and predictably related analytes remains largely unexplored...
December 19, 2017: Planta
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