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Actinomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521336/chemical-ecology-of-antibiotic-production-by-actinomycetes
#1
Anne van der Meij, Sarah F Worsley, Matthew I Hutchings, Gilles P van Wezel
Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in symbiosis with among others plants, fungi, insects and sponges. As a common theme, these organisms profit from the natural products and enzymes produced by the actinomycetes, for example, for protection against pathogenic microbes, for growth promotion or for the degradation of complex natural polymers such as lignocellulose...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521222/flocculation-mechanism-of-the-actinomycete-streptomyces-sp-hsn06-on-chlorella-vulgaris
#2
Yi Li, Yanting Xu, Tianling Zheng, Hailei Wang
In this study, an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 with the ability to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass was used to investigate the flocculation mechanism. Streptomyces sp. hsn06 exhibited flocculation activity on algal cells through mycelial pellets with adding calcium. Calcium was determined to promote flocculation activity of mycelial pellets as a bridge binding with mycelial pellets and algal cells, which implied that calcium bridging is the main flocculation mechanism for mycelial pellets. Characteristics of flocculation activity confirmed proteins in mycelial pellets involved in flocculation procedure...
May 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516055/antimicrobial-and-enzymatic-activity-of-actinomycetes-isolated-from-soils-of-coastal-islands
#3
Ivana Charousová, Juraj Medo, Eva Halenárová, Soňa Javoreková
Microbiological investigation of unexplored ecosystems is crucial for discovering of antibiotic producing actinomycetes. The present study was conducted to determine antimicrobial activity and identify the most active strains. Actinomycetes were isolated using the spread plate technique following by serial dilution of samples on starch casein agar. The screening method consists of primary and secondary testing. The most active isolates were identified based on molecular and cultural methods. 42 out of 66 isolates displayed antimicrobial potential...
April 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515390/biocontrol-potential-of-an-endophytic-streptomyces-sp-strain-mbcn152-1-against-alternaria-brassicicola-on-cabbage-plug-seedlings
#4
Naglaa Hassan, Satoko Nakasuji, Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy, Hushna Ara Naznin, Masaharu Kubota, Hammad Ketta, Masafumi Shimizu
In the present study, 77 strains of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from cabbage were screened in order to assess their biocontrol potential against Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seedlings. In the first and second screening trials, cabbage seedlings pretreated with mycelial suspensions of each isolate were spray-inoculated with A. brassicicola. Strain MBCN152-1, which exhibited the best protection in screening trials and had no adverse effects on seedling growth, was selected for the greenhouse trial...
May 18, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515317/characterization-of-a-secretory-hydrolase-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-sheds-critical-insight-into-host-lipid-utilization-by-m-tuberculosis
#5
Khundrakpam Herojit Singh, Bhavya Jha, Abhisek Dwivedy, Eira Choudhary, Arpitha G N, Anam Ashraf, Nisheeth Agarwal, Bichitra Kumar Biswal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis in humans and predominantly infects alveolar macrophages. To survive inside host lesions and to evade immune surveillance, this pathogen has developed many strategies. For example, M. tuberculosis uses host-derived lipids/fatty acids as nutrients for prolonged persistence within hypoxic host microenvironments. M. tuberculosis imports these metabolites through its respective transporters, and in the case of host fatty acids, a pertinent question arises: does M. tuberculosis have the enzyme(s) for cleavage of fatty acids from host lipids? We show herein that a previously uncharacterized membrane-associated M...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507698/formicamycins-antibacterial-polyketides-produced-by-streptomyces-formicae-isolated-from-african-tetraponera-plant-ants
#6
Zhiwei Qin, John T Munnoch, Rebecca Devine, Neil A Holmes, Ryan F Seipke, Karl A Wilkinson, Barrie Wilkinson, Matthew I Hutchings
We report a new Streptomyces species named S. formicae that was isolated from the African fungus-growing plant-ant Tetraponera penzigi and show that it produces novel pentacyclic polyketides that are active against MRSA and VRE. The chemical scaffold of these compounds, which we have called the formicamycins, is similar to the fasamycins identified from the heterologous expression of clones isolated from environmental DNA, but has significant differences that allow the scaffold to be decorated with up to four halogen atoms...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507537/deep-sea-actinomycetes-and-their-secondary-metabolites
#7
REVIEW
Manita Kamjam, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Zinxin Deng, Kui Hong
Deep sea is a unique and extreme environment. It is a hot spot for hunting marine actinomycetes resources and secondary metabolites. The novel deep sea actinomycete species reported from 2006 to 2016 including 21 species under 13 genera with the maximum number from Microbacterium, followed by Dermacoccus, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora, and one novel species for the other 9 genera. Eight genera of actinomycetes were reported to produce secondary metabolites, among which Streptomyces is the richest producer...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504888/cytotoxic-bagremycins-from-mangrove-derived-streptomyces-sp-q22
#8
Lei Chen, Weiyun Chai, Wenling Wang, Tengfei Song, Xiao-Yuan Lian, Zhizhen Zhang
New bagremycins C-E (3-5) and bagrelactone A (6), together with known bagremycins A (1) and B (2), 4-hydroxystyrene (7), and 4-hydroxystyrene 4-O-α-d-galactopyranoside (8), were isolated from a mangrove-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Q22. Structures of these new compounds were elucidated based on their NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data as well as chemical degradation. Bagremycin C (3) is a unique analogue with an N-acetyl-(S)-cysteine moiety, while bagrelactone A (6) represents the first example of this type of bagremycin-derived macrolide...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500545/nocardia-tengchongensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-soil-sample
#9
Shuai Li, Hong Ming, Yan-Yan Duan, Jian-Rong Huang, Zhuo-Li Zhao, Ling-Yu Zhang, Wei-Li Ji, Xiao-Lin Meng, Wen-Jun Li, Guo-Xing Nie
The taxonomic status was determined of two actinomycetes, designated CFH S0057(T) and CFH S0065, that were isolated from soil samples collected from an extinct volcano in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains CFH S0057(T) and CFH S0065 belong to the genus Nocardia and formed a single clade within this genus. The two isolates were able to grow at 4-45 °C, pH 5.0-7.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 5.0% (w/v). The whole-cell hydrolysates were rich in meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose, arabinose and fructose...
May 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495785/draft-genome-sequence-of-plant-growth-promoting-endophytic-streptomyces-sp-gku-895-isolated-from-the-roots-of-sugarcane
#10
Worarat Kruasuwan, Talal Sabhan Salih, Sarah Brozio, Paul A Hoskisson, Arinthip Thamchaipenet
Streptomyces sp. GKU 895 is an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the roots of sugarcane. GKU 895 has a genome of 8.3 Mbp and the genome exhibits adaptations related to plant growth-promoting activity. It also has extensive specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters apparent in its genome.
May 11, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490799/rare-polyene-polyol-macrolides-from-mangrove-derived-streptomyces-sp-zq4bg
#11
Wenling Wang, Tengfei Song, Weiyun Chai, Lu Chen, Lei Chen, Xiao-Yuan Lian, Zhizhen Zhang
Bioactive natural products from mangrove-derived actinomycetes are important sources for discovery of drug lead compounds. In this study, an extract prepared from culture of an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZQ4BG isolated from mangrove soils was found to have activity in inhibiting proliferation of glioma cells. Large culture of this mangrove actinomycete in Gause's liquid medium resulted in isolation of seven novel polyene-polyol macrolides, named as flavofungins III-IX (3-9), together with known flavofungins I (1) and II (2) and spectinabilin (10)...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490491/comparison-of-the-vitek-ms-and-bruker-maldi-tof-ms-mass-spectrometry-systems-for-the-identification-of-rhodococcus-equi-and-dietzia-spp
#12
Carlos Ruiz de Alegría Puig, Lilian Pilares, Francesc Marco, Jordi Vila, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Jesús Navas
Rhodococcus equi causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in domesticated animals and immunocompromised humans. Dietzia spp. are environmental bacteria that have been rarely associated with human infections. R. equi and Dietzia spp. are closely related actinomycetes. Phenotypic discrimination between R. equi and Dietzia on the basis of their Gram stain morphology and colony appearance is problematic. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a fast, reliable and cost-effective method for identification of a wide variety of microorganisms...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479998/does-thinning-induced-gap-size-result-in-altered-soil-microbial-community-in-pine-plantation-in-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#13
Bing Yang, Xueyong Pang, Bin Hu, Weikai Bao, Guanglong Tian
Although the effects of gap formation resulting from thinning on microclimate, plant generation and understory plant community have been well documented, the impact of thinning on soil microbial community and related ecological functions of forests particularly in subalpine coniferous region is largely unknown. Here, the effects of thinning on soil microbial abundance and community structure using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in pine plantations were investigated 6 years after thinning. The experimental treatments consisted of two distinct-sized gaps (30 m(2) or 80 m(2) in size) resulting from thinning, with closed canopy (free of thinning) as control...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468277/sampling-terrestrial-environments-for-bacterial-polyketides
#14
REVIEW
Patrick Hill, Graham W Heberlig, Christopher N Boddy
Bacterial polyketides are highly biologically active molecules that are frequently used as drugs, particularly as antibiotics and anticancer agents, thus the discovery of new polyketides is of major interest. Since the 1980s discovery of polyketides has slowed dramatically due in large part to the repeated rediscovery of known compounds. While recent scientific and technical advances have improved our ability to discover new polyketides, one key area has been under addressed, namely the distribution of polyketide-producing bacteria in the environment...
April 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465627/nutritional-control-of-antibiotic-production-by-streptomyces-platensis-ma7327-importance-of-l-aspartic-acid
#15
Maria Falzone, Emmanuel Crespo, Klarissa Jones, Gulaba Khan, Victoria L Korn, Amreen Patel, Mira Patel, Krishnaben Patel, Carrie Perkins, Sana Siddiqui, Drew Stenger, Eileen Yu, Michael Gelber, Robert Scheffler, Vasyl Nayda, Ariela Ravin, Ronica Komal, Jeffrey D Rudolf, Ben Shen, Vincent Gullo, Arnold L Demain
Streptomyces platensis MA7327 is a bacterium producing interesting antibiotics, which act by the novel mechanism of inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis. The antibiotics produced by this actinomycete are platensimycin and platencin plus some minor related antibiotics. Platensimycin and platencin have activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; they also lack toxicity in animal models. Platensimycin also has activity against diabetes in a mouse model...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463981/breaking-continuous-potato-cropping-with-legumes-improves-soil-microbial-communities-enzyme-activities-and-tuber-yield
#16
Shuhao Qin, Stephen Yeboah, Li Cao, Junlian Zhang, Shangli Shi, Yuhui Liu
This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato-Common vetch (P-C), Potato-Black medic (P-B) and Potato-Longdong alfalfa (P-L) in a semi-arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p < 0.05) under P-B rotation by 78%, 85% and 83% in the 2, 4 and 7-year continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P-C rotation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463421/aromatic-polyketide-gtri-02-is-a-previously-unidentified-product-of-the-act-gene-cluster-in-streptomyces-coelicolor-a3-2
#17
Changsheng Wu, Koji Ichinose, Young Hae Choi, Gilles P van Wezel
The biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides derived from type II polyketide synthase (PKS) is complex, and it is not uncommon that highly similar gene clusters give rise to diverse structural architectures. The act biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an archetypal type II PKS. Here, we show that the act BGC also specifies the aromatic polyketide GTRI-02 (1), and propose a mechanism for the biogenesis of its 3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one backbone. 1 was also produced by Streptomyces sp...
April 30, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455615/enhancement-of-antibiotic-productions-by-engineered-nitrate-utilization-in-actinomycetes
#18
Sitong Meng, Hang Wu, Lei Wang, Buchang Zhang, Linquan Bai
Nitrate is necessary for primary and secondary metabolism of actinomycetes and stimulates the production of a few antibiotics, such as lincomycin and rifamycin. However, the mechanism of this nitrate-stimulating effect was not fully understood. Two putative ABC-type nitrate transporters were identified in Streptomyces lincolnensis NRRL2936 and verified to be involved in lincomycin biosynthesis. With nitrate supplementation, the transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes, nitrate-specific ABC1 transporter genes, and lincomycin exporter gene lmrA was found to be enhanced and positively regulated by the global regulator GlnR, whose expression was also improved...
April 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448543/heterologous-expression-of-a-thermophilic-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-triggers-triglyceride-accumulation-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Beatriz Lázaro, Juan A Villa, Omar Santín, Matilde Cabezas, Cintia D F Milagre, Fernando de la Cruz, Gabriel Moncalián
Triglycerides (TAGs), the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and source of fatty acids, are produced as single cell oil by some oleogenic microorganisms. However, these microorganisms require strict culture conditions, show low carbon source flexibilities, lack efficient genetic modification tools and in some cases pose safety concerns. TAGs have essential applications such as behaving as a source for added-value fatty acids or giving rise to the production of biodiesel. Hence, new alternative methods are urgently required for obtaining these oils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446771/monitoring-global-protein-thiol-oxidation-and-protein-s-mycothiolation-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis-under-hypochlorite-stress
#20
Melanie Hillion, Jörg Bernhardt, Tobias Busche, Martina Rossius, Sandra Maaß, Dörte Becher, Mamta Rawat, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Christian Rückert, Jörn Kalinowski, Haike Antelmann
Mycothiol (MSH) is the major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol in Actinomycetes. Here, we used shotgun proteomics, OxICAT and RNA-seq transcriptomics to analyse protein S-mycothiolation, reversible thiol-oxidations and their impact on gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis under hypochlorite stress. In total, 58 S-mycothiolated proteins were identified under NaOCl stress that are involved in energy metabolism, fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis, protein translation, redox regulation and detoxification...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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