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Melanie L Yarbrough, William Lainhart, Carey-Ann D Burnham
Nocardia species are the most commonly isolated aerobic actinomycetes from human clinical specimens. Our objective was to assess the identification of clinically relevant actinomycetes using the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF system, including comparison of extraction methods, Biotyper library versions, score cutoffs, and media. Banked Streptomyces (n=10), Tsukamurella (n=2), and Nocardia isolates (n=60) were cultured and extracted using three methods: mycobacterial extraction, ethanol formic acid extraction, or direct on-target extraction...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Alicja Dolzblasz, Alicja Banasiak, Danny Vereecke
Extensive de novo vascularization of leafy galls emerging upon Rhodococcus fascians infection is achieved by fascicular/interfascicular cambium activity and transdifferentiation of parenchyma cells correlated with increased auxin signaling. A leafy gall consisting of fully developed yet growth-inhibited shoots, induced by the actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians, differs in structure compared to the callus-like galls induced by other bacteria. To get insight into the vascular development accompanying the emergence of the leafy gall, the anatomy of infected axillary regions of the inflorescence stem of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 plants and the auxin response in pDR5:GUS-tagged plants were followed in time...
August 12, 2017: Planta
Rui Sun, Pengfei Sun, Jianhong Zhang, Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Yonghong Wu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a worldwide problem with numerous negative effects on water systems, which have prompted researchers to study applicable measures to inhibit and control them. This review summarized the current microorganisms-based methods or technologies aimed at controlling HABs. Based on their characteristics, these methods can be divided into two categories: methods based on single-species microorganisms and methods based on microbial aggregates, and four types: methods for rapid decrease of algal cells density (e...
August 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mara DeLuca, Riley King, Mustafa Morsy
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming a global crisis, causing death of thousands of people and significant economic impact. The discovery of novel antibiotics is crucial to saving lives and reducing healthcare costs. To address the antibiotic-resistant crisis, in collaboration the Small World Initiative, which aims to crowdsource novel antibiotic discovery, this study aimed to identify antimicrobial producing bacteria and bacterial diversity in the soil of the Stimpson Wildlife Sanctuary, an inland area with a soil salt gradient...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
K Sánchez-Herrera, H Sandoval, D Mouniee, N Ramírez-Durán, E Bergeron, P Boiron, N Sánchez-Saucedo, V Rodríguez-Nava
Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase) has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia...
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
Alexandro Bonifaz, Mariana Saldaña, Javier Araiza, Patricia Mercadillo, Andrés Tirado-Sánchez
Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease, classified into eumycetoma caused by fungi and actinomycetoma due to aerobic filamentous actinomycetes. Mycetoma can be found in geographic areas near the Tropic of Cancer. Mexico is one of the countries in which actinomycetoma is endemic. We report an extraordinary case of an adult male with double eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis and Fusarium verticillioides on both feet.
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Bridgette M Cumming, Krishna C Chinta, Vineel P Reddy, Adrie Jc Steyn
SIGNIFICANCE: L-ergothioneine is synthesized in actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, methylobacteria and some fungi. In contrast to other low molecular weight redox buffers, glutathione and mycothiol, ergothioneine is primarily present as a thione rather than a thiol at physiological pH, which makes it resistant to autoxidation. Ergothioneine regulates microbial physiology and enables survival of the microbes under stressful conditions encountered in their natural environments. In particular, ergothioneine enables pathogenic microbes, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), to withstand hostile environments within the host to establish infection...
August 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xiaoqi Yu, Guanjing Cai, Hui Wang, Zhong Hu, Wei Zheng, Xueqian Lei, Xiaoying Zhu, Yao Chen, Qiuliang Chen, Hongyan Din, Hong Xu, Yun Tian, Lijun Fu, Tianling Zheng
To find the potential algicidal microorganisms and apply them to prevent and terminate harmful algal blooms (HABs), we isolated an actinomycete U3 from Mangrove, which had a potent algicidal effect on the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo. It could completely lyse the algal cells by producing active compounds, which were highly sensitive to high temperature and strong alkaline, but resistant to acid. One μg/mL of crude extract of the fermentation supernatant could kill 70% of H. akashiwo cells in 3 d. Unlike most of the other known algicidal Streptomyces, U3 showed strong ability of proliferation with the algal inclusion as the nutrient source...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Dong Wan Lee, Aslan Hwanhwi Lee, Hanbyul Lee, Jae-Jin Kim, Jong Seong Khim, Un Hyuk Yim, Beom Seok Kim
A novel Gram-stain-positive, irregularly rod-shaped actinomycete, designated strain 002-2T, was isolated from sand beach sediment collected from the Taean seashore, Republic of Korea. Cells were aerobic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Colonies of cells were bright yellow, circular, smooth and convex. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown amino phospholipids...
July 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
R A Lewis, J-J Li, N E E Allenby, J Errington, J Hayles, P Nurse
This study was designed to identify bioactive compounds that alter the cellular shape of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by affecting functions involved in the cell cycle or cell morphogenesis. We used a multidrug sensitive fission yeast strain, SAK950 to screen a library of 657 actinomycete bacteria and identified 242 strains that induced eight different major shape phenotypes in S. pombe. These include the typical cell cycle related phenotype, Elongated cells and cell morphology related phenotype Rounded cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Fei Li, Li Tuo, Zhi-Wei Su, Xiao-Qun Wei, Xiao-Yong Zhang, Cheng-Hai Gao, Ri-Ming Huang
A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic non-spore-forming and short-rod-shaped endophytic actinomycete was isolated from a branch of Sonneratia apetala, designated strain BGMRC0092T and investigated in detail data to determine its taxonomic position. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the results of the phylogenetic analyses indicated that BGMRC0092T was most closely related to Nocardioides alpinus Cr7-14T (96.9 %), Nocardioides oleivorans DSM16090T (96.4 %) and Nocardiodes exalbidus RC825T (96...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Cheng-Long Yang, Yi-Shuang Wang, Cheng-Li Liu, Ying-Jie Zeng, Ping Cheng, Rui-Hua Jiao, Shi-Xiang Bao, Hui-Qin Huang, Ren-Xiang Tan, Hui-Ming Ge
Two new alkaloids, strepchazolins A (1) and B (2), together with a previously reported compound, streptazolin (3), were isolated from a marine actinomycete, Streptomyces chartreusis NA02069, collected in the Coast of Hainan Island, China. The structures of new compounds were determined by extensive NMR, mass spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 showed weak anti-Bacillus subtilis activity with the MIC value of 64.0 μM, and weak inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro with IC50 value of 50...
August 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
Shigeru Kitani, Tatsuya Ueguchi, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Kantinan Leetanasaksakul, Arinthip Thamchaipenet, Takuya Nihira
A new cyclic depsipeptide, rakicidin F (1), along with the known compound rakicidin C (2), was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine sponge-derived actinomycete strain Streptomyces sp. GKU 220. Their structures were elucidated by interpreting the HRFABMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Rakicidin F (1) showed growth inhibitory activity against bacteria.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 2 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.92.
August 2, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Taek Geun Lee, Woo Jung Jin, Woo Seok Jeong, Seung Hyun Moon, Tae Gwang Kwon, Sook Kyung Lee, Hye Sook Kang, Hyun Hwangbo
Nocardia species are aerobic, gram-positive, filamentous, partially acid-fast actinomycetes which are found worldwide in soil and decaying organic plant matter. When they infect human beings, they generally enter through the respiratory tract and then disseminate systemically. Rarely has a primary infection occurred as the result of direct inoculation. Isolation of Nocardia from clinical specimens and identification of species are difficult. But, with the introduction of new genetic technologies, reports of novel species of Nocardia have increased...
August 2017: Annals of Dermatology
Siwen Niu, Ting-Ting Zhou, Chun-Lan Xie, Gai-Yun Zhang, Xian-Wen Yang
A novel indole, microindolinone A (1), was isolated from a deep-sea-derived actinomycete Microbacterium sp. MCCC 1A11207, together with 18 known compounds (2-19). By detailed analysis of the ¹H, (13)C, HSQC, COSY, HMBC, high resolution electron spray ionization mass spectrum (HRESIMS), and circular dichroism (CD) data, the absolute configuration of 1 was elucidated as 5R-hydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindole-4-one. It is noteworthy that 1 is the second example of a saturated indole isolated from nature.
July 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
Anne-Catrin Letzel, Li Jing, Gregory Amos, Natalie Millán-Aguiñaga, Joape Ginigini, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen, Susana P Gaudêncio, Nadine Ziemert, Bradley S Moore, Paul R Jensen
Comparative genomics is providing new opportunities to address the diversity and distributions of genes encoding the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. An analysis of 119 genome sequences representing three closely related species of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora reveals extraordinary biosynthetic diversity in the form of 176 distinct biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of which only 24 have been linked to their products. Remarkably, more than half of the BGCs were observed in only one or two strains, suggesting they were acquired relatively recently in the evolutionary history of the genus...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Jing Meng, Xiaomeng Sun, Shuaishuai Li, Hao Liang
Paenarthrobacter nicotinovorans Hce-1 is a Gram-positive obligate aerobe actinomycete. We report here the complete genome sequence of this organism. The genome has a length of 4,174,362 bp and contains 4,568 protein-coding genes, 64 tRNA operons, and 22 rRNA operons. Its GC content in the gene region is 63.4%.
July 27, 2017: Genome Announcements
Zhaohui Wei, Chao Xu, Juan Wang, Fengxia Lu, Xiaomei Bie, Zhaoxin Lu
This paper is the first public report that Streptomyces flavogriseus can produce both actinomycin D and holomycin. The actinomycete strain NJ-4 isolated from the soil of Nanjing Agricultural University was identified as S. flavogriseus. This S. flavogriseus strain was found for the first time to produce two antimicrobial compounds that were identified as actinomycin D and holomycin. GS medium, CS medium and GSS medium were used for the production experiments. All three media supported the production of actinomycin D, while holomycin was detected only in GS medium and was undetectable by HPLC in the CS and GSS media...
2017: PeerJ
Pia K Randleff-Rasmussen, Marion Mosca, Frédéric Knoerr, Didier Pin, Isabelle Desjardins
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic, proliferative lesion of cutaneous/subcutaneous tissue characterized by draining tracts and granules in the discharge caused by actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) or filamentous fungi (eumycotic mycetoma). OBJECTIVES: This case report describes the unusual finding of a cutaneous mycetoma of the lateral wing of the right nostril in a gelding. ANIMAL: A 16-year-old Fjord gelding with suspected pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) was presented for evaluation of a nonpainful, firm and raised mass involving the lateral wing of the right nostril and the lip...
July 23, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
Quanju Xiang, Lihua Luo, Yuhuan Liang, Qiang Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunfu Gu
Agaricus bisporus plays an important role in ecological processes and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Mushroom growth-promoting bacteria have been isolated from casing soil and compost, but microorganisms in the fruiting body have received only a little attention. To get an overview of phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms in the fruiting body of A. bisporus, as well as to screen antimicrobial and mushroom growth-promoting strains, and eventually intensify mushroom production, we isolated and characterized microorganisms from the fruiting body of A...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
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