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Terpenoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738518/teucrium-polium-extract-reverses-symptoms-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats-via-rebalancing-the-pdx1-and-foxo1-expressions
#1
Parvaneh Sadat Tabatabaie, Razieh Yazdanparast
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Teucrium polium Lamiaceae. an antidiabetic traditional medicine was observed to stimulate insulin secretion and β-cell mass restoration in pancreatic of diabetic rats. Bioactive compounds in T. polium such as terpenoids and flavonoids have a wide range of antioxidant properties. Given this background, our research was aimed at probing the effective molecular mechanism of T. polium which in turn protects the pancreatic β-cells of diabetic rats through attenuation of streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress...
July 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738439/terpenoids-from-the-oleo-gum-resin-of-boswellia-serrata-and-their-antiplasmodial-effects-in-vitro
#2
Hippolyt L Greve, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, Thomas J Schmidt
In the course of our ongoing search for new natural products as leads against protozoal diseases, the dichloromethane extract of Indian frankincense, the oleo-gum-resin obtained from Boswellia serrata, showed in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of eight diterpenes: (1S,3E,7E,11R)-verticilla-3,7,12(18)-triene (1), cembrene A (2), serratol (3), 1S,3E,7R,8R,11E-7,8-epoxy-cembra-3,11-dien-1-ol (4), incensole oxide (5), rel (1S,3R,7E,11S,12R)-1,12-epoxy-4-methylenecembr-7-ene-3, 11-diol (6), isoincensole oxide (7), and isodecaryiol (8)...
July 24, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730957/design-preparation-and-characterization-of-modular-squalene-based-nanosystems-for-controlled-drug-release
#3
Jiao Feng, Sinda Lepetre-Mouelhi, Patrick Couvreur
This article reviews the innovative and original concept the "squalenoylation", a technology allowing the formulation of a wide range of drug molecules (both hydrophilic and lipophilic) as nanoparticles. The "squalenoylation" approach is based on the covalent linkage between the squalene, a natural and biocompatible lipid belonging to the terpenoid family, and a drug, in order to increase its pharmacological efficacy. Fundamentally, the dynamically folded conformation of squalene triggers the resulting squalene-drug bioconjugates to self-assemble as nanoparticles of 100-300 nm...
July 19, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726723/mertensene-a-halogenated-monoterpene-induces-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-and-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-of-human-colon-adenocarcinoma-ht29-cell-line-through-the-modulation-of-erk-1-2-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#4
Safa Tarhouni-Jabberi, Ons Zakraoui, Efstathia Ioannou, Ichrak Riahi-Chebbi, Meriam Haoues, Vassilios Roussis, Riadh Kharrat, Khadija Essafi-Benkhadir
Conventional treatment of advanced colorectal cancer is associated with tumor resistance and toxicity towards normal tissues. Therefore, development of effective anticancer therapeutic alternatives is still urgently required. Nowadays, marine secondary metabolites have been extensively investigated due to the fact that they frequently exhibit anti-tumor properties. However, little attention has been given to terpenoids isolated from seaweeds. In this study, we isolated the halogenated monoterpene mertensene from the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea (S...
July 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722114/uv-b-irradiation-differentially-regulates-terpene-synthases-and-terpene-content-of-peach
#5
Hongru Liu, Xiangmei Cao, Xiaohong Liu, Rui Xin, Jiaojiao Wang, Jie Gao, Boping Wu, Liuxiao Gao, Changjie Xu, Bo Zhang, Donald Grierson, Kunsong Chen
Plants generate protective molecules in response to UV light. In laboratory experiments, 48 h UV-B irradiation of peach fruit and leaves reduced the flavor-related monoterpene linalool by 60 %. No isoprene was detected but other terpenoids increased significantly, including a 3-fold accumulation of the sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene, which was also increased by jasmonic acid treatment. RNA-sequencing revealed altered transcript levels for two terpene synthases: PpTPS1, a TPS-g subfamily member, decreased by 86 % and PpTPS2, a TPS-b subfamily member, increased 80-fold...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720941/chemical-composition-and-bioactivity-of-essential-oils-from-flower-and-fruit-of-thymbra-capitata-and-thymus-species
#6
Jonathan Delgado-Adámez, María Garrido, Maria Elena Bote, María C Fuentes-Pérez, Javier Espino, Daniel Martín-Vertedor
Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known as thyme in Spain and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. Given the economic importance of thyme oils, many thyme species have been studied, and their essential oils (EOs) and other volatile-containing extracts have been chemically characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the phytochemical composition of the EOs from fruits and flowers of T...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716406/the-tomato-b-type-cyclin-gene-slcycb2-plays-key-roles-in-reproductive-organ-development-trichome-initiation-terpenoids-biosynthesis-and-prodenia-litura-defense
#7
Shenghua Gao, Yanna Gao, Cheng Xiong, Gang Yu, Jiang Chang, Qihong Yang, Changxian Yang, Zhibiao Ye
Cyclins exist extensively in various plant species. Among them, B-type cyclins play important roles in the transition of G2-to-M. However, few B-type cyclins have been reported to participate in reproductive organ development and trichome formation. In this study, transgene analysis showed that SlCycB2 overexpression caused abnormal flower with the unclosed stamen, shortened style and aberrant pollen. In addition, nearly all non-glandular trichomes, as well as the glandular ones were disappeared. On the contrary, suppression of SlCycB2 could promote type III and type V trichomes formation...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#8
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709077/phytonanotherapy-for-management-of-diabetes-using-green-synthesis-nanoparticles
#9
K Anand, C Tiloke, Pragalathan Naidoo, A A Chuturgoon
The world has a rich diversity of indigenous medicinal plants. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives high priority to eco-friendly, non-hazardous and cost effective healthcare such as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses, including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), diabetes mellitus (DM), malaria, and cancer. In developing countries, a high proportion of the population tends to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) together with conventional prescription drugs...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705970/de-novo-whole-genome-sequencing-of-the-wood-rot-fungus-polyporus-brumalis-which-exhibits-potential-terpenoid-metabolism
#10
Su-Yeon Lee, Ji-Eun An, Sun-Hwa Ryu, Myungkil Kim
Polyporus brumalis is able to synthesize several sesquiterpenes during fungal growth. Using a single-molecule real-time sequencing platform, we present the 53-Mb draft genome of P. brumalis, which contains 6,231 protein-coding genes. Gene annotation and isolation support genetic information, which can increase the understanding of sesquiterpene metabolism in P. brumalis.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704611/grasslands-a-source-of-secondary-metabolites-for-livestock-health
#11
Anne Poutaraud, Alice Michelot-Antalik, Sylvain Plantureux
Grassland constitutes a huge reservoir of secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolic compounds, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, carotenoids, and quinones). This phytococktail may positively and/or negatively affect livestock health and production, depending on numerous factors such as animal species and intake. This resource can be considered a low-cost, environmentally friendly way to contribute to the improvement of livestock health. Better knowledge and management of these animal health resources as well as understanding of their mode of action constitute a new multidisciplinary research field...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703029/hop-stunt-viroid-effect-on-host-humulus-lupulus-transcriptome-and-its-interactions-with-hop-powdery-mildew-podospheara-macularis
#12
Madhu Kappagantu, Jeff M Bullock, Mark Elmer Nelson, Kenneth C Eastwell
Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens that exploit host systems for their replication, and cause diseases in many hosts. In this study, the host response of hop plants to Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infection was studied through transcriptome analysis. RNA sequence analysis of hop leaves infected with HSVd revealed dynamic changes in hop gene expression. Defense-related genes, genes involved in lipid and terpenoid metabolism are the major categories that showed differential expression due to HSVd infection...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698905/comparative-transcriptional-analysis-of-hop-responses-to-infection-with-verticillium-nonalfalfae
#13
Vasja Progar, Jernej Jakše, Nataša Štajner, Sebastjan Radišek, Branka Javornik, Sabina Berne
Dynamic transcriptome profiling revealed excessive, yet ineffective, immune response to V. nonalfalfae infection in susceptible hop, global gene downregulation in shoots of resistant hop and only a few infection-associated genes in roots. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) production is hampered by Verticillium wilt, a disease predominantly caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium nonalfalfae. Only a few hop cultivars exhibit resistance towards it and mechanisms of this resistance have not been discovered. In this study, we compared global transcriptional responses in roots and shoots of resistant and susceptible hop plants infected by a lethal strain of V...
July 11, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698739/complete-genome-sequence-of-actinomadura-parvosata-subsp-kistnae-a-rich-source-of-novel-natural-product-bio-chemistry
#14
Kalina Kusserow, Tobias A M Gulder
The soil dwelling actinomycete strain Actinomadura parvosata subsp. kistnae is the producer of the antiviral antibiotics kistamicin A and B. Genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of the kistamycin biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the formation of these non-ribosomal peptides as well as an impressive number of yet uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways. This includes polyketide, ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptide and a large number of terpenoid biosynthetic loci encoding yet unknown natural products...
2017: Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698613/transcriptome-and-metabolite-analyses-in-azadirachta-indica-identification-of-genes-involved-in-biosynthesis-of-bioactive-triterpenoids
#15
Sweta Bhambhani, Deepika Lakhwani, Parul Gupta, Ashutosh Pandey, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Sumit Kumar Bag, Mehar Hasan Asif, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Azadirachta indica A. Juss, commonly known as Neem, is the reservoir of triterpenoids of economic importance. Metabolite analysis of different developmental stages of leaf and fruit suggests tissue-specific accumulation of the major triterpenoids in this important tree. Though biosynthesis of these complex molecules requires substrate flux from the isoprenoid pathway, enzymes involved in late biosynthetic steps remain uncharacterized. We established and analyzed transcriptome datasets from leaf and fruit and identified members of gene families involved in intermediate steps of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and those related to secondary transformation leading to the tissue-specific triterpenoid biosynthesis...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698354/enhanced-secondary-and-hormone-metabolism-in-leaves-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-medicago-truncatula
#16
Lisa Adolfsson, Hugues Nziengui, Ilka N Abreu, Jan Šimura, Azeez Beebo, Andrei Herdean, Jila Aboalizadeh, Jitka Široká, Thomas Moritz, Ondřej Novák, Karin Ljung, Benoît Schoefs, Cornelia Spetea
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most common symbiotic associations between plant's root compartment and fungi. They provide nutritional benefit (mostly inorganic phosphate, Pi) leading to improved growth, and non-nutritional benefits including defense responses to environmental cues throughout the host plant, which in return delivers carbohydrates to the symbiont. However, how transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in leaves of AM plants differ from those induced by Pi fertilization is poorly understood...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694103/coe-inhibits-vasculogenic-mimicry-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-suppressing-notch1-signaling
#17
Chen Jue, Zhao Min, Zhang Zhisheng, Cui Lin, Qian Yayun, Wang Xuanyi, Jin Feng, Wang Haibo, Shi Youyang, Hisamitsu Tadashi, Ishikawa Shintaro, Guo Shiyu, Liu Yanqing
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) has been suggested to be present in various malignant tumors and associated with tumor nutrition supply and metastasis, leading to poor prognosis of patients. Notch1 has been demonstrated to contribute to VM formation in hepathocellular carcinoma (HCC). Celastrus orbiculatus extract (COE), a mixture of 11 terpenoids isolated from the Chinese Herb Celastrus orbiculatus Vine, has been suggested to be effective in cancer treatment...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693678/some-contributions-of-organic-chemistry-to-the-study-of-the-biosynthesis-of-natural-products
#18
James R Hanson
The development over the last 100 years of organic chemists' contributions to the understanding of the biosynthesis of natural products is reviewed. The transitions from speculation to labelling experiments and to the current role of genomics are exemplified, particularly from terpenoid biosynthesis.
May 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693673/a-hundred-years-in-the-elucidation-of-the-structures-of-natural-products
#19
James R Hanson
The development in the strategies for elucidating the structures of natural products from 1916 to 2016 are reviewed revealing the transition from chemical to spectroscopic methods and using examples drawn from the chemistry of terpenoids and steroids.
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692300/selected-mutations-revealed-intermediates-and-key-precursors-in-the-biosynthesis-of-polyketide-terpenoid-hybrid-sesquiterpenyl-epoxy-cyclohexenoids
#20
Lin-Lin Teng, Tian-Yang Song, Zi-Fei Xu, Xiao Liu, Rong Dai, Yong-Hong Chen, Sheng-Hong Li, Ke-Qin Zhang, Xue-Mei Niu
Sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoids (SECs) show impressive biological activities. However, the key pathways for SECs still remain unambiguous. Unexpectedly, 11 new SECs and derivatives with diverse oxidation patterns were isolated after the deletion of gene 274. A high accumulation of toluquinol and its new glycosides in mutant Δ276 and further isolation of the most crucial precursors farnesyl hydroquinone, farnesyl quinone, and three new derivatives from mutant Δ278 confirm that farnesylation at toluquinol is the key step for SECs...
July 10, 2017: Organic Letters
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