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Elena S Catap, Markyn Jared L Kho, Maria Rexie R Jimenez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Portulaca oleracea (common purslane) is used in traditional medicine to cure various illnesses. However, its immune-protective properties and antispasmodic effects still need more pharmacological data if the plant will be utilized in herbal and drug formulations. Therefore, the present study determined the capacity of this plant species to modulate nonspecific immune responses and to confirm its antispasmodic activity in vivo in ICR mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage, splenic lymphocyte proliferation and plasma lysozyme levels were measured in mice that were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide and treated with the ethyl acetate extract of Portulaca oleracea...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kamla Pathak, Ankur Vaidya, Vijay Sharma
BACKGROUND: Improvisation of the nanosized vesicular systems has led to a series of useful developments including the deformable vesicles namely transfersomes, ethosomes and invasomes. While the former two have been explored extensively, literature on invasomes is relatively scanty. METHOD: Invasomal formulations researched for various applications have been reviewed using search engine "Scopus". The present review focuses on the update on the research activity on effectiveness and permeation enhancing effects of invasomes for dermal and topical delivery...
January 8, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Kazuki Saito
 A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Irina Fierascu, Camelia Ungureanu, Sorin Marius Avramescu, Carmen Cimpeanu, Mihaela Ioana Georgescu, Radu Claudiu Fierascu, Alina Ortan, Anca Nicoleta Sutan, Valentina Anuta, Anca Zanfirescu, Cristina Elena Dinu-Pirvu, Bruno Stefan Velescu
BACKGROUND: Juniperus communis L. represents a multi-purpose crop used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industry. Several studies present the possible medicinal properties of different Juniperus taxa native to specific geographical area. The present study aims to evaluate the genoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of hydroalcoholic extract of wild-growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) native to Romanian southern sub-Carpathian hills. METHODS: The prepared hydroethanolic extract of Juniperus communis L...
January 4, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Nabila Zergainoh, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Marianna Carbone, Fatma Bitam, Mohamed Cherif Aberkane, Margherita Gavagnin
The chemical study of Launaea acanthoclada from South-East Algeria led to the isolation of twelve oxygenated terpenoid compounds, including three new pentacyclic triterpenoids 1-3 with either lupane or ursane rearranged skeletons. The structure and the stereochemistry of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods, including NMR techniques. The chemical pattern of L. acanthoclada is in accordance with the triterpenoid scenario of the genus Launaea embracing to date lupane, oleane, ursane and taraxastane skeletons...
December 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Arooran Kanagendran, Leila Pazouki, Shuai Li, Bin Liu, Astrid Kännaste, Ülo Niinemets
Ozone is a strong oxidant and a key stress elicitor. The immediate and longer term impacts of ozone are poorly understood in species with emission of both de novo synthesized and stored volatiles, such a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which has terpene-containing glandular trichomes on the leaf surface. In this study, we exposed N. tabacum 'Wisconsin' leaves to acute ozone doses of 0 (control), 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppb for 30 min and studied the effects of ozone exposure on ozone uptake, gas-exchange characteristics, and emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marco Sollazzo, Simone Baccelloni, Claudio D'Onofrio, Andrea Bellincontro
BACKGROUND: This paper provides data for the potential use of a color chart to establish the best quality of white wine grape destined to postharvest processing. Grechetto, Vermentino and Muscat of Alexandria white wine varieties, were tested by sampling berries at different dates along quality attributes evolution. A color chart and reflectance spectrocolorimeter were used in combination with analyses of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in all three varieties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Grechetto alone...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Abith Vattekkatte, Stefan Garms, Wolfgang Brandt, Wilhelm Boland
The enormous diversity of terpenes found in nature is generated by enzymes known as terpene synthases, or cyclases. Some are also known for their ability to convert a single substrate into multiple products. This review comprises monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases that are multiproduct in nature along with the regulation factors that can alter the product specificity of multiproduct terpene synthases without genetic mutations. Variations in specific assay conditions with focus on shifts in product specificity based on change in metal cofactors, assay pH and substrate geometry are described...
January 3, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Muhammad Ovais, Muhammad Ayaz, Ali Talha Khalil, Sayed Afzal Shah, Muhammad Saeed Jan, Abida Raza, Muhammad Shahid, Zabta Khan Shinwari
BACKGROUND: The medicinal importance of a novel plant Olax nana Wall. ex Benth. (family: Olacaceae) was revealed for the first time via HPLC-DAD finger printing, qualitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, cholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays. METHODS: The crude methanolic extract of O. nana (ON-Cr) was subjected to qualitative phytochemical analysis and HPLC-DAD finger printing. The antioxidant potential of ON-Cr was assessed via 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) free radical scavenging assays...
January 3, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Milena Jankowska, Justyna Rogalska, Joanna Wyszkowska, Maria Stankiewicz
Essential oils (EOs) are lipophilic secondary metabolites obtained from plants; terpenoids represent the main components of them. A lot of studies showed neurotoxic actions of EOs. In insects, they cause paralysis followed by death. This feature let us consider components of EOs as potential bioinsecticides. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the one of the most investigated mechanisms of action in EOs. However, EOs are rather weak inhibitors of AChE. Another proposed mechanism of EO action is a positive allosteric modulation of GABA receptors (GABArs)...
December 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhen-Zhu Zhao, Kuan Zhao, He-Ping Chen, Xue Bai, Ling Zhang, Ji-Kai Liu
Molecular identification suggested an edible mushroom, which was previously named as Craterellus odoratus should be revised as Montagnula donacina. A chemical re-investigation of the culture broth of this fungus resulted in the isolation of four rare tetracyclic bergamotane-type sesquiterpenoids, namely donacinolides A and B, donacinoic acids A and B, and three cadinane-type ones, namely donacinols A-C and a meroterpenoid (Z)-4-hydroxy-3-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbut-1-en-1-yl)benzoic acid. Their structures were established via extensive spectroscopic methods, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and computational methods...
December 26, 2017: Phytochemistry
Giacinto Salvatore Germinara, Sonia Ganassi, Marco O Pistillo, Carmela Di Domenico, Antonio De Cristofaro, Antonella Marta Di Palma
The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae) is a commonly found vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (1987) strain subspecies pauca associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome" in Italy. To contribute to the knowledge of the adult P. spumarius chemoreceptivity, electroantennographic (EAG) responses of both sexes to 50 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and ketones, terpenoids, and aromatics were recorded. Measurable EAG responses were elicited by all compounds tested...
2017: PloS One
Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha
Functional foods describe the importance of foods in promoting health and preventing diseases aside their primary role of providing the body with the required amount of essential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, and oils needed for its healthy survival. This review explains the interaction of functional food bioactive compounds including polyphenols (phenolic acids [hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids], flavonoids [flavonols, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, isoflavones, proanthocyanidins], stilbenes, and lignans), terpenoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids, among others with critical enzymes (α- amylase, α- glucosidase, angiotensin-I converting enzyme [ACE], acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and arginase) linked to some degenerative diseases (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases [hypertension], neurodegenerative diseases [Alzheimer's disease] and erectile dysfunction)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Jingye Fu, Qin Liu, Chang Wang, Jin Liang, Lijun Liu, Qiang Wang
Maize (Zea mays) accumulates maize terpenoid phytoalexins (MTPs), kauralexins and zealexins in response to various elicitations. Although the key biosynthetic genes for these have been characterized, the regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Through co-correlation analysis, a transcription factor (TF), ZmWRKY79, was identified as highly correlated with expression of MTP biosynthetic genes. Gene expression analysis indicated that ZmWRKY79 was induced by Fusarium graminearum infection, phytohormone treatment, and multiple stresses...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yanyan Deng, Juan Hua, Wenjia Wang, Zhonglang Zhan, Anqi Wang, Shihong Luo
A chemical investigation of methanol extract from the roots of Dracocephalum taliense led to the isolation of a new aromatic abietane diterpenoid, 12-methoxy-18-hydroxy-sugiol (1), and one highly-oxygenated ursane triterpenoid, 2α,3α-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-urs-28,13β-olide (2), together with 15 known natural products (3-17). Among these, compounds 1-13 and 15-17 were detected for the first time in the genus of Dracocephalum. The structures of all of these isolates were determined by extensively spectroscopic analyses...
December 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gui Li, Jing Xi, Xiaoming Ji, Ming-Zhuo Li, De-Yu Xie
Designing effective synthetic genes of interest is a fundamental step in plant synthetic biology for biomass. Geranyl pyrophosphate (diphosphate) synthase (GPPS) catalyzes a bottleneck step toward terpenoid metabolism. We previously designed and synthesized a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana)-insect (Myzus persicae, Mp) GPPS- human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) cDNA, namely PTP-MpGPPS-HA (or PTP-sMpGPPS-HA, s: synthetic), to localize the protein in plastids and improve plant biomass. To better understand the effects of different subcellular localizations on plant performance, herein we report PTP-sMpGPPS-HA re-design to synthesize a new MpGPPS-HA cDNA, namely sMpGPPS-HA, to express a non-plastidial sMpGPPS-HA protein...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jia-Qing Cao, Hai-Yan Tian, Man-Mei Li, Wei Zhang, Ying Wang, Lei Wang, Wen-Cai Ye
Callisretones A (1) and B (2), two rearranged phloroglucinol-monoterpenoid adducts featuring an unprecedented isopropylcyclopenta[b]benzofuran backbone, together with their postulated biosynthetic precursors (3-9), were isolated from Callistemon rigidus. The previously assigned absolute configurations of viminalins H (7), L (8), and N (9) were revised and unequivocally established by X-ray diffraction data. A putative biosynthetic pathway toward callisretones A and B involving the rearrangement of the terpenoid motif is proposed...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Julian Wichmann, Thomas Baier, Eduard Wentnagel, Kyle J Lauersen, Olaf Kruse
Photosynthetic microbial hosts such as cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae have recently emerged as alternative engineering platforms for the sustainable light-driven bio-production of terpenoids. Many desirable compounds with numerous applications can be produced in microorganisms by heterologous expression of terpene synthases. However, success of green microbial systems has been hampered by issues such as insufficient enzyme expression titers and low flux to desired terpenoid products from carbon fixed during photosynthesis...
December 16, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Dinesh Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Veena Agrawal
The present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal potential of methanol, hexane, acetone, chloroform, and aqueous bark extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous bark extract against the third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. AgNPs were prepared by adding 10 ml of aqueous bark extract in 90 ml of 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. After 5 min of mixing, a change in color from yellow to dark brown occurred indicating the synthesis of AgNPs...
December 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
Meng Wang, Dou Wang, Qing Zhang, Jia Chai, Yong Peng, Xia Cai
BACKGROUND: Terpenoids, the largest class of natural products in the plant kingdom, have been widely used in medicine. The precursors of terpenoids, isoprene phosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), were synthesized from a mevalonate (MVA) pathway and a 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway respectively. The acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (AACT) is the initial enzyme in MVA pathway and is considered presently to be essential for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis...
December 16, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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