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Amar Patel, Lawrence Fong
Immunotherapies have emerged as a revolutionary modality for cancer treatment, and a variety of immune-based approaches are currently being investigated in the field of prostate cancer. Despite the 2010 approval of sipuleucel-T, subsequent progress in prostate cancer immunotherapy development has been limited by disappointing results with novel vaccination approaches and by prostate cancer's general resistance to immune checkpoint blockade. Nevertheless, there remains strong preclinical and clinical evidence to suggest that prostate cancer is a susceptible target for immune therapies...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Nadine Oppermann, Jürgen Weitz, Christoph Reißfelder, Sören Torge Mees
In Germany, medical students in their final year will work in hospitals or medical offices to gain clinical experience. The final year is designed to prepare medical students for their work as junior doctors. It is divided into three parts and includes internal medicine and general surgery as mandatory parts. Many students develop enthusiasm or lack of enthusiasm while working in specific disciplines and often apply for jobs based on their experience in their final year. Despite the importance of this educational phase, the 36 medical faculties have implemented several different curricula and there is significant heterogeneity...
March 16, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Justin M Curley, Coleen Crouch, Joshua E Wilk
Introduction: Medical readiness for deployment is arguably the most important component of personnel readiness in the U.S. Army. Administrative documents called profiles provide individualized medical recommendations to the commander regarding how to best provide for a soldier's health and welfare, and contribute to an aggregated enumeration of a unit's overall readiness to deploy. Profiles that convey behavioral health (BH) limitations thus reflect what can be called the "behavioral health readiness" of the force...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Kaitlin C Maguire, Douglas J Shinneman, Kevin M Potter, Valerie D Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America...
March 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Shiqi Luo, Feng He, Junjie Luo, Shengqian Dou, Yirong Wang, Annan Guo, Jian Lu
Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) are an emerging class of small RNAs, yet their regulatory roles have not been well understood. Here we studied the molecular mechanisms and consequences of tsRNA-mediated regulation in Drosophila. By analyzing 495 public small RNA libraries, we demonstrate that most tsRNAs are conserved, prevalent and abundant in Drosophila. By carrying out mRNA sequencing and ribosome profiling of S2 cells transfected with single-stranded tsRNA mimics and mocks, we show that tsRNAs recognize target mRNAs through conserved complementary sequence matching and suppress target genes by translational inhibition...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Nathan H Johnson, Carol Vidal, Flavius R W Lilly
Background: Current prevalence estimates are 15% for depression and 20% for anxiety disorders among college students. These disorders are known to negatively impact academic achievement and persistence. It is important to understand the effects of parental military service on the mental health of children across development. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of being raised in a military household on current and historical depression and anxiety disorders among college students...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Xu Chen, Stefan Gustafsson, Thomas Whitington, Yan Borné, Erik Lorentzen, Jitong Sun, Peter Almgren, Jun Su, Robert Karlsson, Jie Song, Yi Lu, Yiqiang Zhan, Sara Hägg, Per Svensson, Karin E Smedby, Susan L Slager, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia M Lindgren, Andrew P Morris, Olle Melander, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf de Faire, Kenneth Caidahl, Gunnar Engström, Lars Lind, Mikael C I Karlsson, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Frostegård, Patrik K E Magnusson
Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six SNPs in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined beta=0...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Matthew A Psioda, Joseph G Ibrahim
We consider the problem of Bayesian sample size determination for a clinical trial in the presence of historical data that inform the treatment effect. Our broadly applicable, simulation-based methodology provides a framework for calibrating the informativeness of a prior while simultaneously identifying the minimum sample size required for a new trial such that the overall design has appropriate power to detect a non-null treatment effect and reasonable type I error control. We develop a comprehensive strategy for eliciting null and alternative sampling prior distributions which are used to define Bayesian generalizations of the traditional notions of type I error control and power...
March 14, 2018: Biostatistics
Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Steven M Falowski, Ashwini Sharan, James McInerney, Darren Jacobs, Lalit Venkatesan, Filippo Agnesi
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a common intervention for managing intractable pain. Generally, leads are implanted in a minimally invasive procedure with verbal feedback regarding the location and nature of generated paresthesias by active stimulation; in this way their optimal location can be confirmed. However, lead placement under general anesthesia can have additional benefits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of awake vs asleep lead placement procedures...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Olivier Barbier, Maelle Racle
Introduction: The current evolution of surgical practices is increasingly trending toward hyper-specialization. For military surgeons, their practice in France does not differ from their civilian counterparts. In contrast, in external operations, they have to deal with specific war injuries in austere conditions. They are also required to take care of local populations. Therefore, specific training is necessary, and the French Military Health Service Academy (Ecole du Val-de-Grâce) Paris has set up a specific training called Advanced Course for Deployment Surgery (ACDS) in 2007...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Igor S Pessi, Yannick Lara, Benoit Durieu, Pedro de C Maalouf, Elie Verleyen, Annick Wilmotte
The terrestrial Antarctic Realm has recently been divided into 16 Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs) based on environmental properties and the distribution of biota. Despite their prominent role in the primary production and nutrient cycling in Antarctic lakes, cyanobacteria were only poorly represented in the biological dataset used to delineate these ACBRs. Here we provide a first high-throughput sequencing (HTS) insight into the spatial distribution of benthic cyanobacterial communities in Antarctic lakes located in four distinct, geographically distant ACBRs and covering a range of limnological conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Qiaozhen Meng, Zhenling Peng, Jianyi Yang
Motivation: Coenzyme A (CoA)-protein binding plays an important role in various cellular functions and metabolic pathways. However, no computational methods can be employed for CoA-binding residues prediction. Results: We developed three methods for the prediction of CoA- and CoA derivatives-binding residues, including an ab-initio method SVMpred, a template-based method TemPred, and a consensus-based method CoABind. In SVMpred, a comprehensive set of features are designed from two complementary sequence profiles and the predicted secondary structure and solvent accessibility...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Oren Schwartz, Boris Kanevsky, M A J Sergey Kutikov, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz
Introduction: Attrition from training is associated with substantial financial and personnel loss. There is a plethora of medical literature and research of attrition rates related to initial/phase 1 training (basic combat training); however, the analysis of second phase training (commanders training, consisting of schools that qualify junior commanders and officers for infantry and non-infantry combat units) is limited. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive survey regarding to medical attrition from commanders training in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to present the commanders of the IDF a detailed situation report that will serve as an evidence-based platform for future policy planning and implementation...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ji-Eun Kang, Hyun-Do Kim, Soo-Young Park, Jae-Gu Pan, Jeong Hyun Kim, Do-Young Yum
Background and Aims: Commercial superoxide dismutase (SOD) is derived from melon extract and has a potential as a dietary supplement due to its beneficial anti-oxidative effects. We aimed to improve the productivity of SOD compared with plant SOD by using a generally-regarded-as-safe (GRAS) microorganism, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and assess its anti-oxidative effect using γ-radiation- and dextransulfate sodium (DSS)-induced oxidative models in mice. Methods: We identified the sodA gene encoding manganese-containing SODs (Mn-SOD) in B...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Lisette Wintgens, Aleksandr Romanov, Karen Phillips, Gabriel Ballesteros, Martin Swaans, Richard Folkeringa, Ignacio Garcia-Bolao, Evgeny Pokushalov, Lucas Boersma
Aims: Long-term freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation (CA) and consequently the potential for stroke reduction remain unpredictable. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is an effective mechanical alternative to oral anticoagulation (OAC) for stroke prevention in AF patients. This study aims to evaluate long-term clinical results of combined CA and LAAC in one single procedure. Methods and results: Patients with non-valvular AF who underwent combined CA and LAAC procedure were included in the retrospective compilation of independent prospective general LAAC registries at the individual centres...
March 13, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Benedikt Hacker, Christoph Schultheiß, Michael Döring, Ursula Kurzik-Dumke
This study provides first insights into the involvement of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila NOT and yeast ALG3 gene, in various putative molecular networks. HNOT/ALG3 encodes two translated transcripts encoding precursor proteins differing in their N-terminus and showing 33% identity with the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 3 (ALG3) protein. Experimental evidence for the functional homology of the proteins of fly and man in the N-glycosylation has still to be provided. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid technique we identify 17 molecular partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Klemen Pavlic, Maja Pohar Perme
A common goal in the analysis of the long-term survival related to a specific disease is to estimate a measure that is comparable between populations with different general population mortality. When cause of death is unavailable or unreliable, as for example in cancer registry studies, relative survival methodology is used-in addition to the mortality data of the patients, we use the data on the mortality of the general population. In this article, we focus on the marginal relative survival measure that summarizes the information about the disease-specific hazard...
March 13, 2018: Biostatistics
Saeideh Tasharrofi, Hossein Taghdisian, Abdollah Golchoobi
In this study, pure and ternary adsorption of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), ethylbenzene (EB), and carbon monoxide (CO) on different arrays of zigzag double wall carbon nanotube was investigated using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The internal diameters of nanotube were fixed at 2r = 50.17 Å while nanotube wall distances were different values from d = 0 Å to d = 150 Å. Pure simulation results indicated that adsorption quantity of H2 S and EB in low pressure ranges of P = 1.9 bar to P = 3...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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