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Actinomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779147/promicromonospora-viridis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-soil
#1
Liying Jin, Junwei Zhao, Shanwen Jiang, Yang Zhao, Xiaoyang Han, Xiaowei Guo, Xiangjing Wang, Wensheng Xiang
Two Gram-stain positive, aerobic actinomycete strains, designated NEAU-JGR1T and NEAU-JGC41, were isolated from soil collected from Fairy Lake Botanical Garden in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, south of China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis showed that the two strains exhibited 99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and were closely related to Promicromonospora thailandica JCM 17130T (99.4, 99.3%) and Promicromonospora citrea DSM 43110T (99.2, 99.2%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains clustered together and formed a cluster with P...
May 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778820/synthesis-of-bioactive-compounds-from-vermicast-isolated-actinomycetes-species-and-its-antimicrobial-activity-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria
#2
R Balachandar, N Karmegam, M Saravanan, R Subbaiya, P Gurumoorthy
The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of bioactive compounds synthesized from vermicast isolated actinomycetes species. Specifically, the synthesized bioactive compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against selected Gram + ve and Gram-ve human pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Interestingly, a total of five different actinomycetesspecies were recovered from vermicasts...
May 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778159/effects-of-1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium-nitrate-on-the-microbes-in-brown-soil
#3
Cheng Zhang, Jun Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Zhongkun Du, Jinhua Wang, Xi Sun, Tongtong Zhou
The toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) on soil organisms has aroused wide attention due to their high-solubility. The present investigation focused on the toxicity of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C8 mim]NO3 ) on the microbial populations (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes), soil enzyme (urease, dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and β-glucosidase) activities, microbial community diversity using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and abundance of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) in brown soil at each trial with doses of 0, 1...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777719/purification-and-identification-of-an-actinomycin-d-analogue-from-actinomycetes-associated-with-ganoderma-applanatum-via-magnetic-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Chang-Gen Li, Bo Yuan, Meng-Meng Dong, Pin-Yu Zhou, Yu-Xin Hao, Ying-Ying Sun, Meng-Ke Xu, Dan Li, Guo-Yin Kai, Ji-Hong Jiang
Actinomycetes are main producers of antibiotics and targeted screening could improve the efficiency of discovering new drugs. This study describes, for the first time, the isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from the macrofungus Ganoderma applanatum. To increase the efficiency of screening, novel actinomycin D (Act D) molecularly-imprinted polymers were adsorbed to the surface of Fe3 O4 @SiO2 magnetic microspheres (MMIPs) and using in the isolation. A monolithic column prepared with magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers was employed to adsorb actinomycin D and its analogues for selective analysis and identification via MS/MS spectroscopy...
May 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757948/streptomyces-differentiation-in-liquid-cultures-as-a-trigger-of-secondary-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Ángel Manteca, Paula Yagüe
Streptomyces is a diverse group of gram-positive microorganisms characterised by a complex developmental cycle. Streptomycetes produce a number of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds used in the clinic. Most screening campaigns looking for new bioactive molecules from actinomycetes have been performed empirically, e.g., without considering whether the bacteria are growing under the best developmental conditions for secondary metabolite production. These screening campaigns were extremely productive and discovered a number of new bioactive compounds during the so-called "golden age of antibiotics" (until the 1980s)...
May 14, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754180/diversity-roles-and-biotechnological-applications-of-symbiotic-microorganisms-in-the-gut-of-termite
#6
REVIEW
Jing Zhou, Jiwei Duan, Mingkun Gao, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Termites are global pests and can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, and plantation forests. The symbiotic intestinal flora plays an important role in the digestion of cellulose and nitrogen in the life of termites. Termites and their symbiotic microbes in the gut form a synergistic system. These organism work together to digest lignocellulose to make the termites grow on nitrogen deficient food. In this paper, the diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in the gut of termites, including protozoan, spirochetes, actinomycetes, fungus and bacteria, and their role in the digestion of lignocellulose and also the biotechnological applications of these symbiotic microorganisms are discussed...
May 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746664/translational-control-plays-an-important-role-in-the-adaptive-heat-shock-response-of-streptomyces-coelicolor
#7
Giselda Bucca, Radhika Pothi, Andrew Hesketh, Carla Möller-Levet, David A Hodgson, Emma E Laing, Graham R Stewart, Colin P Smith
Stress-induced adaptations require multiple levels of regulation in all organisms to repair cellular damage. In the present study we evaluated the genome-wide transcriptional and translational changes following heat stress exposure in the soil-dwelling model actinomycete bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor. The combined analysis revealed an unprecedented level of translational control of gene expression, deduced through polysome profiling, in addition to transcriptional changes. Our data show little correlation between the transcriptome and 'translatome'; while an obvious downward trend in genome wide transcription was observed, polysome associated transcripts following heat-shock showed an opposite upward trend...
May 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744692/nonomuraea-rhizosphaerae-sp-nov-an-actinomycete-isolated-from-the-rhizosphere-soil-of-a-rubber-tree-hevea-brasiliensis-muell-arg
#8
Junwei Zhao, Shan Mu, Qiannan Zhao, Shanwen Jiang, Peng Cao, Xiaowei Guo, Xiangjing Wang, Wensheng Xiang
A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-mq18T , was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) collected from Xianglu Mountain in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the genus Nonomuraea with high sequence similarity to Nonomuraea guangzhouensis NEAU-ZJ3T (98.5%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain clusters phylogenetically with N...
May 9, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744532/exploring-the-abundance-and-diversity-of-bacterial-communities-and-quantifying-antibiotic-related-genes-along-an-elevational-gradient-in-taibai-mountain-china
#9
Chu Peng, He Wang, Yingying Jiang, Jinhua Yang, Hangxian Lai, Xiaomin Wei
Thus far, no studies have investigated the soil microbial diversity over an elevational gradient in Taibai Mountain, the central massif of the Qinling Mountain Range. Here, we used Illumina sequencing and quantitative PCR of the 16S rRNA gene to assess the diversity and abundance of bacterial communities along an elevational gradient in representative vegetation soils in Taibai Mountain. We identified the soil, climate, and vegetation factors driving the variations in soil bacterial community structure by Pearson correlation and redundancy analysis...
May 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743540/sporulation-specific-cell-division-defects-in-ylme-mutants-of-streptomyces-coelicolor-are-rescued-by-additional-deletion-of-ylmd
#10
Le Zhang, Joost Willemse, Paul A Hoskisson, Gilles P van Wezel
Cell division during the reproductive phase of the Streptomyces life-cycle requires tight coordination between synchronous formation of multiple septa and DNA segregation. One remarkable difference with most other bacterial systems is that cell division in Streptomyces is positively controlled by the recruitment of FtsZ by SsgB. Here we show that deletion of ylmD (SCO2081) or ylmE (SCO2080), which lie in operon with ftsZ in the dcw cluster of actinomycetes, has major consequences for sporulation-specific cell division in Streptomyces coelicolor...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740520/the-%C3%AE-bt1-large-serine-recombinase-catalyzes-dna-integration-at-pseudo-attb-sites-in-the-genus-nocardia
#11
Marion Herisse, Jessica L Porter, Romain Guerillot, Takehiro Tomita, Anders Goncalves Da Silva, Torsten Seemann, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear, Sacha J Pidot
Plasmid vectors based on bacteriophage integrases are important tools in molecular microbiology for the introduction of foreign DNA, especially into bacterial species where other systems for genetic manipulation are limited. Site specific integrases catalyze recombination between phage and bacterial attachment sites ( attP and attB , respectively) and the best studied integrases in the actinomycetes are the serine integrases from the Streptomyces bacteriophages ΦC31 and ΦBT1. As this reaction is unidirectional and highly stable, vectors containing phage integrase systems have been used in a number of genetic engineering applications...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738256/convergent-synthesis-of-kibdelone-c
#12
Yihua Dai, Feixia Ma, Yanfang Shen, Tao Xie, Shuanhu Gao
The synthesis of kibdelone C, a polycyclic natural xanthone isolated from a soil actinomycete, was achieved through a convergent approach. A 6π-electrocyclization was applied to construct the highly substituted dihydrophenanthrenol fragment (B-C-D ring). InBr3 -promoted lactonization was employed to build the isocoumarin ring, which served as a common precursor for the formation of isoquinolinone ring (A-B ring). A key DMAP-mediated oxa-Michael/aldol cascade reaction was developed to install the tetrahydroxanthone fragment (E-F ring)...
May 8, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730661/improvement-of-spinosad-production-upon-utilization-of-oils-and-manipulation-of-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-a-high-producing-saccharopolyspora-spinosa-strain
#13
Ying Huang, Xiaolin Zhang, Chen Zhao, Xuhui Zhuang, Lin Zhu, Chao Guo, Yuan Song
Spinosad, a member of polyketide-derived macrolides produced in the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa, has been developed as a broad-spectrum and effective insecticide. The β-oxidation pathway could be an important source of building blocks for the biosynthesis of spinosad, thus the effect of vegetable oils on the production of spinosad in a high-yield strain was investigated. The spinosad production increased significantly with the addition of strawberry seed oil (511.64 mg/L) and camellia oil (520.07 mg/L) compared to the control group without oil (285...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726708/antimicrobial-metabolites-from-a-marine-derived-actinomycete-streptomyces-sp-g278
#14
Duc Tuan Cao, Van Hieu Tran, Van Nam Vu, Huong Doan Thi Mai, Thi Hong Minh Le, Thi Quyen Vu, Hung Huy Nguyen, Van Minh Chau, Van Cuong Pham
Analysis of an antimicrobial extract prepared from culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. G278 led to the isolation of ten compounds, 1-10. Two compounds, 2,5-Bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl)thiophene (1), and 3-hydroxyl-2-methylpyridine (2) were isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by their spectral data analysis, including mass spectrometry, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and X-ray crystallographic analysis in case of compound 3...
May 4, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724001/unraveling-nutritional-regulation-of-tacrolimus-biosynthesis-in-streptomyces-tsukubaensis-through-omic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
María Ordóñez-Robles, Fernando Santos-Beneit, Juan F Martín
Streptomyces tsukubaensis stands out among actinomycetes by its ability to produce the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Discovered about 30 years ago, this macrolide is widely used as immunosuppressant in current clinics. Other potential applications for the treatment of cancer and as neuroprotective agent have been proposed in the last years. In this review we introduce the discovery of S. tsukubaensis and tacrolimus, its biosynthetic pathway and gene cluster ( fkb ) regulation. We have focused this work on the omic studies performed in this species in order to understand tacrolimus production...
May 1, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722232/-effects-of-exogenous-spermidine-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-on-plant-growth-of-cucumber
#16
Ya Sheng Wu, Shi Rong Guo, Jie Zhang, Nan Shan Du, Jin Sun
Effects of spermidine (Spd) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and photosynthesis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinchun 2) seedlings, fruit yield and quality, microorganism and enzymatic activity in rhizosphere were investigated. The results showed that combined Spd and AMF addition significantly promoted the growth of cucumber seedlings, increased the root activity, fruit production and quality, enhanced nutrients absorption of seedlings. Net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, light quantum efficiency, carboxylation efficiency and light respiration rate of cucumber seedlings were increased by combined addition of Spd and AMF...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720967/how-does-salinity-shape-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiomes-of-alnus-glutinosa-roots
#17
Dominika Thiem, Marcin Gołębiewski, Piotr Hulisz, Agnieszka Piernik, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Black alder ( Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) belongs to dual mycorrhizal trees, forming ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular (AM) root structures, as well as represents actinorrhizal plants that associate with nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. We hypothesized that the unique ternary structure of symbionts can influence community structure of other plant-associated microorganisms (bacterial and fungal endophytes), particularly under seasonally changing salinity in A. glutinosa roots. In our study we analyzed black alder root bacterial and fungal microbiome present at two forest test sites (saline and non-saline) in two different seasons (spring and fall)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717040/comparative-genomics-of-the-nonlegume-parasponia-reveals-insights-into-evolution-of-nitrogen-fixing-rhizobium-symbioses
#18
Robin van Velzen, Rens Holmer, Fengjiao Bu, Luuk Rutten, Arjan van Zeijl, Wei Liu, Luca Santuari, Qingqin Cao, Trupti Sharma, Defeng Shen, Yuda Roswanjaya, Titis A K Wardhani, Maryam Seifi Kalhor, Joelle Jansen, Johan van den Hoogen, Berivan Güngör, Marijke Hartog, Jan Hontelez, Jan Verver, Wei-Cai Yang, Elio Schijlen, Rimi Repin, Menno Schilthuizen, M Eric Schranz, Renze Heidstra, Kana Miyata, Elena Fedorova, Wouter Kohlen, Ton Bisseling, Sandra Smit, Rene Geurts
Nodules harboring nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages, with rhizobia or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. It is generally assumed that nodulation evolved independently multiple times. However, molecular-genetic support for this hypothesis is lacking, as the genetic changes underlying nodule evolution remain elusive. We conducted genetic and comparative genomics studies by using Parasponia species (Cannabaceae), the only nonlegumes that can establish nitrogen-fixing nodules with rhizobium...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710816/natural-product-potential-of-the-genus-nocardiopsis
#19
REVIEW
Alyaa Hatem Ibrahim, Samar Yehia Desoukey, Mostafa A Fouad, Mohamed Salah Kamel, Tobias A M Gulder, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
Actinomycetes are a relevant source of novel bioactive compounds. One of the pharmaceutically and biotechnologically important genera that attract natural products research is the genus Nocardiopsis, mainly for its ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites accounting for its wide range of biological activities. This review covers the literature from January 2015 until February 2018 making a complete survey of all the compounds that were isolated from the genus Nocardiopsis, their biological activities, and natural sources, whenever applicable...
April 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705162/streptomyces-globosus-dk15-and-streptomyces-ederensis-st13-as-new-producers-of-factumycin-and-tetrangomycin-antibiotics
#20
Ivana Charousová, Juraj Medo, Lukáš Hleba, Soňa Javoreková
Fifty seven soil-borne actinomycete strains were assessed for the antibiotic production. Two of the most active isolates, designed as Streptomyces ST-13 and DK-15 exhibited a broad range of antimicrobial activity and therefore they were selected for HPLC fractionation against the most suppressed bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ST-13) and Chromobacterium violaceum (DK-15). LC/MS analysis of extracts showed the presence of polyketides factumycin (DK15) and tetrangomycin (ST13). The taxonomic position of the antibiotic-producing actinomycetes was determined using a polyphasic approach...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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