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Actinomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914022/alkaline-protease-production-from-brevibacterium-luteolum-mtcc-5982-under-solid-state-fermentation-and-its-application-for-sulfide-free-unhairing-of-cowhides
#1
R Renganath Rao, M Vimudha, N R Kamini, M K Gowthaman, B Chandrasekran, P Saravanan
Enzyme-based unhairing in replacement of conventional lime sulfide system has been attempted as an alternative for tackling pollution. The exorbitant cost of enzyme and the need for stringent process control need to be addressed yet. This study developed a mechanism for regulated release of protease from cheaper agro-wastes, which overcomes the necessity for stringent process control along with total cost reduction. The maximum protease activity of 1193.77 U/g was obtained after 96 h of incubation with 15% inoculum of the actinomycete strain Brevibacterium luteolum (MTCC 5982) under solid-state fermentation (SSF)...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913417/development-of-an-improved-system-for-the-generation-of-knock-out-mutants-of-amycolatopsis-sp-atcc-39116
#2
Florian Meyer, Hilke Pupkes, Alexander Steinbüchel
The Gram-positive actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is used for the industrial production of natural vanillin. Previously, the only gene deletion performed in this strain targeted the gene vdh coding for a vanillin dehydrogenase. The generation of this mutant suffered from a high number of illegitimate recombinations and the low rate of homologous recombination. To alleviate this, we constructed an optimized deletion system based on a modified suicide vector. Thereby, we were able to enhance the rate of homologous integration from less than 1% of the analyzed clones to 20% or 50% depending on the targeted gene...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902408/sequencing-rare-marine-actinomycete-genomes-reveals-high-density-of-unique-natural-product-biosynthetic-gene-clusters
#3
Michelle Antoinette Schorn, Mohammad M Alanjary, Kristen Aguinaldo, Anton Korobeynikov, Sheila Podell, Nastassia V Patin, Tommie Lincecum, Paul R Jensen, Nadine Ziemert, Bradley S Moore
Traditional natural product discovery methods have nearly exhausted the accessible diversity of microbial chemicals, making new sources and techniques paramount in the search for new molecules. Marine actinomycete bacteria have recently come into the spotlight as fruitful producers of structurally diverse secondary metabolites, and remain relatively untapped. In this study we sequenced twenty-one marine-derived actinomycete strains, rarely studied for their secondary metabolite potential and underrepresented in current genomic databases...
October 27, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902303/arthrobacter-ginkgonis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-rhizosphere-of-ginkgo-biloba-l
#4
Juan Cheng, Meng-Yue Zhang, Jian-Chao Zhao, Huan Xu, Yu Zhang, Tian-Yuan Zhang, Ying-Ying Wu, Yi-Xuan Zhang
A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic and displaying a rod-coccus growth life cycle actinobacterial strain, designated as SYP-A7299T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of Ginkgo biloba L. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SYP-A7299T belongs to the genus Arthrobacter and most closely related to Arthrobacter halodurans JSM 078085T (97.4 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SYP-A7299T and A. halodurans JSM 078085T was 37 % ± 2.9. The cell wall peptidoglycan was A4α, and with glucose and galactose as whole-cell sugars...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902266/rhodococcus-sovatensis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-the-hypersaline-and-heliothermal-lake-ursu-sovata-romania
#5
András Táncsics, István Máthé, Tibor Benedek, Erika M Tóth, Ewelina Atasayar, Cathrin Spröer, Károly Márialigeti, Tamás Felföldi, Balázs Kriszt
A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, designated H004T, was isolated from water sample of the hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu, Sovata, Romania. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain H004T formed a distinct phyletic lineage within the genus Rhodococcus. It shared the highest 16S rRNA gene similarity with Rhodococcus yunnanensis YIM 70056T (98.80%), followed by Rhodococcus fascians LMG 3623T (98.73%), Rhodococcus cercidiphylli YIM 65003T (98.73%), Rhodococcus cerastii C5T (98...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902254/streptomyces-krungchingensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-soil-in-thailand
#6
Paranee Sripreechasak, Wongsakorn Phongsopitanun, Tomohiko Tamura, Somboon Tanasupawat
A novel actinomycete, designated KC-035T, was isolated from soil collected from Krung Ching Waterfall National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined using the polyphasic approach. The strain had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of the members of the genus Streptomyces; flexuous spore chain; LL-diaminopimelic acid in cell wall peptidoglycan; MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4) as menaquinones; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside as phospholipids; anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0 and iso-C14:0 as major cellular fatty acids; and 72 mol% of the DNA G+C content...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902245/streptomyces-luteus-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-loulan-soil-of-xinjiang-china
#7
Xiaoxia Luo, Kai Liang, Yang Wang, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A Streptomyces strain, designated TRM 45540T, was isolated from the soil of Loulan area(89°22'22″E, 40°29'55″N), Xinjiang Province, north-west China and was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis of the strain from 16S rRNA sequence revealed the strain TRM 45540 had 99.87% similarity with the type strain Streptomyces mutabilis NRRL12800T (GenBank accession number. AB184156). The strain was aerobic, gram-staining-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 5% (w/v)...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902237/krasilnikoviella-muralis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-family-promicromonosporaceae-isolated-from-the-takamatsuzuka-tumulus-stone-chamber-interior-and-reclassification-of-promicromonospora-flava-as-krasilnikoviella-flava-comb-nov
#8
Miyuki Nishijima, Nozomi Tazato, Yutaka Handa, Nao Umekawa, Rika Kigawa, Chie Sano, Junta Sugiyama
A Gram-stain positive, facultative anaerobic actinomycete, designated strain T6220-5-2bT, was isolated from a sample taken from a mouldy spot on the surface of a mural painting (the white tiger, Byakko) inside the stone chamber of Takamatsuzuka Tumulus in Asuka village, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolate, it was closely related to the genus Promicromonospora, but formed of a novel lineage within the family Promicromonosporaceae. The closest related species to strain T6220-5-2bT was the known species Promicromonospora flava, which displayed a 99...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902235/micromonospora-parathelypteridis-sp-nov-a-novel-endophytic-actinomycete-with-antifungal-activity-isolated-from-the-root-of-parathelypteris-beddomei-bak-ching
#9
Shanshan Zhao, Chongxi Liu, Weiwei Zheng, Zhaoxu Ma, Tingting Cao, Junwei Zhao, Kai Yan, Wensheng Xiang, Xiangjing Wang
A novel endophytic actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-JXY5T, was isolated from the root of Parathelypteris beddomei (Bak.) Ching. Strain NEAU-JXY5T showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora luteifusca GUI2T (99.31 %), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora noduli GUI43T (99.24 %), Micromonospora lycii NEAU-gq11T (99.19 %), Micromonospora zeae NEAU-gq9T (99.12 %), Micromonospora saelicesensis Lupac 09T (98.97 %), Micromonospora vinacea GUI63T (98...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902221/streptomyces-fuscichromogenes-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-from-soil
#10
Hao Zhang, Jimei Zheng, Junli Zhuang, Yuhua Xin, Xiaowei Zheng, Jianli Zhang
A novel actinomycete, designated strain m16T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Xishuangbanna's tropical rain forest, a prefecture in Yunnan Province, south-west China, and characterized by using polyphasic taxomomy. Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive and spore chains were observed to be of the helical type, with elliptical spores and smooth spore surfaces. The novel strain grew over a temperature range of 15-35 °C, at pH values of 5.0-11.0 and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content of strain m16T was 70...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900687/cloning-and-expression-of-metagenomic-dna-in-streptomyces-lividans-and-subsequent-fermentation-for-optimized-production
#11
Yuriy Rebets, Jan Kormanec, Andriy Lutzhetskyy, Kristel Bernaerts, Jozef Anné
The choice of an expression system for the metagenomic DNA of interest is of vital importance for the detection of any particular gene or gene cluster. Most of the screens to date have used the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli as a host for metagenomic gene libraries. However, the use of E. coli introduces a potential host bias since only 40 % of the enzymatic activities may be readily recovered by random cloning in E. coli. To recover some of the remaining 60 %, alternative cloning hosts such as Streptomyces spp...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896376/reducing-the-bottleneck-in-discovery-of-novel-antibiotics
#12
Marcus B Jones, William C Nierman, Yue Shan, Bryan C Frank, Amy Spoering, Losee Ling, Aaron Peoples, Ashley Zullo, Kim Lewis, Karen E Nelson
Most antibiotics were discovered by screening soil actinomycetes, but the efficiency of the discovery platform collapsed in the 1960s. By now, more than 3000 antibiotics have been described and most of the current discovery effort is focused on the rediscovery of known compounds, making the approach impractical. The last marketed broad-spectrum antibiotics discovered were daptomycin, linezolid, and fidaxomicin. The current state of the art in the development of new anti-infectives is a non-existent pipeline in the absence of a discovery platform...
November 28, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895859/dysbiosis-of-fecal-microbiota-and-high-frequency-of-citrobacter-klebsiella-spp-and-actinomycetes-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-gastroenteritis
#13
Leila Ganji, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Seyed Saeed Eshraghi, Abbas Mirshafiey, Naser Ebrahimi Daryani, Mohammad Reza Zali
AIM: This study was aimed to characterize putative differences of fecal microbiota between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroenteritis patients and healthy controls. BACKGROUND: New evidence proposed that gut microbiota has a deep effect on the balance between health and disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., Enterobacteriacea and Staphylococci were detected in the samples using selective and specific culture media...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885932/natural-products-discovery-from-micro-organisms-in-the-post-genome-era
#14
Haruo Ikeda
With the decision to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Drs. S. Ōmura, W.C. Campbell, and Y. Tu, the importance and usefulness of natural drug discovery and development have been revalidated. Since the end of the twentieth century, many genome analyses of organisms have been conducted, and accordingly, numerous microbial genomes have been decoded. In particular, genomic studies of actinomycetes, micro-organisms that readily produce natural products, led to the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for producing natural products...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885928/epoch-making-milestones-in-antibiotic-exploratory-researches-in-japan
#15
Kunimoto Hotta
Professor Satoshi Ōmura was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is the third to win the award for research on antibiotic, following Fleming' (UK, 1945, discovery of penicillin) and Waksman (USA, 1952, discovery of streptomycin), and the second person after Waksman to receive the award for research on actinomycetes. By focusing his research on macrolides stemming from leucomycin research rather than β-lactams like penicillin or aminoglycosides like streptomycin, Prof. Ōmura realized many scientific achievements...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875967/microbial-p450-enzymes-in-bioremediation-and-drug-discovery-emerging-potentials-and-challenges
#16
Sukanta S Bhattacharya, Jagjit S Yadav
Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a structurally conserved but functionally diverse group of heme-containing mixed function oxidases found across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms of the microbial world. Microbial P450s are known to perform diverse functions ranging from the synthesis of cell wall components to xenobiotic/drug metabolism to biodegradation of environmental chemicals. Conventionally, many microbial systems have been reported to mimic mammalian P450-like activation of drugs and were proposed as the in-vitro models of mammalian drug metabolism...
November 21, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866612/carotenoid-stabilized-gold-and-silver-nanoparticles-derived-from-the-actinomycete-gordonia-amicalis-hs-11-as-effective-free-radical-scavengers
#17
Harshada Sowani, Pallavi Mohite, Shailesh Damale, Mohan Kulkarni, Smita Zinjarde
The Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11 produced orange pigments when cultivated on n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source. When cells of this pigmented bacterium were incubated with 1mM chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) or silver nitrate (AgNO3), pH 9.0, at 25°C, gold and silver nanoparticles, respectively, were obtained in a cell associated manner. It was hypothesized that the pigments present in the cells may be mediating metal reduction reactions. After solvent extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography, two major pigments displaying UV-vis spectra characteristic of carotenoids were isolated...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853450/antifungal-streptomyces-spp-associated-with-the-infructescences-of-protea-spp-in-south-africa
#18
Zander R Human, Kyuho Moon, Munhyung Bae, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Sangwon Cha, Michael J Wingfield, Bernard Slippers, Dong-Chan Oh, Stephanus N Venter
Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826672/streptomyces-xiangtanensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-manganese-contaminated-soil
#19
Ping Mo, Yi-Zun Yu, Jia-Rong Zhao, Jian Gao
An actinomycete strain, designated strain LUSFXJ(T), was isolated from a soil sample obtained near the Xiangtan Manganese Mine, Central-South China and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The DNA-DNA relatedness between this strain and two closely related type strains, Streptomyces echinatus CGMCC 4.1642(T) and Streptomyces lanatus CGMCC 4.137(T), were 28.7 ± 0.4 and 19.9 ± 2...
November 8, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823963/new-approaches-to-antimicrobial-discovery
#20
REVIEW
Kim Lewis
The spread of resistant organisms is producing a human health crisis, as we are witnessing the emergence of pathogens resistant to all available antibiotics. An increase in chronic infections presents an additional challenge - these diseases are difficult to treat due to antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. vermining of soil Actinomycetes ended the golden era of antibiotic discovery in the 60s, and efforts to replace this source by screening synthetic compound libraries was not successful. Bacteria have an efficient permeability barrier, preventing penetration of most synthetic compounds...
November 4, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
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