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Actinomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714207/synthetic-multispecies-microbial-communities-reveals-shifts-in-secondary-metabolism-and-facilitates-cryptic-natural-product-discovery
#1
Yutong Shi, Chengqian Pan, Kuiwu Wang, Xuegang Chen, Xiaodan Wu, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Bin Wu
Chemically mediated interactions have been hypothesized to be essential for ecosystem functioning as co-occurring organisms can influence the performance of each other by metabolic means. Here we present a co-culture device that allows co-culturing of microorganisms that are physically separated but can exchange chemical signals and metabolites. This setup was adopted to perform investigations on the secondary metabolisms of both a fungal-bacterial community and an actinomycetic-actinomycetic community. This study employed a metabolomics approach integrating LC-MS profiling, multivariate data analysis and molecular networking techniques...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705968/genome-sequence-of-micromonospora-sp-nbs-11-29-an-antibiotic-and-hydrolytic-enzyme-producer-isolated-from-river-sediment-in-brazil
#2
Simone Ichiwaki, Aline C M M Costa, Eliane G Silva, Lina R M Rada, Felipe R Lima, Mabel P Ortíz-Vera, Leandro M Garrido, Maria Inês Z Sato, Welington L Araújo, Gabriel Padilla
The genus Micromonospora comprises actinomycetes with high biotechnological potential, due to their ability to produce secondary metabolites and enzymes. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of Micromonospora sp. NBS 11-29, which showed antibacterial, cellulolytic, and xylanolytic activities under in vitro conditions.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702033/how-streptomyces-anulatus-primes-grapevine-defenses-to-cope-with-gray-mold-a-study-of-the-early-responses-of-cell-suspensions
#3
Parul Vatsa-Portugal, Aziz Aziz, Marine Rondeau, Sandra Villaume, Hamid Morjani, Christophe Clément, Essaid Ait Barka
Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine and is controlled with an intense application of fungicides. As alternatives to chemicals, beneficial microbes may promote plant health by stimulating the plant's immune system. An actinomycete, Streptomyces anulatus S37, has been screened from the rhizosphere microbiome of healthy Vitis vinifera on the basis of its ability to promote grapevine growth and to induce resistance against various phytopathogens, including B...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702006/the-conserved-actinobacterial-two-component-system-mtrab-coordinates-chloramphenicol-production-with-sporulation-in-streptomyces-venezuelae-nrrl-b-65442
#4
Nicolle F Som, Daniel Heine, Neil A Holmes, John T Munnoch, Govind Chandra, Ryan F Seipke, Paul A Hoskisson, Barrie Wilkinson, Matthew I Hutchings
Streptomyces bacteria make numerous secondary metabolites, including half of all known antibiotics. Production of antibiotics is usually coordinated with the onset of sporulation but the cross regulation of these processes is not fully understood. This is important because most Streptomyces antibiotics are produced at low levels or not at all under laboratory conditions and this makes large scale production of these compounds very challenging. Here, we characterize the highly conserved actinobacterial two-component system MtrAB in the model organism Streptomyces venezuelae and provide evidence that it coordinates production of the antibiotic chloramphenicol with sporulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698739/complete-genome-sequence-of-actinomadura-parvosata-subsp-kistnae-a-rich-source-of-novel-natural-product-bio-chemistry
#5
Kalina Kusserow, Tobias A M Gulder
The soil dwelling actinomycete strain Actinomadura parvosata subsp. kistnae is the producer of the antiviral antibiotics kistamicin A and B. Genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of the kistamycin biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the formation of these non-ribosomal peptides as well as an impressive number of yet uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways. This includes polyketide, ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptide and a large number of terpenoid biosynthetic loci encoding yet unknown natural products...
2017: Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698675/virgisporangium-myanmarense-sp-nov-a-novel-motile-actinomycete-isolated-from-an-anthill-soil-in-myanmar
#6
Hideki Yamamura, Shoya Miyazaki, Kodai Ikoma, Youji Nakagawa, Moriyuki Hamada, Misa Otoguro, Tomohiko Tamura, Katsuhiko Ando, Nyunt Phay, Masayuki Hayakawa
An actinomycete strain, designated MM04-1133(T), was isolated from an anthill soil sample collected in Bagan, Myanmar. To establish the taxonomic status of this strain, the isolate was subjected to a polyphasic approach. Strain MM04-1133(T) was Gram-staining positive, aerobic, motile and formed long and narrow sporangia directly above the surface of the substrate mycelium. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the strain contained 3-OH-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose and xylose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694441/the-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-is-redox-controlled-by-protein-s-mycothiolation-under-oxidative-stress
#7
Melanie Hillion, Marcel Imber, Brandán Pedre, Jörg Bernhardt, Malek Saleh, Vu Van Loi, Sandra Maaß, Dörte Becher, Leonardo Astolfi Rosado, Lorenz Adrian, Christoph Weise, Rüdiger Hell, Markus Wirtz, Joris Messens, Haike Antelmann
Mycothiol (MSH) is the major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol in Actinomycetes and functions in post-translational thiol-modification by protein S-mycothiolation as emerging thiol-protection and redox-regulatory mechanism. Here, we have used shotgun-proteomics to identify 26 S-mycothiolated proteins in the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae DSM43989 under hypochlorite stress that are involved in energy metabolism, amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, antioxidant functions and translation. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapDH) represents the most abundant S-mycothiolated protein that was modified at its active site Cys153 in vivo...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691857/a-new-secondary-metabolite-from-the-fermented-mycelia-of-streptomyces-antibiotic-h41-55
#8
Xian-Sheng Li, Xin-Heng Zheng, Fang Chen, Bi-Run Lin, Guang-Xiong Zhou
An actinomycete strain, H41-55 from sea sediment was identified as Streptomyces antibiotic on the basis of its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as 16S rDNA data. A new secondary metabolite, (2S,3R)-N-[3-(formylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-l-threonine propyl ester (1), together with five known compounds was isolated from fermentation product by use of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and preparative RP-C18 HPLC, and identified by HR-TOF-MS and NMR spectra. The cytotoxicities of these isolates against three cancer cell lines and their antifungal activities on Candida albicans were tested...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690170/polyhydroxybutyrate-by-streptomyces-sp-production-and-characterization
#9
Sivakumar Krishnan, Gandhi Shree Chinnadurai, Palani Perumal
A total number of 20 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from soil sediments obtained from Semmancheri coastal areas of Bay of Bengal, India and they were qualitatively screened for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on a medium containing Sudan black stain. Nine of the 20 isolates produced PHB and the quantity of PHB produced varied from 1.79 to 4.26g(-L). Among the positive isolates an actinomycete isolate which was identified as Streptomyces sp. through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis (Accession No: KF667247) produced relatively higher PHB than other positive isolates...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678529/microbial-community-biomass-and-structure-in-saline-and-non-saline-soils-associated-with-salt-boron-tolerant-poplar-clones-grown-for-the-phytoremediation-of-selenium
#10
Sadikshya R Dangi, Gary Bañuelos, Jeffrey S Buyer, Bradley Hanson, James Gerik
Poplar trees (Populus spp.) are often used in bioremediation strategies because of their ability to phytoextract potential toxic ions, e.g., selenium (Se) from poor quality soils. Soil microorganisms may play a vital role in sustaining health of soil and/or tolerance of these trees grown in poor quality soils by contributing to nutrient cycling, soil structure, overall soil quality and plant survival. The effect of naturally-occurring salts, boron (B) and Se on soil microbial community composition associated with poplar trees is not known for bioremediation strategies...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670303/3-hydroxybenzoate-6-hydroxylase-from-rhodococcus-jostii-rha1-contains-a-phosphatidylinositol-cofactor
#11
Stefania Montersino, Evelien Te Poele, Roberto Orru, Adrie H Westphal, Arjan Barendregt, Albert J R Heck, Robert van der Geize, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Andrea Mattevi, Willem J H van Berkel
3-Hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase (3HB6H, EC 1.13.14.26) is a FAD-dependent monooxygenase involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds in soil microorganisms. 3HB6H is unique among flavoprotein hydroxylases in that it harbors a phospholipid ligand. The purified protein obtained from expressing the gene encoding 3HB6H from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 in the host Escherichia coli contains a mixture of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, which are the major constituents of E. coli's cytoplasmic membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669076/isolation-identification-optimization-and-metabolite-profiling-of-streptomyces-sparsus-vsm-30
#12
Ushakiranmayi Managamuri, Muvva Vijayalakshmi, V S Rama Krishna Ganduri, Satish Babu Rajulapati, Bodaiah Bonigala, B S Kalyani, Sudhakar Poda
Deep sea sediment samples of Bay of Bengal (Visakhapatnam) have been analyzed for actinomycetes as an elite source to screen for the production of bioactive metabolites. The actinomycetes strain VSM-30 has an exciting bioactivity profile and was isolated during our systemic screening of marine actinomycetes. It was identified as Streptomyces sparsus based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular approaches. Response surface methodology regression analysis was carried out to fit the experimental data of each response by the second-order polynomial...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648853/next-generation-sequencing-of-oral-microbiota-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-prior-to-and-after-neem-stick-usage-and-correlation-with-serum-monocyte-chemoattractant-1
#13
Rubini Anbalagan, Padma Srikanth, Monika Mani, Ramya Barani, Krishna G Seshadri, R Janarthanan
INTRODUCTION: Oral microbiome impacts health and disease. T2DM and periodontitis are associated. Neem (Azadiracta indica) has antibacterial activity against oral microbiota. OBJECTIVES: To characterize oral microbiota (OMB) in saliva samples of T2DM patients by Next generation sequencing. To analyze MCP-1 levels among the T2DM patients before and after a month of neem stick usage as a toothbrush. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood and saliva samples were collected from adult T2DM patients before and after the neem stick usage...
June 13, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647606/role-of-streptomyces-pactum-in-phytoremediation-of-trace-elements-by-brassica-juncea-in-mine-polluted-soils
#14
Amjad Ali, Di Guo, Amanullah Mahar, Zhen Wang, Dost Muhammad, Ronghua Li, Ping Wang, Feng Shen, Quanhong Xue, Zengqiang Zhang
The industrial expansion, smelting, mining and agricultural practices have increased the release of toxic trace elements (TEs) in the environment and threaten living organisms. The microbe-assisted phytoremediation is environmentally safe and provide an effective approach to remediate TEs contaminated soils. A pot experiment was conducted to test the potential of an Actinomycete, subspecies Streptomyces pactum (Act12) along with medical stone compost (MSC) by growing Brassica juncea in smelter and mines polluted soils of Feng County (FC) and Tongguan (TG, China), respectively...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647504/antimicrobial-investigation-of-selected-soil-actinomycetes-isolated-from-unexplored-regions-of-kashmir-himalayas-india
#15
Aabid Manzoor Shah, Shakeel-U-Rehman, Aehtesham Hussain, Saleem Mushtaq, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Aiyatullah Shah, Zahoor Ahmad, Inshad Ali Khan, Khursheed Ahmad Bhat, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan
The aim of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the antimicrobial potential of soil actinomycetes of Kashmir Himalayas. The secondary metabolites of actinomycetes are the prominent source of antibiotics. A total of 121 morphologically different actinomycete strains were isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. The ethyl acetate extract of fermented broth an actinomycete strain, identified as Streptomyces pratensis exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 with MIC 0...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647221/effect-of-thermo-tolerant-actinomycetes-inoculation-on-cellulose-degradation-and-the-formation-of-humic-substances-during-composting
#16
Yi Zhao, Yue Zhao, Zhechao Zhang, Yuquan Wei, Huan Wang, Qian Lu, Yanjie Li, Zimin Wei
The inoculum containing four cellulolytic thermophilic actinomycetes was screened from compost samples, and was inoculated into co-composting during different inoculation phases. The effect of different inoculation phases on cellulose degradation, humic substances formation and the relationship between inoculation and physical-chemical parameters was determined. The results revealed that inoculation at different phases of composting improved cellulase activities, accelerated the degradation of cellulose, increased the content of humic substances and influenced the structure of actinomycetic community, but there were significant differences between different inoculation phases...
June 21, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639891/antitumor-activity-of-a-rhodococcus-sp-lut0910-isolated-from-polluted-soil
#17
Xin-Guo Zhang, Zi-Yu Liu, Jin-Wen Liu, Yan-Long Zeng, Guang-Jun Guo, Qiao-Yun Sun
The actinomycetes strain, lut0910, was isolated from polluted soil and identified as the Rhodococcus species with 99% similarity based on the sequence analysis of 16S recombinant DNA. The extract of this strain demonstrated in vivo and in vitro antitumor activity. The treatment of two human cancer cell lines, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and cervical carcinoma Hela cells, with the lut0910 extract caused the delay in cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 73.39 and 33.09 µg/mL, respectively...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637341/assessment-of-workers-exposure-to-grain-dust-and-bioaerosols-during-the-loading-of-vessels-hold-an-example-at-a-port-in-the-province-of-qu%C3%A3-bec
#18
Geneviève Marchand, Marie Gardette, Kiet Nguyen, Valérie Amano, Eve Neesham-Grenon, Maximilien Debia
Longshoremen are exposed to large amounts of grain dust while loading of grain into the holds of vessels. Grain dust inhalation has been linked to respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, hypersensitivity, pneumonitis, and toxic pneumonitis. Our objective was to characterize the exposure of longshoremen to inhalable and total dust, endotoxins, and cultivable bacteria and fungi during the loading of grain in a vessel's hold at the Port of Montreal in order to assess the potential health risks. Sampling campaigns were conducted during the loading of two different types of grain (wheat and corn)...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636488/workers-exposure-to-bioaerosols-from-three-different-types-of-composting-facilities
#19
Laetitia Bonifait, Geneviève Marchand, Marc Veillette, Hamza M'Bareche, Marie-Eve Dubuis, Carole Pépin, Yves Cloutier, Yves Bernard, Caroline Duchaine
Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632117/saccharopolyspora-spongiae-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-the-marine-sponge-scopalina-ruetzleri-wiedenmayer-1977
#20
Danilo Tosta Souza, Fábio Sérgio Paulino da Silva, Leonardo José da Silva, Eduardo José Crevelin, Luiz Alberto Beraldo Moraes, Tiago Domingues Zucchi, Itamar Soares Melo
A novel marine actinomycete, designated strain CMAA 1452T, was isolated from the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri collected from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, in Brazil, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The organism formed a distinct phyletic line in the Saccharopolyspora 16S rRNA gene tree and had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in this genus. It was found to be closely related to Saccharopolyspora dendranthemae KLBMP 1305T (99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and shared similarities of 99...
June 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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