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Protein unfolding and translocation

Fiorenza Fumagalli, Julia Noack, Timothy J Bergmann, Eduardo Cebollero Presmanes, Giorgia Brambilla Pisoni, Elisa Fasana, Ilaria Fregno, Carmela Galli, Marisa Loi, Tatiana Soldà, Rocco D'Antuono, Andrea Raimondi, Martin Jung, Armin Melnyk, Stefan Schorr, Anne Schreiber, Luca Simonelli, Luca Varani, Caroline Wilson-Zbinden, Oliver Zerbe, Kay Hofmann, Matthias Peter, Manfredo Quadroni, Richard Zimmermann, Maurizio Molinari
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a site of protein biogenesis in eukaryotic cells. Perturbing ER homeostasis activates stress programs collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR enhances production of ER-resident chaperones and enzymes to reduce the burden of misfolded proteins. On resolution of ER stress, ill-defined, selective autophagic programs remove excess ER components. Here we identify Sec62, a constituent of the translocon complex regulating protein import in the mammalian ER, as an ER-resident autophagy receptor...
October 17, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Lucien Fabre, Eugenio Santelli, Driss Mountassif, Annemarie Donoghue, Aviroop Biswas, Rikard Blunck, Dorit Hanein, Niels Volkmann, Robert Liddington, Isabelle Rouiller
Anthrax toxin comprises three soluble proteins: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). PA must be cleaved by host proteases before it oligomerizes and forms a prepore, to which LF and EF bind. After endocytosis of this tripartite complex, the prepore transforms into a narrow transmembrane pore that delivers unfolded LF and EF into the host cytosol. Here, we find that translocation of multiple 90-kD LF molecules is rapid and efficient. To probe the molecular basis of this translocation, we calculated a three-dimensional map of the fully loaded (PA63)7-(LF)3 prepore complex by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)...
October 2016: Journal of General Physiology
Piere Rodriguez-Aliaga, Luis Ramirez, Frank Kim, Carlos Bustamante, Andreas Martin
ATP-dependent proteases of the AAA+ family, including Escherichia coli ClpXP and the eukaryotic proteasome, contribute to maintenance of cellular proteostasis. ClpXP unfolds and translocates substrates into an internal degradation chamber, using cycles of alternating dwell and burst phases. The ClpX motor performs chemical transformations during the dwell and translocates the substrate in increments of 1-4 nm during the burst, but the processes occurring during these phases remain unknown. Here we characterized the complete mechanochemical cycle of ClpXP, showing that ADP release and ATP binding occur nonsequentially during the dwell, whereas ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release occur during the burst...
September 26, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Vladimir Baytshtok, Xue Fei, Robert A Grant, Tania A Baker, Robert T Sauer
The I domain of HslU sits above the AAA+ ring and forms a funnel-like entry to the axial pore, where protein substrates are engaged, unfolded, and translocated into HslV for degradation. The L199Q I-domain substitution, which was originally reported as a loss-of-function mutation, resides in a segment that appears to adopt multiple conformations as electron density is not observed in HslU and HslUV crystal structures. The L199Q sequence change does not alter the structure of the AAA+ ring or its interactions with HslV but increases I-domain susceptibility to limited endoproteolysis...
October 4, 2016: Structure
Yuan Lu, Qiong-Qiong Xing, Jian-Ya Xu, Dou Ding, Xia Zhao
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been recently revealed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), a major bioactive component from Astragalus membranaceus, exerts immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and has been shown to suppress ER stress in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes. However, the pharmaceutical application of APS in the treatment of severe asthma is unknown. The results obtained here indicate that APS significantly attenuates eosinophils and neutrophil-dominant airway inflammation by reducing the mRNA levels of Cxcl5, Il8, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20) and the protein levels of IL13RA and IL17RA...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Julie Michelle Silverman, Barbara Imperiali
Site selectivity of protein N-linked glycosylation is dependent on many factors, including accessibility of the modification site, amino acid composition of the glycosylation consensus sequence, and cellular localization of target proteins. Previous studies have shown that the bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase, PglB, of Campylobacter jejuni favors acceptor proteins with consensus sequences ((D/E)X1NX2(S/T), where X1,2 ≠ proline) in flexible, solvent-exposed motifs; however, several native glycoproteins are known to harbor consensus sequences within structured regions of the acceptor protein, suggesting that unfolding or partial unfolding is required for efficient N-linked glycosylation in the native environment...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stanislav D Zakharov, Xin S Wang, William A Cramer
The mechanism by which the drug export protein TolC is utilized for import of the cytotoxin colicin E1 across the outer membrane and periplasmic space is addressed. Studies of the initial binding of colicin E1 with TolC, occlusion of membrane-incorporated TolC ion channels, and the structure underlying the colicin-TolC complex were based on the interactions with TolC of individual colicin translocation domain (T-domain) peptides from a set of 19 that span different segments of the T-domain. These studies led to identification of a short 20-residue segment 101-120, a "TolC box", located near the center of the colicin T-domain, which is necessary for binding of colicin to TolC...
September 13, 2016: Biochemistry
Ivan Lebedev, Alice Nemajerova, Zachariah H Foda, Maja Kornaj, Michael Tong, Ute M Moll, Markus A Seeliger
Tissue necrosis as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative damage is a leading cause of permanent disability and death worldwide. The complete mechanism by which cells undergo necrosis upon oxidative stress is not understood. In response to an oxidative insult, wild-type p53 has been implicated as a central regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), triggering necrosis. This process is associated with cellular stabilization and translocation of p53 into the mitochondrial matrix...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Michał Wojciechowski, Àngel Gómez-Sicilia, Mariano Carrión-Vázquez, Marek Cieplak
Knots in proteins have been proposed to resist proteasomal degradation. Ample evidence associates proteasomal degradation with neurodegeneration. One interesting possibility is that indeed knotted conformers stall this machinery leading to toxicity. However, although the proteasome is known to unfold mechanically its substrates, at present there are no experimental methods to emulate this particular traction geometry. Here, we consider several dynamical models of the proteasome in which the complex is represented by an effective potential with an added pulling force...
August 16, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Marco Pirazzini, Oneda Leka, Andrea Mattarei, Florigio Lista, Thomas Binz, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs). They are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol where their substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to exert its neurotoxicity...
July 12, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Babak Nami, Huseyin Donmez, Nadir Kocak
Tunicamycin is an inhibitor of glycosylation that disturbs protein folding machinery in eukaryotic cells. Tunicamycin causes accumulation of unfolded proteins in cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces ER stress. ER stress is an essential mechanism for cellular homeostasis has role in cell death via reprogramming of protein processing, regulation of autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we show effect of tunicamycin on subpopulation and invasion of CD44+/CD24- MCF7 breast cancer stem cells. CD44+/CD24- cells were isolated from MCF7 cell line by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and treated with tunicamycin...
August 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Shogo Yoshimoto, Hajime Nakatani, Keita Iwasaki, Katsutoshi Hori
Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), cell surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria, mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific, high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. AtaA is a homotrimer of polypeptides comprising 3,630 amino acids and forms long nanofibers; therefore, it is too large and structurally complex to be produced as a recombinant protein...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kaiqin Ye, Xiaoming Tu, Xuecheng Zhang, Qiang Shang, Shanhui Liao, Jigang Yu, Jiahai Zhang
Ubiquitin-like proteins play important roles in diverse biological processes. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein), a functional homologue of eukaryotic ubiquitin, interacts with the proteasome ATPase subunit Mpa to recognize and unfold substrates, and then translocate them into the proteasome core for degradation. Previous studies revealed that, Pup, an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), adopts a helical structure upon binding to the N-terminal coiled-coil domain of Mpa, at its disordered C-terminal region...
2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Agnieszka Kłosowska, Tomasz Chamera, Krzysztof Liberek
Hsp104 disaggregase provides thermotolerance in yeast by recovering proteins from aggregates in cooperation with the Hsp70 chaperone. Protein disaggregation involves polypeptide extraction from aggregates and its translocation through the central channel of the Hsp104 hexamer. This process relies on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Considering that Hsp104 is characterized by low affinity towards ATP and is strongly inhibited by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), we asked how Hsp104 functions at the physiological levels of adenine nucleotides...
2016: ELife
Katharina Ernst, Leonie Schnell, Holger Barth
Bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins are the causative agents for several severe human and animal diseases such as diphtheria, cholera, or enteric diseases. They display an AB-type structure: The enzymatically active A-domain attaches to the binding/translocation B-domain which then binds to a receptor on the cell surface. After receptor-mediated endocytosis, the B-domain facilitates the membrane translocation of the unfolded A-domain into the host cell cytosol. Here, the A-domain transfers an ADP-ribose moiety onto its specific substrate which leads to characteristic cellular effects and thus to severe clinical symptoms...
May 20, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Bhavuk Garg, Gaurav Pathria, Christine Wagner, Margarita Maurer, Stephan N Wagner
Current therapy approaches in melanoma targeting have met with the development of resistance and tumour recurrence with a more aggressive phenotype. In a quest for alternative therapy targets, we had previously identified Signal Sequence Receptor 2 (SSR2) as a gene with high expression in a subgroup of human primary melanomas. Now we show that SSR2 exerts a prosurvival functionality in human melanoma cells and that high expression levels of SSR2 are associated with an unfavourable disease outcome in primary melanoma patients...
September 2016: Mutagenesis
Paolo Mesén-Ramírez, Ferdinand Reinsch, Alexandra Blancke Soares, Bärbel Bergmann, Ann-Katrin Ullrich, Stefan Tenzer, Tobias Spielmann
Protein export is central for the survival and virulence of intracellular P. falciparum blood stage parasites. To reach the host cell, exported proteins cross the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) and the parasite-enclosing parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), a process that requires unfolding, suggestive of protein translocation. Components of a proposed translocon at the PVM termed PTEX are essential in this phase of export but translocation activity has not been shown for the complex and questions have been raised about its proposed membrane pore component EXP2 for which no functional data is available in P...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Sebastian Leptihn, Julia Gottschalk, Andreas Kuhn
T7 phage DNA is transported from the capsid into the host cytoplasm across the cell wall by an ejectosome comprised of the viral proteins gp14, gp15 and gp16. Prior to infection, these proteins form the so-called internal core in the mature virion. Gp16 was shown to associate with pure phospholipid bilayers while gp15 bound to DNA. A complex of both proteins appears as spiral-like rods in electron micrographs. It was also shown that the proteins gp15 and gp16 have the propensity to regain their full structure after thermal unfolding...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Paula Garcia-Huerta, Leslie Bargsted, Alexis Rivas, Soledad Matus, Rene L Vidal
Proteins along the secretory pathway are co-translationally translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded polypeptide chains. Afterwards, they are usually modified with N-linked glycans, correctly folded and stabilized by disulfide bonds. ER chaperones and folding enzymes control these processes. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates a signaling response, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The hallmark of this response is the coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of ER chaperones and folding enzymes...
April 29, 2016: Brain Research
Anne Araye, Amélie Goudet, Julien Barbier, Sylvain Pichard, Bruno Baron, Patrick England, Javier Pérez, Sophie Zinn-Justin, Alexandre Chenal, Daniel Gillet
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is composed of three domains: a catalytic domain (LC), a translocation domain (HN) and a receptor-binding domain (HC). Like most bacterial toxins BoNT/A is an amphitropic protein, produced in a soluble form that is able to interact, penetrate and/or cross a membrane to achieve its toxic function. During intoxication BoNT/A is internalized by the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Then, LC crosses the membrane of the endocytic compartment and reaches the cytosol. This translocation is initiated by the low pH found in this compartment...
2016: PloS One
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