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Terpenoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440881/overexpression-of-a-type-i-isopentenyl-pyrophosphate-isomerase-of-artemisia-annua-in-the-cytosol-leads-to-high-arteannuin-b-production-and-artemisinin-increase
#1
Dongming Ma, Gui Li, Fatima Alejos-Gonzalez, Yue Zhu, Zhen Xue, Aimin Wang, Hui Zhang, Xing Li, Hechun Ye, Hong Wang, Benye Liu, De-Yu Xie
We recently characterized a gene-terpene network that is associated with artemisinin biosynthesis in self-pollinated (SP) Artemisia annua, an effective antimalarial plant. We hypothesize that an alteration of gene expression in the network may improve the production of artemisinin and its precursors. In this study, we cloned an isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI) cDNA, AaIPPI1, from Artemisia annua (Aa). The full-length cDNA encodes a type I IPPI containing a plastid transit peptide (PTP) at its amino terminus...
April 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440871/effects-of-different-salt-treatments-on-the-fermentation-metabolites-and-bacterial-profiles-of-kimchi
#2
Dong Wook Kim, Bo-Min Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Gwang-Ju Jang, Seong Hwa Song, Jae-In Lee, Sang Bong Lee, Jae Min Shim, Kang Wook Lee, Jeong Hwan Kim, Kyung-Sik Ham, Feng Chen, Hyun-Jin Kim
The effects of purified salt (PS) and mineral-rich sea salt (MRS), both with different mineral profiles, on kimchi fermentation were studied using a culture-dependent 16S rRNA sequencing technique and mass-based metabolomic analysis. The different mineral profiles in the fermentation medium caused changes in the bacterial profiles of the 2 kimchi products. An increase of Leuconostoc species in MRS-kimchi decreased the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc ratio, which led to changes in metabolites (including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, lipids, sulfur compounds, and terpenoids) associated with kimchi quality...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438645/releasing-the-potential-power-of-terpene-synthases-by-a-robust-precursor-supply-platform
#3
Guangkai Bian, Yichao Han, Anwei Hou, Yujie Yuan, Xinhua Liu, Zixin Deng, Tiangang Liu
Terpenoids represent the largest family of natural products. Their structural diversity is largely due to variable skeletons generated by terpene synthases. However, terpene skeletons found in nature are much more than those generated from known terpene synthases. Most promiscuous terpene synthases (i.e. those that can generate more than one product) have not been comprehensively characterised. Here, we first demonstrated that the promiscuous terpene synthases can produce more variable terpenoids in vivo by converting precursor polyisoprenoid diphosphates of different lengths (C10, C15, C20, C25)...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433435/fabric-phase-sorptive-extraction-as-a-reliable-tool-for-rapid-screening-and-detection-of-freshness-markers-in-oranges
#4
M Aznar, S Úbeda, C Nerin, A Kabir, K G Furton
A simple, fast and sensitive analyte extraction method based on fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) analysis was developed for the analysis of 12 volatile compounds that represent most of the principal chemical families possessing different polarities and volatilities. Five FPSE media coated with different sol-gel sorbent chemistries having different polarities and selectivities were studied: long chain poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), short chain poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), Carbowax 20M (CW20M), short chain poly(dimethyl siloxane) (SC PDMS) and polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer (PEG-PPG-PEG)...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432258/lil3-a-light-harvesting-complex-protein-links-terpenoid-and-tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis
#5
Daniel Hey, Maxi Rothbart, Josephine Herbst, Peng Wang, Jakob Müller, Daniel Wittmann, Kirsten Gruhl, Bernhard Grimm
LIL3 of Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family, which also includes the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins of photosystems 1 and 2, the early-light-inducible proteins, PsbS involved in non-photochemical quenching, the one-helix-proteins and their cyanobacterial homologs designated high-light-inducible proteins. Each member of this family is characterized by one or two LHC transmembrane domains (referred to as the LHC motif) to which potential functions such as chlorophyll binding, protein interaction and integration of interacting partners into the plastid membranes have been attributed...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431313/raman-spectroscopy-for-the-characterization-of-different-fractions-of-hemp-essential-oil-extracted-at-130%C3%A2-c-using-steam-distillation-method
#6
Muhammad Asif Hanif, Haq Nawaz, Saima Naz, Rubina Mukhtar, Nosheen Rashid, Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti, Muhammad Saleem
In this study, Raman spectroscopy along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for the characterization of pure essential oil (pure EO) isolated from the leaves of the Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.,) as well as its different fractions obtained by fractional distillation process. Raman spectra of pure Hemp essential oil and its different fractions show characteristic key bands of main volatile terpenes and terpenoids, which significantly differentiate them from each other. These bands provide information about the chemical composition of sample under investigation and hence can be used as Raman spectral markers for the qualitative monitoring of the pure EO and different fractions containing different active compounds...
April 1, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428039/antimicrobial-mechanism-of-epigallocatechin-gallate-and-gallocatechin-gallate-they-target-1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate-reductoisomerase-the-key-enzyme-of-the-mep-terpenoid-biosynthetic-pathway
#7
Xian Hui, Shui-Hong Hua, Qian-Qian Wu, Heng Li, Wen-Yun Gao
The catechins EGCG and GCG show a variety of pharmacological activities, especially an antibacterial capacity, but their modes of antimicrobial action have not been fully elucidated. 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), the first key enzyme in the MEP pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis, is a recently validated antimicrobial target. In order to disclose the antibacterial mechanism of EGCG and GCG, the DXR inhibitory activity of them was investigated in this study. The data show that EGCG and GCG both could specifically suppress the activity of DXR, with EGCG exhibiting relatively low effect against DXR (IC50 about 210 μM) and GCG displaying strong activity (IC50 27...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427280/progress-in-terpene-synthesis-strategies-through-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Kalaivani Paramasivan, Sarma Mutturi
Terpenes are natural products with a remarkable diversity in their chemical structures and they hold a significant market share commercially owing to their distinct applications. These potential molecules are usually derived from terrestrial plants, marine and microbial sources. In vitro production of terpenes using plant tissue culture and plant metabolic engineering, although receiving some success, the complexity in downstream processing because of the interference of phenolics and product commercialization due to regulations that are significant concerns...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424705/contemporary-understanding-of-mirna-based-regulation-of-secondary-metabolites-biosynthesis-in-plants
#9
REVIEW
Om P Gupta, Suhas G Karkute, Sagar Banerjee, Nand L Meena, Anil Dahuja
Plant's secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids etc. are known for their role in the defense against various insects-pests of plants and for medicinal benefits in human. Due to the immense biological importance of these phytochemicals, understanding the regulation of their biosynthetic pathway is crucial. In the recent past, advancement in the molecular technologies has enabled us to better understand the proteins, enzymes, genes, etc. involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the secondary metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423415/the-potential-organ-involved-in-cantharidin-biosynthesis-in-epicauta-chinensis-laporte-coleoptera-meloidae
#10
Ming Jiang, Shumin Lü, Yalin Zhang
Cantharidin, a terpenoid defensive toxin mainly produced by blister beetles, is among the most widely known insect natural products in the world. However, little is known about the site of cantharidin biosynthesis in vivo. Our previous research showed that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA reductase (HMGR) is an essential enzyme in cantharidin biosynthesis. In this report, we further investigated cantharidin titer and HMGR mRNA expression levels in different tissues of male and female Epicauta chinensis, and performed a comparative analysis of HMGR transcript levels in male Tenebrio molitor, a Tenebrionidae beetle that cannot produce cantharidin...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421122/potential-antitumor-activity-and-apoptosis-induction-of-glossostemon-bruguieri-root-extract-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#11
Mona S Alwhibi, Mahmoud I M Khalil, Mohamed M Ibrahim, Gehan A El-Gaaly, Ahmed S Sultan
Glossostemon bruguieri (moghat) is used as a nutritive and demulcent drink. This study was performed to investigate the antiproliferative effects of moghat root extract (MRE) and its apoptotic mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, HepG2 and Hep3B. MTT assay, morphological changes, apoptosis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, caspase and apoptotic activation, flow cytometry, and immunoblot analysis were employed. The IC50 of MRE for HepG2 (910 ± 6 μg/ml) and for Hep3B (1510 ± 5 μg/ml) induced significant growth-inhibitory effects against HCC cells, with no cytotoxic effect on normal hepatocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419973/antibacterial-antifungal-and-antimycobacterial-compounds-from-cyanobacteria
#12
REVIEW
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Infections from multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain progressively intractable. The search of effective antimicrobials from other possible non-conventional sources against MDR pathogenic bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria is call of the day. This review considers 121 cyanobacterial compounds or cyano-compounds with antimicrobial activities. Chemical structures of cyano-compounds were retrieved from ChemSpider and PubChem databases and were visualized by the software ChemDraw Ultra...
April 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418659/microbial-cell-factories-for-the-production-of-terpenoid-flavor-and-fragrance-compounds
#13
Florence M Schempp, Laura Drummond, Markus Buchhaupt, Jens Schrader
Terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds are of high interest to the aroma industry. Microbial production offers an alternative sustainable access to the desired terpenoids independent of natural sources. Genetically engineered microorganisms can be used to synthesize terpenoids from cheap and renewable resources. Due to its modular architecture, terpenoid biosynthesis is especially well suited for the microbial cell factory concept: a platform host engineered for a high flux toward the central C5 prenyl diphosphate precursors enables the production of a broad range of target terpenoids just by varying the pathway modules converting the C5 intermediates to the product of interest...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414971/influence-of-sulfur-fumigation-on-the-chemical-profiles-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidz-evaluated-by-uflc-qtof-ms-combined-with-multivariate-statistical-analysis
#14
Xue Sun, Xiao-Bing Cui, Hong-Mei Wen, Chen-Xiao Shan, Xin-Zhi Wang, An Kang, Chuan Chai, Wei Li
In the present study, the chemical compositions of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (AMK) were analyzed systematically and influence of sulfur fumigation on the chemical profiles was evaluated by ultrafast flow liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-QTOF-MS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. 52 components were detected from non-fumigated AMK (NF-AMK) and 28 components were newly produced after sulfur fumigation, out of which 59 major peaks were identified...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414174/iterative-integration-of-multiple-copy-pathway-genes-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-heterologous-%C3%AE-carotene-production
#15
Shuliang Gao, Yangyang Tong, Li Zhu, Mei Ge, Yian Zhang, Daijie Chen, Yu Jiang, Sheng Yang
β-Carotene is a terpenoid molecule with high hydrophobicity that is often used as an additive in foods and feed. Previous work has demonstrated the heterologous biosynthesis of β-carotene from an intrinsic high flux of acetyl-CoA in 12 steps through 11 genes in Yarrowia lipolytica. Here, an efficient biosynthetic pathway capable of producing 100-fold more β-carotene than the baseline construct was generated using strong promoters and multiple gene copies for each of the 12 steps. Using fed-batch fermentation with an optimized medium, the engineered pathway could produce 4g/L β-carotene, which was stored in lipid droplets within engineered Y...
April 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410152/fungal-immunomodulatory-proteins-in-the-context-of-biomedicine
#16
REVIEW
Paula Tatiana Uribe-Echeverry, German Ariel Lopez-Gartner
Fungi represent a large group of biodiverse microorganisms with potential applications ranging from industrial fields to the treatment for human diseases. A large number of pharmacologically active compounds including terpenoids, polysaccharides and proteins have been derived from these microorganisms. Fungal Immunomodulatory Proteins (FIPs) are a group of active compounds that are being considered for the treatment of asthma, allergy, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Here, we discuss the discovery, heterologous production bioactive mechanisms of action and their potential use in biomedicine...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406636/marine-terpenoid-diacylguanidines-structure-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-naturally-occurring-actinofide-and-synthetic-analogues
#17
Marianna Carbone, M Letizia Ciavatta, Véronique Mathieu, Aude Ingels, Robert Kiss, Paola Pascale, Ernesto Mollo, Nicon Ungur, Yue-Wei Guo, Margherita Gavagnin
A new diacylguanidine, actinofide (1), has been isolated from the marine mollusk Actinocyclus papillatus. The structure, exhibiting a guanidine moiety acylated by two terpenoid acid units, has been established by spectroscopic methods and secured by synthesis. Following this, a series of structural analogues have been synthesized using the same procedure. All of the compounds have been evaluated in vitro for the growth inhibitory activity against a variety of cancer cell lines.
April 13, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405231/secondary-metabolome-and-its-defensive-role-in-the-aeolidoidean-phyllodesmium-longicirrum-gastropoda-heterobranchia-nudibranchia
#18
Alexander Bogdanov, Cora Hertzer, Stefan Kehraus, Samuel Nietzer, Sven Rohde, Peter J Schupp, Heike Wägele, Gabriele M König
Phyllodesmium longicirrum is the largest aeolidoidean species known to date, and extremely rich in terpenoid chemistry. Herein we report the isolation of a total of 19 secondary metabolites from a single specimen of this species, i.e., steroids 1-4, cembranoid diterpenes 5-13, complex biscembranoids 14 and 15, and the chatancin-type diterpenes 16-19. These compounds resemble those from soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton, of which to date, however, only S. trocheliophorum is described as a food source for P...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395361/terpenoids-from-leaves-of-guarea-macrophylla-display-in-vitro-cytotoxic-activity-and-induce-apoptosis-in-melanoma-cells
#19
Geanne Alexandra A Conserva, Natalia Girola, Carlos R Figueiredo, Ricardo A Azevedo, Sasha Mousdell, Patricia Sartorelli, Marisi G Soares, Guilherme M Antar, João Henrique G Lago
Guarea macrophylla is a Brazilian plant species that has been used in folk medicine to treat a range of diseases. Our ongoing work focuses on the discovery of new bioactive natural products derived from Brazilian flora. The current study describes the identification of cytotoxic compounds from the EtOH extract of leaves from G. macrophylla using bioactivity-guided fractionation. This approach resulted in the isolation and characterization of four compounds: cycloart-23E-ene-3β,25-diol (1), (23S*,24S*)-dihydroxycicloart-25-en-3-one (2), isopimara-7,15-diene-2α,3β-diol (3), and isopimara-7,15-dien-3β-ol (4), in which 2 and 3 are identified as new derivatives...
April 10, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394295/antimicrobial-resistance-and-the-alternative-resources-with-special-emphasis-on-plant-based-antimicrobials-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Harish Chandra, Parul Bishnoi, Archana Yadav, Babita Patni, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Anant Ram Nautiyal
Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to microbe's development of antimicrobial resistance. It is difficult to treat bacterial infection due to bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are categorized according to their mechanism of action, i.e., interference with cell wall synthesis, DNA and RNA synthesis, lysis of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc...
April 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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