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Xin-Guo Zhang, Zi-Yu Liu, Jin-Wen Liu, Yan-Long Zeng, Guang-Jun Guo, Qiao-Yun Sun
The actinomycetes strain, lut0910, was isolated from polluted soil and identified as the Rhodococcus species with 99% similarity based on the sequence analysis of 16S recombinant DNA. The extract of this strain demonstrated in vivo and in vitro antitumor activity. The treatment of two human cancer cell lines, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and cervical carcinoma Hela cells, with the lut0910 extract caused the delay in cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 73.39 and 33.09 µg/mL, respectively...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Geneviève Marchand, Marie Gardette, Kiet Nguyen, Valérie Amano, Eve Neesham-Grenon, Maximilien Debia
Longshoremen are exposed to large amounts of grain dust while loading of grain into the holds of vessels. Grain dust inhalation has been linked to respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, hypersensitivity, pneumonitis, and toxic pneumonitis. Our objective was to characterize the exposure of longshoremen to inhalable and total dust, endotoxins, and cultivable bacteria and fungi during the loading of grain in a vessel's hold at the Port of Montreal in order to assess the potential health risks. Sampling campaigns were conducted during the loading of two different types of grain (wheat and corn)...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Laetitia Bonifait, Geneviève Marchand, Marc Veillette, Hamza M'Bareche, Marie-Eve Dubuis, Carole Pépin, Yves Cloutier, Yves Bernard, Caroline Duchaine
Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Danilo Tosta Souza, Fábio Sérgio Paulino da Silva, Leonardo José da Silva, Eduardo José Crevelin, Luiz Alberto Beraldo Moraes, Tiago Domingues Zucchi, Itamar Soares Melo
A novel marine actinomycete, designated strain CMAA 1452T, was isolated from the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri collected from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, in Brazil, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The organism formed a distinct phyletic line in the Saccharopolyspora 16S rRNA gene tree and had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in this genus. It was found to be closely related to Saccharopolyspora dendranthemae KLBMP 1305T (99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and shared similarities of 99...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Amit Grover, Prashanth Nagaraj, Vinay M Joseph, Daksh Gadi
INTRODUCTION: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infection. It is caused by actinomycetes or fungi. It is common in tropical countries and males. Predisposing conditions include malnutrition, poor hygiene, history of trauma, wounds on barefeet, and systemic infections. Eumycotic mycetoma commonly involves lower extremities whereas actinomycosis affects the cervicofacial, thoracic, and abdominal regions. Mycetoma presents with a chronic indurated ulcerated plague with swelling and yellowish discharge of sulfur granules...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Ram Hari Dahal, Dong Seop Shim, Joon Young Kim, Jaisoo Kim
An aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid, creamish-white-coloured bacterium, designated strain R161T, was isolated from soil in Hwaseong, South Korea. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, serine and lysine, and whole-cell sugars were galactose, rhamnose, glucose and ribose. Strain R161T showed antibacterial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain R161T formed a lineage within the family Dermacoccaceae, and showed highest sequence similarity with type strains of Calidifontibacter indicus PC IW02T (97...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Behnam Nazari, Clarissa C Forneris, Marcus I Gibson, Kyuho Moon, Kelsey R Schramma, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) have served as potent clinical drugs and as an inspiration to chemists in various disciplines. Among known GPAs, complestatin, chloropeptin, and kistamicin are unique in that they contain an unusual indole-phenol crosslink. The mechanism of formation of this linkage is unknown, and to date, the biosynthetic gene cluster of only one GPA with an indole-phenol crosslink, that of complestatin, has been identified. Here, we report the genome sequence of the kistamicin producer Nonomuraea sp...
April 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Zhijian Xie, Yaqin He, Shuxin Tu, Changxu Xu, Guangrong Liu, Huimin Wang, Weidong Cao, Hui Liu
Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is vital for agriculture and environment in China. A pot experiment combined with (15)N labeling (including three treatments: control, no fertilizer N and CMV; (15)N-labeled urea alone, (15)NU; substituting partial (15)NU with CMV, (15)NU-M) was conducted to evaluate the impact of CMV on plant growth, development and (15)NU recovery in rice-based rotation system. The (15)NU-M mitigated oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and chlorophyll content while decreased malondialdehyde content in rice root and shoot, increased the biomass, total N and (15)N uptake of plant shoots by 8%, 12% and 39% respectively, thus inducing a noticeable increase of annual (15)N recovery by 77% versus (15)NU alone...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Natalie Millán-Aguiñaga, Krystle L Chavarria, Juan A Ugalde, Anne-Catrin Letzel, Greg W Rouse, Paul R Jensen
Bacteria represent the most genetically diverse kingdom of life. While great progress has been made in describing this diversity, it remains difficult to identify the phylogenetic and ecological characteristics that delineate groups of bacteria that possess species-like properties. One major challenge associated with species delineations is that not all shared genes have the same evolutionary history, and thus the choice of loci can have a major impact on phylogenetic reconstruction. Sequencing the genomes of large numbers of closely related strains provides new opportunities to distinguish ancestral from acquired alleles and assess the effects of recombination on phylogenetic inference...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qiang Wang, Yixuan Zhang, Mian Wang, Yi Tan, Xinxin Hu, Hongwei He, Chunling Xiao, Xuefu You, Yiguang Wang, Maoluo Gan
Neo-actinomycins A and B (1 and 2), two new natural actinomycins featuring an unprecedented tetracyclic 5H-oxazolo[4,5-b]phenoxazine chromophore, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. IMB094. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The presence of this ring system was proposed to originate from a condensation between actinomycin D (3) with α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate, respectively. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxic activities against human cancer HCT116 and A549 cell lines in the nanomolar range (IC50: 38...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yi-Rui Yin, Zhao-Hui Meng, Qing-Wen Hu, Zhao Jiang, Wen-Dong Xian, Lin-Hua Li, Wei Hu, Feng Zhang, En-Min Zhou, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Wen-Jun Li
Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501(T) is an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming and cellulose degrading thermophilic actinomycete isolated from a sandy soil sample of a volcano. Its growth temperature range is 28-60°C. The genomic sequence of this strain revealed that there are 27 cellulase genes belonging to six glycoside hydrolase families. To understand the strategy that this strain uses to utilize carbon sources such as cellulose at different temperatures, comparative transcriptomics analysis of T. rubra YIM 77501(T) was performed by growing it with cellulose (CMC) and without cellulose (replaced with glucose) at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Laura Marín, Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Paula Yagüe, Ángel Manteca, Claudio J Villar, Felipe Lombó
Nutraceutical compounds as plant flavonoids play an important role in prevention and modulation of diverse heath conditions, as they exert interesting antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antitumor effects. They also possess anti-inflammatory activities in arthritis, cardiovascular disease or neurological diseases, as well as modulatory effects on the CYP450 activity on diverse drugs. Most flavonoids are bioactive molecules of plant origin, but their industrial production is sometimes hindered due to reasons as low concentration in the plant tissues, presence in only some species or as a complex mixture or inactive glycosides in plant vacuolae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiurong Ding, Yanhua Yu, Ming Chen, Chen Wang, Yanfang Kang, Hongman Li, Jinli Lou
BACKGROUND: Gordonia polyisoprenivorans is a ubiquitous aerobic actinomycetes bacterium that rarely cause infections in humans. Here, we report a case of G. polyisoprenivorans catheter-related bacteremia in an AIDS patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old man with a past medical history of AIDS-related lymphoma suffered bacteremia caused by a Gram-positive corynebacterium. The strain was identified as a Gordonia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and confirmed to G...
June 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Bibhab Mahapatra, Totan Adak, Naveen K B Patil, Guru P Pandi G, G Basana Gowda, N N Jambhulkar, Manoj Kumar Yadav, P Panneerselvam, Upendra Kumar, Sushmita Munda, Mayabini Jena
Extensive use of imidacloprid in rice ecosystem may alter dynamics of microorganisms and can change soil biochemical properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of imidacloprid on growth and activities of microbes in tropical rice soil ecosystem. Four treatments, namely, recommended dose (at 25g a.i. ha(-1), RD), double the recommended dose (at 50g a.i. ha(-1), 2RD), five times the recommended dose (at 125g a.i. ha(-1), 5RD) & ten times the recommended dose (at 250g a.i. ha(-1), 10RD) along with control were imposed under controlled condition...
June 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xuhua Mo, Chunrong Shi, Chun Gui, Yanjiao Zhang, Jianhua Ju, Qingji Wang
BACKGROUND: Nocamycins I and II, produced by the rare actinomycete Saccharothrix syringae, belong to the tetramic acid family natural products. Nocamycins show potent antimicrobial activity and they hold great potential for antibacterial agent design. However, up to now, little is known about the exact biosynthetic mechanism of nocamycin. RESULTS: In this report, we identified the gene cluster responsible for nocamycin biosynthesis from S. syringae and generated new nocamycin derivatives by manipulating its gene cluster...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Alberto Sutera, Luigi Botta, Rosa Maria Fontana, Giuseppe Gallo
Most of industrially relevant bioproducts are produced by submerged cultivations of actinomycetes. The immobilization of these Gram-positive filamentous bacteria on suitable porous supports may prevent mycelial cell-cell aggregation and pellet formation which usually negatively affect actinomycete submerged cultivations, thus, resulting in an improved biosynthetic capability. In this work, electrospun polylactic acid (PLA) membranes, subjected or not to O2-plasma treatment (PLA-plasma), were used as support for immobilized-cell submerged cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor M145...
May 31, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ratchanee Mingma, Kannika Duangmal, Satoshi Ōmura, Yōko Takahashi, Atsuko Matsumoto
The taxonomic positions of three actinomycete isolates, K08-0175T, K10-0543T and K12-0791T, which were isolated from plant root and rhizospheric soil samples were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of the results of phylogenetic analysis and morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, these three strains were classified as representing members of the genus Kibdelosporangium. These strains were observed to produce both long chains of rod-shaped spores and sporangium-like structures with well-defined walls on aerial hyphae...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Eleonora Egidi, Jennifer L Wood, Edward M Fox, Wuxing Liu, Ashley E Franks
We report here the draft genome sequence of Leifsonia sp. strain NCR5, a Gram-positive actinomycete isolated from Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes rhizosphere. The de novo genome of Leifsonia sp. strain NCR5 was assembled with 69 scaffolds and a G+C content of 69%, was 4.2 Mb in length, and contained 3,952 coding sequences.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
Sebastian Elgueta, Arturo Correa, Marco Campo, Felipe Gallardo, Dimitrios Karpouzas, Maria Cristina Diez
The use of biopurification systems can mitigate the effects of pesticide contamination on farms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticide dissipation on microbial communities in a pilot biopurification system. The pesticide dissipation of atrazine, chlorpyrifos and iprodione (35 mg kg(-1) active ingredient [a.i.]) and biological activity were determined for 40 days. The microbial communities (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Jungwoo Kim, Daniel Shin, Seong-Hwan Kim, Wanki Park, Yoonho Shin, Won Kyung Kim, Sang Kook Lee, Ki-Bong Oh, Jongheon Shin, Dong-Chan Oh
Chemical investigation of a halophilic actinomycete strain belonging to the genus Nocardiopsis inhabiting a hypersaline saltern led to the discovery of new 18-membered macrolides with nitrile functionality, borrelidins C-E (1-3), along with a previously reported borrelidin (4). The planar structures of borrelidins C-E, which are new members of the rare borrelidin class of antibiotics, were elucidated by NMR, mass, IR, and UV spectroscopic analyses. The configurations of borrelidines C-E were determined by the interpretation of ROESY NMR spectra, J-based configuration analysis, a modified Mosher's method, and CD spectroscopic analysis...
June 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
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