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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938521/beneficial-health-applications-and-medicinal-values-of-pedicularis-plants-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Mohd Iqbal Yatoo, Umesh Dimri, Arumugam Gopalakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Marappan Gopi, Rekha Khandia, Mani Saminathan, Archana Saxena, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mayada Ragab Farag, Ashok Munjal, Kuldeep Dhama
Pedicularis plants (Orobanchaceae), popularly known as lousewort, are found in Asia, Europe, and North America, and have been used in Sowa-Rigpa, the Himalayan art of healing and a traditional system of medicine for treating various ailments in humans. A comprehensive compilation on this valuable medicinal plant is not available, however. The present extensive review provides insight into the salient medicinal properties of Pedicularis plants with respect to various health issues and diseases. Our previous studies on Pedicularis plants from the Changthang region of Ladakh (India) and research advances leading to new developments in this field have prompted this review...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937642/essential-oils-as-an-alternative-to-pyrethroids-resistance-against-anopheles-species-complex-giles-diptera-culicidae
#2
REVIEW
Olivier Gnankiné, Imaël Henri Nestor Bassolé
Widespread resistance of Anopheles sp. populations to pyrethroid insecticides has led to the search for sustainable alternatives in the plant kingdom. Among many botanicals, there is great interest in essential oils and their constituents. Many researchers have explored essential oils (EOs) to determine their toxicity and identify repellent molecules that are effective against Anopheles populations. Essential oils are volatile and fragrant substances with an oily consistency typically produced by plants. They contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components at quite different concentrations with a significant insecticide potential, essentially as ovicidal, larvicidal, adulticidal, repellency, antifeedant, growth and reproduction inhibitors...
September 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936775/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-leaf-extract-of-albizia-saman-jacq-merr-and-their-cytotoxic-effect-on-mitotic-chromosomes-of-drimia-indica-roxb-jessop
#3
Azharuddin Daphedar, Tarikeri C Taranath
Silver nanoparticles synthesized using the leaf extract of Albizia saman (Jacq.) Merr. were tested for induction of cytogenetic abnormality in root tip cells of Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop (family Asperagaceae). The leaves are known to be rich in various phytochemicals like flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids, which may be responsible for bioreduction, biocapping, and stabilization of nanoparticles. The various instruments used for characterization include UV-VIS spectrophotometer, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray diffractometer (XRD), and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM)...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933300/cancer-treatment-by-using-traditional-chinese-medicine-probing-active-compounds-in-anti-multidrug-resistance-during-drug-therapy
#4
Jian-Shu Lou, Ping Yao, Karl W K Tism
The main tackle of cancer treatment is multidrug resistance during chemotherapy. Cancer cell can evade cell death during every round of orthodox chemotherapy drugs, consequently being resistance after several rounds of standard drug treatment. One of the regimens to address this multidrug resistance problem is by drug combination. However, synthetic drugs always have problems of strong side effects and toxicity. Natural compounds deriving from traditional Chinese medicine are known to have low toxicity and genuine promising effects in reversing multidrug resistance, either induced by orthodox chemotherapeutic or targeted therapy drugs...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933083/-codon-usage-bias-of-catharanthus-roseus
#5
Ying Li, Xue-Jun Kuang, Xiao-Xuan Zhu, Ying-Jie Zhu, Chao Sun
This study aimed to provide guidance for the heterogenous gene expression, gene prediction and species evolution by analyzing codon usage bias of Catharanthus roseus.The codon composition and usage bias of 30 437 high-confidence coding sequences from C.roseus were analyzed and the proportion of rare codons of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 25 genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in C.roseus were calculated.The results showed that the average GC content of the genes was 42...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933080/-recent-advances-in-biosynthetic-pathway-and-synthetic-biology-of-taxol
#6
Xue-Jun Kuang, Cai-Xia Wang, Li-Qiu Zou, Ying Li, Chao Sun
Taxol, a kind of terpenoid secondary metabolite produced by Taxus brevifolia, is an effective anticancer drug that manufacture relies mainly on the extraction form plants. In order to solve the resource shortage, a lot of work has been done to develop the alternative method. Recently, using synthetic biology to realize heterologous biosynthesis of the precursors of taxol has become a hotspot. Now, the basic framework of taxol biosynthetic pathways has been confirmed, and most enzyme genes involved in taxol biosynthesis have been cloned and identified...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933078/-advance-in-biosynthesis-of-terpenoid-indole-alkaloids-and-its-regulation-in-catharanthus-roseus
#7
Xue-Jun Kuang, Cai-Xia Wang, Li-Qiu Zou, Xiao-Xuan Zhu, Chao Sun
Catharanthus roseus can produce a variety of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA), most of which exhibit strong pharmacological activities. Hence, biosynthesis and regulation of TIA have received recent attention. 3α (S)-strictosidine is an important node in TIA biosynthesis, which is a condensation product of secologanin and tryptamine. The former is produced in iridoid pathway, and the latter is produced in indole pathway. Vindoline and catharanthine, which are produced respectively by 3α (S)-strictosidine via multi-step enzymatic reaction, can form α-3, 4-anhydrovinblastine by the condensation reaction...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930168/a-review-of-the-composition-of-the-essential-oils-and-biological-activities-of-angelica-species
#8
REVIEW
Kandasamy Sowndhararajan, Ponnuvel Deepa, Minju Kim, Se Jin Park, Songmun Kim
A number of Angelica species have been used in traditional systems of medicine to treat many ailments. Especially, essential oils (EOs) from the Angelica species have been used for the treatment of various health problems, including malaria, gynecological diseases, fever, anemia, and arthritis. EOs are complex mixtures of low molecular weight compounds, especially terpenoids and their oxygenated compounds. These components deliver specific fragrance and biological properties to essential oils. In this review, we summarized the chemical composition and biological activities of EOs from different species of Angelica...
September 20, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926863/evaluation-of-cannabinoid-and-terpenoid-content-cannabis-flower-compared-to-supercritical-co2-concentrate
#9
Michelle Sexton, Kyle Shelton, Pam Haley, Mike West
A recent cannabis use survey revealed that 60% of cannabis users rely on smelling the flower to select their cannabis. Olfactory indicators in plants include volatile compounds, principally represented by the terpenoid fraction. Currently, medicinal- and adult-use cannabis is marketed in the United States with relatively little differentiation between products other than by a common name, association with a species type, and Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol potency. Because of this practice, how terpenoid compositions may change during an extraction process is widely overlooked...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926242/structure-function-studies-of-artemisia-tridentata-farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase-and-chrysanthemyl-diphosphate-synthase-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-morphogenesis
#10
J Scott Lee, Jian-Jung Pan, Gurusankar Ramamoorthy, C Dale Poulter
The amino acid sequences of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) from Artemisia tridentata ssp. Spiciformis, minus their chloroplast targeting regions, are 71% identical and 90% similar. FPPase efficiently and selectively synthesizes the "regular" sesquiterpenoid farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) by coupling isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and then to geranyl diphosphate (GPP). In contrast, CPPase is an inefficient promiscuous enzyme, which synthesizes the "irregular" monoterpenes chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), lavandulyl diphosphate (LPP), and trace quantities of maconelliyl diphosphate (MPP) from two molecules of DMAPP, in addition to coupling IPP to DMAPP...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925153/-advances-on-chemical-constituents-and-pharmacological-activities-of-ceriops-genus
#11
Qing-Feng Guo, Lin Chen, Jing-Wei Ma, Yong Zhang
Plants of the genus Ceriops (Rhizophoraceae) consist of five species, which were widely distributed in tropical Asia, Eastern Africa and Oceania. So far,phytochemical studies showed that a total of 131 compounds including 120 terpenoids had been isolated from this genus, which exhibited anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antitumor, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antifouling and antiviral activities. This article summarized the recent research progress of the chemical compositions and their pharmacological activities from the genus,which could provide reference for the development and utilization of the Ceriops plants...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924980/biosynthetic-machinery-of-diterpene-pleuromutilin-isolated-from-basidiomycete-fungi
#12
Momoka Yamane, Atsushi Minami, Chengwei Liu, Taro Ozaki, Ichiro Takeuchi, Tae Tsukagoshi, Tetsuo Tokiwano, Katsuya Gomi, Hideaki Oikawa
The diterpene pleuromutilin is a ribosome-targeting antibiotic isolated from basidiomycete fungi, such as Clitopilus pseudo-pinsitus. Here, we report the functional characterization of all biosynthetic enzymes, involved in pleuromutilin biosynthesis, and propose a biosynthetic pathway. In vitro enzymatic reactions and mutational analysis revealed that a labdane-related diterpene synthase, Ple3, catalyzes two rounds of cyclization from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to premutilin possessing a characteristic 5-6-8-tricyclic carbon skeleton...
September 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918590/the-role-of-diet-in-shaping-the-chemical-signal-design-of-lacertid-lizards
#13
Simon Baeckens, Roberto García-Roa, José Martín, Raoul Van Damme
Lizards communicate with others via chemical signals, the composition of which may vary among species. Although the selective pressures and constraints affecting chemical signal diversity at the species level remain poorly understood, the possible role of diet has been largely neglected. The chemical signals of many lizards originate from the femoral glands that exude a mixture of semiochemicals, and may be used in a variety of contexts. We analyzed the lipophilic fraction of the glandular secretions of 45 species of lacertid lizard species by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918530/exogenous-and-endogenous-increase-in-fungal-ggpp-increased-fungal-taxol-production
#14
Sameh S M Soliman, Kareem A Mosa, Ali A El-Keblawy, Mohamed I Husseiny
Taxol is an anticancer identified in both endophytic fungus and its host plant. Plant Taxol is a diterpenoid with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) mediates the biosynthesis of its terpenoid moiety. Previous report has suggested that fungal Taxol may require terpenoid pathway for its biosynthesis. Here in this study, feeding a Taxol-producing endophytic fungus (Paraconiothyrium SSM001) with terpenoid precursors including isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isoprene) and GGPP enhanced Taxol production threefold and fivefold, respectively, compared to the control...
September 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916855/green-approach-for-synthesis-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-from-andrographis-paniculata-leaf-extract-and-evaluation-of-their-antioxidant-anti-diabetic-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#15
Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam, Govindarasu Mydhili, Thandapani Gomathi, Ill-Min Chung
Bio-mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was carried out by utilizing the reducing and capping potential of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract. The capped ZnO NPs were characterized using UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and SAED analyses. FTIR analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and proteins of A. paniculata leaf extract, in nucleation and stability of ZnO NPs. XRD pattern compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of zinc oxide particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values...
September 15, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915465/traditional-chinese-medicinal-herbs-as-potential-ache-inhibitors-for-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Yingying Jiang, Hongwei Gao, Gulmira Turdu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting 25 million people worldwide, and cholinergic hypothesis is considered as an important hypotheses in the processes of improving cognitive function and recognition skills in recent years. For the long-term treatment of AD, traditional Chinese medicine are particularly suitable for drug discovery. In this review, we sum up six traditional Chinese medicinal herbs concerned with development of AChEIs, including Herba Epimedii, Coptis Chinensis Franch, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, Green tea, Ganoderma, Panax Ginseng...
September 6, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898524/enzymatic-addition-of-alcohols-to-terpenes-by-squalene-hopene-cyclase-variants
#17
Lisa C Kühnel, Bettina M Nestl, Bernhard Hauer
Squalene hopene cyclases (SHC) catalyze the polycyclization of squalene into a mixture of hopene and hopanol. Recently, amino acid residues lining the catalytic cavity of the SHC from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius were replaced by small and large hydrophobic amino acids. The alteration of leucine 607 to phenylalanine resulted in increased enzymatic activity towards the formation of an intermolecular farnesyl-farnesyl ether product from farnesol. Furthermore, the addition of small chain alcohols acting as nucleophiles led to the formation of non-natural ether-linked terpenoids and thus, to a significant alteration of the product pattern compared to wildtype...
September 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895387/chaenomeles-%C3%A2-health-promoting-benefits
#18
Katarzyna Watychowicz, Katarzyna Janda, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jolanta Wolska
Chaenomeles is a genus of deciduous spiny in the family of Rosaceae (Pomoideae subfamily). For centuries, the plant was used for a treatment of anemia, rheumatism, gout and cardiovascular diseases. The chemical composition studies of Chaenomeles showed the presence of many biologically active compounds, such as: phenolic compounds, organic acids, terpenoids, alcohols, ketones or aldehydes. Fruit of Chaenomeles has the largest applying potential due to extensive use of medicinal and high concentration of vitamin C...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892000/development-of-a-matrix-solid-phase-dispersion-extraction-combined-with-uplc-q-tof-ms-for-determination-of-phenolics-and-terpenoids-from-the-euphorbia-fischeriana
#19
Wenjing Li, Yu Lin, Yuchun Wang, Bo Hong
A method based on a simplified extraction by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) determination is validated for analysis of two phenolics and three terpenoids in Euphorbia fischeriana. The optimized experimental parameters of MSPD including dispersing sorbent (silica gel), ratio of sample to dispersing sorbent (1:2), elution solvent (water-ethanol: 30-70) and volume of the elution solvent (10 mL) were examined and set down...
September 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887448/remarkable-preservation-of-terpenoids-and-record-of-volatile-signalling-in-plant-animal-interactions-from-miocene-amber
#20
Suryendu Dutta, Rakesh C Mehrotra, Swagata Paul, R P Tiwari, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Gaurav Srivastava, V Z Ralte, C Zoramthara
Plants produce and release a large array of volatile organic compounds that play many ecological functions. These volatile plant metabolites serve as pollinator attractants, herbivore and pathogen repellents and protect plants from abiotic stresses. To date, the geological evolution of these organic compounds remains unknown. The preservation potential of these metabolites in the fossil record is very poor due to their low boiling points. Here we report a series of volatile sesquiterpenoids, including δ-elemene, α-copaene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D, δ-cadiene and spathunenol, from early Miocene (~17 million year) amber from eastern India...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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