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Actinomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223733/impact-of-humic-acids-on-the-colonic-microbiome-in-healthy-volunteers
#1
Alexander Swidsinski, Yvonne Dörffel, Vera Loening-Baucke, Christoph Gille, Anne Reißhauer, Onder Göktas, Monika Krüger, Jürgen Neuhaus, Wieland Schrödl
AIM: To test the effects of humic acids on innate microbial communities of the colon. METHODS: We followed the effects of oral supplementation with humic acids (Activomin(®)) on concentrations and composition of colonic microbiome in 14 healthy volunteers for 45 d. 3 × 800 mg Activomin(®) were taken orally for 10 d followed by 3 × 400 mg for 35 d. Colonic microbiota were investigated using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Carnoy fixated and paraffin embedded stool cylinders...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223690/cytotoxic-rearranged-angucycline-glycosides-from-deep-sea-derived-streptomyces-lusitanus-scsio-lr32
#2
Xiangcheng Zhu, Yanwen Duan, Zhaomeng Cui, Zhen Wang, Zengxia Li, Yun Zhang, Jianhua Ju, Hongbo Huang
Two new rearranged linear angucycline glycosides, designated grincamycins G and H (1 and 2), together with three known congers P-1894B (vineomycin A1, 3), saquayamycin B (4) and vineomycin B2 (5), were obtained from marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces lusitanus SCSIO LR32. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by MS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 2-5 showed significant inhibitory effect on Jurkat T-cell proliferation with IC50 values of 3.0, 0.011, 0.037 and 0.3 μM, respectively.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 22 February 2017; doi:10...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221784/development-of-a-biosensor-concept-to-detect-the-production-of-cluster-specific-secondary-metabolites
#3
Yi-Qian Sun, Tobias Busche, Christian Rückert, Constanze Paulus, Yuriy Rebets, Renata Novakova, Joern Kalinowski, Andriy Luzhetskyy, Jan Kormanec, Olga N Sekurova, Sergey B Zotchev
Genome mining of actinomycete bacteria aims at the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites that can be developed into drugs. A new repressor-based biosensor to detect activated secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in Streptomyces was developed. Biosynthetic gene clusters for undecylprodigiosin and coelimycin in the genome of Streptomyces lividans TK24, which encoded TetR-like repressors and appeared to be almost "silent" based on the RNA-seq data were chosen for the proof-of-principle studies...
February 21, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218529/antibacterial-paramagnetic-quinones-from-actinoallomurus
#4
Marianna Iorio, João Cruz, Matteo Simone, Alice Bernasconi, Cristina Brunati, Margherita Sosio, Stefano Donadio, Sonia I Maffioli
Four metabolites, designated paramagnetoquinone A, B, C, and D (1-4), were isolated from three strains belonging to the actinomycete genus Actinoallomurus. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent antibacterial activity with MIC values lower than 0.015 μg/mL against Gram-positive pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains. Since compounds 1 and 2 were NMR-silent due to the presence of an oxygen radical, structure elucidation was achieved through a combination of derivatizations, oxidations, and analysis of (13)C-labeled compounds...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217886/the-use-of-newly-isolated-streptomyces-strain-tn258-as-potential-biocontrol-agent-of-potato-tubers-leak-caused-by-pythium-ultimum
#5
Imen Sellem, Mohamed Ali Triki, Lobna Elleuch, Manel Cheffi, Ahlem Chakchouk, Slim Smaoui, Lotfi Mellouli
An actinomycete strain designated TN258, was isolated from Tunisian Sahara soil and selected for its antagonistic activity, especially against Pythium ultimum (P. ultimum) causing potato tubers leak. Based on the results of cultural characteristic of TN258 strain, the 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence (1433 bp, accession n° HE600071) and the phylogenetic analysis, we propose the assignment of our new isolate bacterium as Streptomyces TN258 strain. After culture optimization, the inhibitory effect of TN258 free cell supernatant against P...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207275/macrotermycins-a-d-glycosylated-macrolactams-from-a-termite-associated-amycolatopsis-sp-m39
#6
Christine Beemelmanns, Timothy R Ramadhar, Ki Hyun Kim, Jonathan L Klassen, Shugeng Cao, Thomas P Wyche, Yanpeng Hou, Michael Poulsen, Tim S Bugni, Cameron R Currie, Jon Clardy
Bioassay-guided metabolomic analyses led to the characterization of four new 20-membered glycosylated polyketide macrolactams, macrotermycins A-D, from a termite-associated actinomycete, Amycolatopsis sp. M39. M39's sequenced genome revealed the macrotermycin's putative biosynthetic gene cluster. Macrotermycins A and C had antibacterial activity against human-pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and, of greater ecological relevance, they also had selective antifungal activity against a fungal parasite of the termite fungal garden...
February 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205416/ecological-implications-of-hypoxia-triggered-shifts-in-secondary-metabolism
#7
Kelley A Gallagher, Greg Wanger, Jane Henderson, Mark Llorente, Chambers C Hughes, Paul R Jensen
Members of the actinomycete genus Streptomyces are non-motile, filamentous bacteria that are well known for the production of biomedically relevant secondary metabolites. While considered obligate aerobes, little is known about how these bacteria respond to periods of reduced oxygen availability in their natural habitats, which include soils and ocean sediments. Here we provide evidence that the marine streptomycete strain CNQ-525 can reduce MnO2 via a diffusible mechanism. We investigated the effects of hypoxia on secondary metabolite production and observed a shift away from the antibiotic napyradiomycin towards 8-amino-flaviolin, an intermediate in the napyradiomycin biosynthetic pathway...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186197/new-natural-products-identified-by-combined-genomics-metabolomics-profiling-of-marine-streptomyces-sp-mp131-18
#8
Constanze Paulus, Yuriy Rebets, Bogdan Tokovenko, Suvd Nadmid, Larisa P Terekhova, Maksym Myronovskyi, Sergey B Zotchev, Christian Rückert, Simone Braig, Stefan Zahler, Jörn Kalinowski, Andriy Luzhetskyy
Marine actinobacteria are drawing more and more attention as a promising source of new natural products. Here we report isolation, genome sequencing and metabolic profiling of new strain Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 isolated from marine sediment sample collected in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. The 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that MP131-18 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The genome of MP131-18 isolate was sequenced, and 36 gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of 18 different types of secondary metabolites were predicted using antiSMASH analysis...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183757/genome-sequence-of-the-filamentous-actinomycete-kitasatospora-viridifaciens
#9
Karina Ramijan, Gilles P van Wezel, Dennis Claessen
The vast majority of antibiotics are produced by filamentous soil bacteria called actinomycetes. We report here the genome sequence of the tetracycline producer "Streptomyces viridifaciens" DSM 40239. Given that this species has the hallmark signatures characteristic of the Kitasatospora genus, we previously proposed to rename this organism Kitasatospora viridifaciens.
February 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182402/evolution-and-distribution-of-c7-cyclitol-synthases-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes
#10
Andrew R Osborn, Kelsey M Kean, Khaled M Alseud, Khaled H Almabruk, Shumpei Asamizu, Janet A Lee, P Andrew Karplus, Taifo Mahmud
2-Epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase (EEVS), a C7-sugar phosphate cyclase (SPC) homologous to 3-dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS), was discovered during studies of the biosynthesis of the C7N-aminocyclitol family of natural products. EEVS was originally thought to be present only in certain actinomycetes, but analyses of genome sequences showed that it is broadly distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including vertebrates. Another SPC, desmethyl-4-deoxygadusol synthase (DDGS), was later discovered as being involved in the biosynthesis of mycosporine-like amino acid sunscreen compounds...
February 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181080/madurastatin-b3-a-rare-aziridine-derivative-from-actinomycete-nocardiopsis-sp-ls150010-with-potent-anti-tuberculosis-activity
#11
Xinjun Zhang, Hongtao He, Rong Ma, Zengchun Ji, Qi Wei, Huanqin Dai, Lixin Zhang, Fuhang Song
Since the discovery of the first antibiotic, natural products have played an important role in chemistry, biology and medicine. To explore the potential of bioactive compounds from microbes isolated from the southeast of Tibet, China, a crude extract library was constructed and screened against Staphylococcus aureus. The strain Nocardiopsis sp. LS150010 was scaled up and subjected to further chemical studies, resulting in the identification of N-salicyloyl-2-aminopropan-1,3-diol (2) and its rare aziridine derivative, madurastatin B3 (1)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174421/streptomyces-euryhalinus-sp-nov-a-new-actinomycete-isolated-from-a-mangrove-forest
#12
Kaushik Biswas, Jayanta D Choudhury, Riddhi Mahansaria, Malay Saha, Joydeep Mukherjee
A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete (strain MS 3/20(T)) was isolated from the sediment of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in India. On International Streptomyces Project (ISP) medium 2, the isolate produced yellowish brown to red aerial hyphae that carried spiny-surfaced spores in a retinaculum-apertum arrangement. Whole-cell hydrolysate of the strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and galactose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Diagnostic polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified phospholipid and unidentified amino lipid...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166386/actinomadura-species-laboratory-maintenance-and-ribosome-engineering
#13
Dipesh Dhakal, Nguyen Thanh Chung, Vijay Rayamajhi, Jae Kyung Sohng
Actinomadura spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-acid fast, non-motile actinomycetes. Some species of Actinomadura are associated with opportunistic infections in humans. However, many bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical applications can be isolated from various Actinomadura spp. This unit includes general protocols for the laboratory maintenance of Actinomadura spp., including growth in liquid medium, growth on solid agar, long-term storage, and generation of a higher producing strain by ribosome engineering...
February 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166382/saccharopolyspora-species-laboratory-maintenance-and-enhanced-production-of-secondary-metabolites
#14
Dipesh Dhakal, Anaya Raj Pokhrel, Amit Kumar Jha, Nguyen Huy Thuan, Jae Kyung Sohng
Saccharopolyspora spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, and non-motile actinomycetes. Various species of the genus Saccharopolyspora have been reported with an ability to produce various bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses. This unit includes general protocols for the laboratory maintenance of Saccharopolyspora species, including growth in liquid medium, growth on solid agar, long-term storage, and generation of a higher producer strain by mutagenesis. Saccharopolyspora spinosa ATCC 49460 is used as a prototype for explaining the considerations for efficient laboratory maintenance of Saccharopolyspora spp...
February 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165031/sediment-biomarker-bacterial-community-characterization-of-high-arsenic-aquifers-in-jianghan-plain-china
#15
Hengpeng Ye, Zeyu Yang, Xiang Wu, Jingwen Wang, Dongyun Du, Jian Cai, Kangle Lv, Huiyun Chen, Jingkun Mei, Mengqi Chen, Hong Du
Representative biomarkers (e.g., n-alkanes), diversity and microbial community in the aquifers contaminated by high concentration of arsenic (As) in different sediment depth (0-30 m) in Jianghan Plain, Hubei, China, were analyzed to investigate the potential mechanism of As enrichment in groundwater. The concentration of As was abundant in top soil and sand, but not in clay. The analysis of the distribution of n-alkanes, CPI values, and wax to total n-alkane ratio (Wax(n)%) indicated that the organic matter (OM) from fresh terrestrial plants were abundant in the shallow sediment...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155814/nonomuraea-rhodomycinica-sp-nov-isolated-from-peat-swamp-forest-soil-in-thailand
#16
Paranee Sripreechasak, Wongsakorn Phongsopitanun, Khomsan Supong, Pattama Pittayakhajonwut, Takuji Kudo, Moriya Ohkuma, Somboon Tanasupawat
The taxonomic position of actinomycete, strain NR4-ASC07T isolated from soil sample collected from Sirindhorn peat swamp forest, Narathiwat Province, Thailand, was clarified using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it was classified in the members of the genus Nonomuraea. It produced tightly closed spiral spore chains on aerial mycelium as well as forming the pseudosporangium. Whole-cell hydrolysate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose, madurose and mannose...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154945/metabolomics-analysis-of-the-effect-of-dissolved-oxygen-on-spinosad-production-by-saccharopolyspora-spinosa
#17
Chunzhe Lu, Jing Yin, Fanglong Zhao, Feng Li, Wenyu Lu
Spinosad, a universal bio-pesticide, is obtained from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Dissolved oxygen, an important contributing factor in aerobic microbial fermentation, however, is not always available in sufficient amounts. To alleviate oxygen limitation in spinosad production, three different oxygen vectors, namely oleic acid, toluene, and n-dodecane, were added into early fermentation. Results indicated that n-dodecane was the optimal oxygen vector. Spinosad yield was increased by 44...
February 2, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128950/naphthablins-b-and-c-meroterpenoids-identified-from-the-marine-sediment-derived-streptomyces-sp-cp26-58-using-hela-cell-based-cytological-profiling
#18
Hana Martucci, Scott E Campit, Stephanie R Gee, Walter M Bray, Trevor Gokey, A King Cada, Ten-Yang Yen, Katsuhiko Minoura, Anton B Guliaev, R Scott Lokey, Taro Amagata
HeLa cell-based cytological profiling (CP) was applied to an extract library of marine sediment-derived actinomycetes to discover new cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Among the hit strains, Streptomyces sp. CP26-58 was selected for further investigation to identify its cytotoxic metabolites. CP revealed that the known ionophore tetronasin (1) was responsible for the cytotoxic effect found in the extract. Furthermore, three naphthoquinone meroterpenoids, naphthablin A (2) and two new derivatives designated as naphthablins B (3) and C (4), were isolated from other cytotoxic fractions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128554/discovery-of-c-glycosylpyranonaphthoquinones-in-streptomyces-sp-mbt76-by-a-combined-nmr-based-metabolomics-and-bioinformatics-workflow
#19
Changsheng Wu, Chao Du, Koji Ichinose, Young Hae Choi, Gilles P van Wezel
Mining of microbial genomes has revealed that actinomycetes harbor far more biosynthetic potential for bioactive natural products than anticipated. Activation of (cryptic) biosynthetic gene clusters and identification of the corresponding metabolites has become a focal point for drug discovery. Here, we applied NMR-based metabolomics combined with bioinformatics to identify novel C-glycosylpyranonaphthoquinones in Streptomyces sp. MBT76 and to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway. Following activation of the cryptic qin gene cluster for a type II polyketide synthase (PKS) by constitutive expression of its pathway-specific activator, bioinformatics coupled to NMR profiling facilitated the chromatographic isolation and structural elucidation of qinimycins A-C (1-3)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120024/saccharothrix-sp-td-093-from-the-thar-desert-india-metabolite-fingerprinting-of-antimicrobial-compounds-and-in-silico-analysis
#20
Ahongshangbam Ibeyaima, Anuj Kumar Dwivedi, Narendra Saini, Sanjay Gupta, Indira P Sarethy
During a screening program for actinomycetes from underexplored and arid Thar Desert (India), TD-093 was isolated. The isolate was characterized based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of culture supernatant were investigated for antimicrobial activity. Bioactive fractions, after column chromatography separation, were subjected to GC-MS analysis. Based on 16S rDNA sequence result, isolate TD-093 showed nearest match to Saccharothrix (96%) and is a potential new species. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Escherichia coli as well as clinical isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii)...
January 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
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