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Yu-Lan Liang, Xin Yang, Ling-Ling Pan, Ya-Fen Wu, Fei Li, Na Wan, Xiang Zhou, Bo Liu, Bin Li
Molecular imprinting technology is widely used in the separation and analysis of compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenols, due to its high selectivity and specific recognition and so on. However, no much of attention has been paid to the terpenoids. This paper is aimed to not only review the effects of common synthetic elements such as functional monomers, cross-linking agents and porogens on the polymer properties, but also highlight the application of terpene molecular imprinting in solid phase extraction, sensor, membrane separation and chromatographic separation by means of statistical analysis of literature...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sumit Handa, Daniel R Dempsey, Divya Ramamoorthy, Nanci Cook, Wayne C Guida, Tyler J Spradling, Justin K White, H Lee Woodcock, David J Merkler
The non-mevalonate dependent (NMVA) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate is the sole source of these terpenoids for the production of isoprenoids in the apicomplexan parasites, in many eubacteria, and in plants. The absence of this pathway in higher organisms has opened a new platform for the development of novel antibiotics and anti-malarials. The enzyme catalyzing the first step of the NMVA pathway is 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXPS). DXPS catalyzes the thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg (II)-dependent conjugation of pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to form 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate and CO2 ...
2018: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
Hongru Ma, Jianfeng Han, Qinchuan Dong
The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Annona glabra extract (AGE) against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in neonatal rats. AGE is known to contain various pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Phytochemical analysis of AGE was performed to understand the presence of vital therapeutic components. Neonatal rats were assigned to the following groups: group I (normal control rats receiving normal saline), group II (control rats receiving ethanol), and group III (treated rats receiving ethanol-AGE)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Mandeep Kaur, Pooja Chadha, Sanehdeep Kaur, Amarjeet Kaur, Rajvir Kaur, Arun Kumar Yadav, Ramandeep Kaur
In search for ecofriendly alternatives to chemical insecticides the present study was conducted to assess the insecticidal potential of an endophytic fungus Schizophyllum commune and its mechanism of toxicity by studying genotoxic and cytotoxic effects as well as repair potential using Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) as a model. Different endophytic fungi were isolated and tested for their insecticidal potential against S. litura. Among the tested endophytic fungi maximum mortality against S. litura was exhibited by S...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeff Wong, Leo d'Espaux, Ishaan Dev, Cas van der Horst, Jay Keasling
Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) root extracts have been used by European and Asian cultures for millennia for their anxiolytic and sedative properties. However, the efficacy of these extracts suffers from variable yields and composition, making these extracts a prime candidate for microbial production. Recently, valerenic acid, a C15 sesquiterpenoid, was identified as the active compound that modulates the GABAA channel. Although the first committed step, valerena-4,7(11)-diene synthase, has been identified and described, the complete valerenic acid biosynthetic pathway remains to be elucidated...
March 12, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Jin-Soo Park, Hak Cheol Kwon
A member of the marine streptomycete clade MAR4, Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, has genetic potential for the biosynthesis of hybrid isoprenoids and produces several meroterpenoids such as naphterpin, nitropyrrolin and marinophenazine. Our research on the strain CNQ-509 led to the isolation of two new naphterpin derivatives ( 1 and 2 ) comprised of naphthoquinone and geranyl moieties along with the known terpenoid, debromomarinone. The two-dimensional structure of these compounds was determined through spectral data analysis using data from NMR, MS and UV spectroscopy...
March 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Darija Cör, Željko Knez, Maša Knez Hrnčič
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Several of these substances belong to the triterpenoids and polysaccharides classes. Proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, etc. are also present...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chanchan Liu, Narayanan Srividya, Amber N Parrish, Wei Yue, Mingqiu Shan, Qinan Wu, B Markus Lange
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, commonly known as Japanese catnip, is used for the treatment of colds, headaches, fevers, and skin rashes in traditional Asian medicine (China, Japan and Korea). The volatile oil and its constituents have various demonstrated biological activities, but there is currently limited information regarding the site of biosynthesis. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of three distinct glandular trichome types which, based on their morphological features, are referred to as peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes...
March 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
A Deethae, Y Peerapornpisal, J Pekkoh, P Sangthong, Y Tragoolpua
AIMS: To determine the antiviral activities of Spirogyra spp. algal extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Spirogyra spp. was extracted using water, ethanol and methanol. Aqueous extract of Spirogyra spp. had the lowest toxicity on Vero cells with the 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50 ) of 4363·30 μg ml-1 . As for potent inhibitory effect, the ethanolic extract presented the highest inhibition of viral infection on HSV-1 in the treatment during viral attachment on Vero cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) and selective index (SI) values of 164·20 and 2·17 μg ml-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Danuše Tarkowská, Miroslav Strnad
The present review summarizes current knowledge of the biosynthesis and biological importance of isoprenoid-derived plant signaling compounds. Cellular organisms use chemical signals for intercellular communication to coordinate their growth, development, and responses to environmental cues. The skeletons of majority of plant signaling molecules, mediators of plant intercellular 'broadcasting', are built from C5 units of isoprene and therefore belong to a huge and diverse group of natural substances called isoprenoids (terpenoids)...
March 12, 2018: Planta
Sujogya Kumar Panda, Walter Luyten
The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Shi-Jun Liu, Zhi-Shu Tang, Zhi-Xin Liao, Chun-Li Cui, Hong-Bo Liu, Yan-Ni Liang, Yu Zhang, Hong-Bo Xu, Dong-Bo Zhang, Ya-Ting Zheng, Huan-Xian Shi, Shi-Ying Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligularia przewalskii (Maxim.) Diels (LP) (called zhangyetuowu in Chinese), is generally found in moist forest areas in the western regions of China. The root, leaves and flower of LP are utilized as a common traditional medicine in China. It has been utilized conventionally in herbal remedies for the remedy of haemoptysis, asthma, pulmonary phthisis, jaundice hepatitis, food poisoning, bronchitis, cough, fever, wound healing, measles, carbuncle, swelling and phlegm diseases...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Meng-Lun Chang, Hui-Ching Mei, I-Chih Kuo, George Hsiao, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Ching-Kuo Lee
Chamaecyparis formosensis is Taiwan's most representative tree, and has high economic value. To date, only a few active chemical constituents have been reported for C. formosensis . In this study, 37 secondary metabolites, including three new compounds ( 1 - 3 ), were extracted from the leaves of C. formosensis . The compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate layer were used at different concentrations to treat HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and to evaluate their effects on matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) expression...
March 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rosa Tundis, Monica Rosa Loizzo
The genus Santolina is a taxonomically complex group of plant species widely distributed in the Mediterranean flora and used in traditional medicine since ancient times for their biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, digestive, and analgesic activities. Phytochemical investigations of Santolina species have revealed the presence of terpenoids as the main bioactive constituents of the genus. Coumarins and flavonoids were also identified. This review deals, for the first time, with information on the traditional uses, chemical profile, and biological properties of plants of the genus Santolina in order to provide input for future research prospects...
March 8, 2018: Planta Medica
Chunyan Jiao, Cheng Song, Siyan Zheng, Yingpeng Zhu, Qing Jin, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Alkaloids are the main active ingredients in the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale . Based on the published genomic and transcriptomic data, a proposed terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis pathway may be present in D. officinale . In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with a high-yielding production of alkaloids were obtained by the optimization of tryptophan, secologanin and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The results showed that the total alkaloid content was 2.05 times greater than that of the control group when the PLBs were fed with 9 µM tryptophan, 6 µM secologanin and 100 µM MeJA after 36 days...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zeljka Rupcic, Monique Rascher, Sae Kanaki, Reinhard W Köster, Marc Stadler, Kathrin Wittstein
Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) or (as established more recently) brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion's Mane mushroom ( Hericium erinaceus ) strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abhishek Sharma, Priyanka Verma, Archana Mathur, Ajay Kumar Mathur
Terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthetic pathway of Catharanthus roseus possesses the major attention in current metabolic engineering efforts being the sole source of highly expensive antineoplastic molecules vinblastine and vincristine. The entire TIA pathway is fairly known at biochemical and genetic levels except the pathway steps leading to biosynthesis of catharanthine and tabersonine. To increase the in-planta yield of these antineoplastic metabolites for the pharmaceutical and drug industry, extensive plant tissue culture-based studies were performed to provide alternative production systems...
March 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Shaosong Kuang, Lin Yang, Ziliang Rao, Zhiyong Zhong, Jinfeng Li, Haichao Zhong, Lulu Dai, Xiaojiang Tang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. Presently, there is no effective and safe drug to treat patients with PD. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), obtained from leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, is a complex mixture of ingredients primarily containing two active components: flavonoids and terpenoids. In this study, we investigated the effects of GBE on A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice, a PD model that has better simulated the progression of PD patients than other models such as the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine-induced PD model...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Ilga Porth, Richard White, Barry Jaquish, Kermit Ritland
In plants, there can be a trade-off between resource allocations to growth vs defense. Here, we use partial correlation analysis of gene expression to make inferences about the nature of this interaction. We studied segregating progenies of Interior spruce subject to weevil attack. In a controlled experiment, we measured pre-attack plant growth and post-attack damage with several morphological measures, and profiled transcriptomes of 188 progeny. We used partial correlations of individual transcripts (expressed sequence tags, ESTs) with pairs of growth/defense traits to identify important nodes and edges in the inferred underlying gene network, for example, those pairs of growth/defense traits with high mutual correlation with a single EST transcript...
March 5, 2018: New Phytologist
A Raja, S Ashokkumar, R Pavithra Marthandam, J Jayachandiran, Chandra Prasad Khatiwada, K Kaviyarasu, R Ganapathi Raman, M Swaminathan
The present work reports the green synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous Tabernaemontana divaricata green leaf extract. ZnO NPs have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra Violet-Visible (UV-Vis) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) analysis. XRD pattern analysis confirms the presence of pure hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of ZnO. The TEM images reveal the formation of spherical shape ZnO NPs with the sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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