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Actinomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345939/discovery-of-alternative-producers-of-the-enediyne-antitumor-antibiotic-c-1027-with-high-titers
#1
Xiaohui Yan, Hindra, Huiming Ge, Dong Yang, Tingting Huang, Ivana Crnovcic, Chin-Yuan Chang, Shi-Ming Fang, Thibault Annaval, Xiangcheng Zhu, Yong Huang, Li-Xing Zhao, Yi Jiang, Yanwen Duan, Ben Shen
The potent cytotoxicity and unique mode of action make the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 an exquisite drug candidate for anticancer chemotherapy. However, clinical development of C-1027 has been hampered by its low titer from the original producer Streptomyces globisporus C-1027. Here we report three new C-1027 alternative producers, Streptomyces sp. CB00657, CB02329, and CB03608, from The Scripps Research Institute actinomycetes strain collection. Together with the previously disclosed Streptomyces sp...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335853/effect-of-nonwoven-jute-agrotextile-mulch-on-soil-health-and-productivity-of-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-l-in-lateritic-soil
#2
Koushik Manna, Manik Chandra Kundu, Biplab Saha, Goutam Kumar Ghosh
A field experiment was conducted in winter season of 2015-2016 in the dry lateritic soil of Eastern India to study the effect of different thicknesses of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulches (NJATM) along with other mulches on soil health, growth and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six treatments viz., T1 (control, i.e. no mulching), T2 (300 gsm NJATM), T3 (350 gsm NJATM), T4 (400 gsm NJATM), T5 (rice straw) and T6 (black polythene mulch), each of which was replicated four times...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311676/anti-glioma-natural-products-downregulating-tumor-glycolytic-enzymes-from-marine-actinomycete-streptomyces-sp-zz406
#3
Mengxuan Chen, Weiyun Chai, Tengfei Song, Mingzhu Ma, Xiao-Yuan Lian, Zhizhen Zhang
Marine natural products are important resources for discovering novel anticancer drugs. In this study, an extract prepared from the culture of a sea anemone-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZZ406 in soluble starch and casein-related liquid medium was found to have activity in inhibiting the proliferation of glioma cells and reducing the production of lactate in glioma cells. Chemical investigation of this active crude extract resulted in the isolation of four new compounds and seven known ones. Structures of the new compounds were determined by a combination of extensive NMR analyses, HRESIMS and MS-MS data, electronic circular dichroism calculation, chemical degradation, and Marfey's method...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311277/characterization-of-conserved-and-novel-septal-factors-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#4
Katherine J Wu, Jenna Zhang, Catherine Baranowski, Vivian Leung, E Hesper Rego, Yasu S Morita, Eric J Rubin, Cara C Boutte
Septation in bacteria requires coordinated regulation of cell wall biosynthesis and hydrolysis enzymes so that new septal cross-wall can be appropriately constructed without compromising the integrity of the existing cell wall. Bacteria with different modes of growth and different types of cell wall require different regulators to mediate cell growth and division processes. Mycobacteria have both a cell wall structure and mode of growth that are distinct from well-studied model organisms and use several different regulatory mechanisms...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299803/initial-data-on-biological-activity-of-taiga-steppe-soils-in-the-lower-reaches-of-the-kolyma-river
#5
M V Schelchkova, S P Davydov, D G Fyodorov-Davydov, A I Davydova, G G Boeskorov, N G Solomonov
Microbiological and enzyme activities of extrazonal taiga-steppe soils in the lower reaches of the Kolyma River have been studied for the first time. Contrary to north-taiga cryometamorphic soils, predominating in the area, microbial cenoses under herb-sedge petrophytic and grass-sagebrush-herb thermophytic steppes are characterized by features typical for arid soils. The saturation of the soil profile with microorganisms is greater, and the development of actinomycetes is more intensive. The enzyme complex is characterized by high activity of dehydrogenases...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296275/consortium-inoculum-of-five-thermo-tolerant-phosphate-solubilizing-actinomycetes-for-multipurpose-biofertilizer-preparation
#6
Arusha P Nandimath, Dilip D Karad, Shantikumar G Gupta, Arun S Kharat
Background and Objectives: Alkaline pH of the soil facilitates the conversion of phosphate present in phosphate fertilizer applied in the field to insoluble phosphate which is not available to plants. Problem of soluble phosphate deficiency arises, primarily due to needless use of phosphate fertilizer. We sought to biofertilizer with the thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes consortium that could convert insoluble phosphate to soluble phosphate at wider temperature range...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289993/glycomyces-tritici-sp-nov-isolated-from-rhizosphere-soil-of-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-and-emended-description-of-the-genus-glycomyces
#7
Wenchao Li, Chongxi Liu, Xiaowei Guo, Wei Song, Tianyu Sun, Liping Duan, Xiangjing Wang, Junwei Zhao, Wensheng Xiang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated NEAU-C2T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of this strain were consistent with the description of the genus Glycomyces. Growth was found to occur at a temperature range of 15-40 °C, pH 6-10 and NaCl concentrations of 0-4%. The cell wall was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole cell sugars were identified as galactose, xylose and ribose...
December 30, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276839/an-insight-into-the-ecology-diversity-and-adaptations-of-gordonia-species
#8
Harshada Sowani, Mohan Kulkarni, Smita Zinjarde
The bacterial genus Gordonia encompasses a variety of versatile species that have been isolated from a multitude of environments. Gordonia was described as a genus about 20 years ago, and to date, 39 different species have been identified. Gordonia is recognized for symbiotic associations with multiple hosts, including aquatic (marine and fresh water) biological forms and terrestrial invertebrates. Some Gordonia species isolated from clinical specimens are known to be opportunistic human pathogens causing secondary infections in immunocompromised and immunosuppressive individuals...
December 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276660/profiling-of-red-pigment-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-jar6-and-its-bioactivity
#9
Jayanthi Abraham, Ritika Chauhan
Actinomycetes strain was isolated from leaf litter soil sample and was identified as Streptomyces sp. by conventional and molecular approaches. The biologically active compound responsible for antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the strain JAR6 was elucidated by solid state fermentation followed by subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. Extraction, purification and structural confirmation of red pigment metabolite viz undecylprodigiosin were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies and comparing the data from the literature...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275696/potential-of-rare-actinomycetes-in-the-production-of-metabolites-against-multiple-oxidant-agents
#10
Fatemeh Mohammadipanah, Mana Momenilandi
CONTEXT: Actinobacteria are a precious source of novel bioactive metabolites with potential pharmaceutical applications. OBJECTIVES: Representatives of 11 genera of rare Actinobacteria were selected for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fermentation broths of the Actinobacteria were extracted and dosage of 10 to 2000 µg/mL were applied for in vitro antioxidant-related bioassays. Cytotoxicity was assessed at the concentration of 2...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274613/individual-and-combined-effects-of-enrofloxacin-and-cadmium-on-soil-microbial-biomass-and-the-ammonia-oxidizing-functional-gene
#11
Jinhua Wang, Lanjun Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang
The negative effects of residues from antibiotics and heavy metals in agricultural soils are becoming an increasingly frequent concern. To evaluate the toxicity and interaction of antibiotics and heavy metals, enrofloxacin (ENR) and cadmium (Cd) were used as targets to study the individual effects of ENR (0.025, 0.1, 0.4mmol/kg) and Cd (0.4mmol/kg) and their combined effects (mole ratios of ENR to Cd of 1: 1, 1: 4 and 1: 16) on soil microbial biomass and function on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the study. The results demonstrated that microbial populations, which were counted during 4 sampling periods, were mainly in the order of bacteria>actinomycetes>fungi...
December 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249153/native-and-engineered-clifednamide-biosynthesis-in-multiple-streptomyces-spp
#12
Yunci Qi, Edward Ding, Joshua Blodgett
Polycyclic tetramate macrolactam (PTM) natural products are produced by actinomycetes and other bacteria. PTMs are often bioactive, and the simplicity of their biosynthetic clusters make them attractive for bioengineering. Clifednamide-type PTMs from Streptomyces sp. JV178 contain a distinctive ketone group, suggesting the existence of a novel PTM oxidizing enzyme. Here, we report the new cytochrome P450 enzyme (CftA) is required for clifednamide production. Genome mining was used to identify several new clifednamide producers, some having improved clifednamide yields...
December 18, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246517/enabling-the-valorization-of-guaiacol-based-lignin-integrated-chemical-and-biochemical-production-of-cis-cis-muconic-acid-using-metabolically-engineered-amycolatopsis-sp-atcc-39116
#13
Nadja Barton, Liliya Horbal, Sören Starck, Michael Kohlstedt, Andriy Luzhetskyy, Christoph Wittmann
Lignin is nature's second most abundant polymer and displays a largely unexploited renewable resource for value-added bio-production. None of the lignin-based fermentation processes so far managed to use guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol), the predominant aromatic monomer in depolymerized lignin. In this work, we describe metabolic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to produce cis,cis-muconic acid (MA), a precursor of recognized industrial value for commercial plastics, from guaiacol. The microbe utilized a very broad spectrum of lignin-based aromatics, such as catechol, guaiacol, phenol, toluene, p-coumarate, and benzoate, tolerated them in elevated amounts and even preferred them over sugars...
December 12, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242217/draft-genome-sequence-of-glycomyces-fuscus-trm-49117-isolated-from-a-hypersaline-soil-sample
#14
Yang Wang, Xiaoxia Luo, Lili Zhang
Glycomyces spp. are rare actinomycetes that are potential antibiotic producers. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Glycomyces fuscus TRM 49117. This is the first genome report of a bacterium belonging to the genus Glycomyces The genome information of G. fuscus will contribute to studies on the structure and function of antibiotics.
December 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234729/a-comprehensive-study-of-eco-friendly-natural-pigment-and-its-applications
#15
Ramendra Singh Parmar, Charu Singh
Actinomycetes, a large group of filamentous bacteria account for 70-80% of secondary metabolites available commercially. The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to identify and characterize pigment from actinomycetes. Actinomycetes were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from different regions of Madhya Pradesh state. Out of 85 actinomycetes, only 5 actinomycetes showed pigment production and based on diffusible pigment production ability one actinomycete ARITM02 was selected. The extraction of pigment was done by solvent extraction method using methanol and purified by TLC and column chromatography...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230935/optimization-and-characterization-of-biosurfactant-from-streptomyces-griseoplanus-nrrl-isp5009-ms1
#16
M A Elkhawaga
AIMS: This search aims to study, isolation, characterization, and stability of biosurfactant isolated from actinomycetes isolated from petroleum contaminated soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optimizing the production of the biosurfactant from Streptomyces griseoplanus NRRL-ISP5009, SM1 was obtained on the 6th day at 30°C, pH 7, 150 rpm, Glycerol yeast extract broth (GYEB) medium supplemented with cellulose, yeast extract and 1%NaCl. The stability of the biosurfactant produced was studied at the different temperature, pH and different concentration of NaCl...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229819/discovery-of-the-leinamycin-family-of-natural-products-by-mining-actinobacterial-genomes
#17
Guohui Pan, Zhengren Xu, Zhikai Guo, Hindra, Ming Ma, Dong Yang, Hao Zhou, Yannick Gansemans, Xiangcheng Zhu, Yong Huang, Li-Xing Zhao, Yi Jiang, Jinhua Cheng, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Joo-Won Suh, Yanwen Duan, Ben Shen
Nature's ability to generate diverse natural products from simple building blocks has inspired combinatorial biosynthesis. The knowledge-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis has allowed the production of designer analogs by rational metabolic pathway engineering. While successful, structural alterations are limited, with designer analogs often produced in compromised titers. The discovery-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis complements the knowledge-based approach by exploring the vast combinatorial biosynthesis repertoire found in Nature...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223135/simultaneous-anti-diabetic-and-anti-vascular-calcification-activity-of-nocardia-sp-utmc-751
#18
Fatemeh Salimi, Saeedeh Jafari-Nodooshan, Nazanin Zohourian, Sedighe Kolivand, Javad Hamedi
Alpha-amylase can act as a significant player in causing hyperglycemia, leading to protein glycation, which is the main complication in this condition, besides causing vascular calcification (VC), an important vascular failure caused due to thisIn order to find a natural source of the biocompounds with inhibitory effects on alpha-amylase,, fifteen fermentation broth extracts of actinobacteria (FBEA) (200 μg mL-1 ) have been screened. Finally, the effects of the most efficient FBE have been investigated on osteopontin (OPN, a VC marker) mRNA level in the vascular smooth muscle cells under the calcification conditions, and the chemical constituents of the most efficient FBE were analyzed using GC-MS analysis...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222758/differential-proteomics-based-on-2d-difference-in-gel-electrophoresis-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-elucidation-of-biological-processes-in-antibiotic-producer-bacterial-strains
#19
Giuseppe Gallo, Andrea Scaloni
Proteomics based on 2D-Difference In Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) procedures can be considered a "gold standard" to determine quantitatively and comparatively protein abundances in cell extracts from different biological sources/conditions according to a gel-based approach. In particular, 2D-DIGE is used for protein specie separation, detection, and relative quantification, whenever tandem MS is used to obtain peptide sequence information that is managed according to bioinformatic procedures to identify the differentially represented protein species...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211005/isolation-of-petrocidin-a-a-new-cytotoxic-cyclic-dipeptide-from-the-marine-sponge-derived-bacterium-streptomyces-sp-sbt348
#20
Cheng Cheng, Eman M Othman, Helga Stopper, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel, Ute Hentschel, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
A new cyclic dipeptide, petrocidin A (1), along with three known compounds-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 2,3-dihydroxybenzamide (3), and maltol (4)-were isolated from the solid culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT348. The strain Streptomyces sp. SBT348 had been prioritized in a strain collection of 64 sponge-associated actinomycetes based on its distinct metabolomic profile using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The absolute configuration of all α-amino acids was determined by HPLC analysis after derivatization with Marfey's reagent and comparison with commercially available reference amino acids...
December 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
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