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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921290/-bath-salts-the-new-york-city-medical-examiner-experience-a-3-year-retrospective-review
#1
Stephen J deRoux, William A Dunn
"Bath salts" are synthetic derivatives of cathinones, compounds found in the leaves of Catha edulis, which possesses amphetamine-like properties. At the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a 3-year retrospective analysis of deaths in which cathinones were detected. Two categories emerged; those in which cathinones were a contributory cause of death (15 cases) and those in which they were an incidental finding (15 cases). Of the former group, 13 were associated with additional intoxicants; two deaths were attributed solely to cathinone intoxication, both survived 10 h: a man whose postmortem blood methylone concentration was 0...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#2
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830575/neuropharmacology-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-its-metabolites-and-related-analogs
#3
Michael H Baumann, Mohammad O Bukhari, Kurt R Lehner, Sebastien Anizan, Kenner C Rice, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive component of so-called bath salts products that has caused serious medical consequences in humans. In this chapter, we review the neuropharmacology of MDPV and related analogs, and supplement the discussion with new results from our preclinical experiments. MDPV acts as a potent uptake inhibitor at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) in nervous tissue. The MDPV formulation in bath salts is a racemic mixture, and the S isomer is much more potent than the R isomer at blocking DAT and producing abuse-related effects...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799294/structure-activity-relationships-of-substituted-cathinones-with-transporter-binding-uptake-and-release
#4
Amy J Eshleman, Katherine M Wolfrum, John F Reed, Sunyoung O Kim, Tracy Swanson, Robert A Johnson, Aaron Janowsky
Synthetic cathinones are components of "bath salts" and have physical and psychologic side effects, including hypertension, paranoia, and hallucinations. Here, we report interactions of 20 "bath salt" components with human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters [human dopamine transporter (hDAT), human serotonin transporter (hSERT), and human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), respectively] heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Transporter inhibitors had nanomolar to micromolar affinities (Ki values) at radioligand binding sites, with relative affinities of hDAT>hNET>hSERT for α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-heptanone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, 4-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 4-methoxy-α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (alpha-PVT), and α-methylaminovalerophenone, and hDAT>hSERT>hNET for methylenedioxypentedrone...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773724/cooling-down-the-bath-salts-carvedilol-attenuation-of-methylone-and-mephedrone-mediated-hyperthermia
#5
Luke C Zona, Gregory G Grecco, Jon E Sprague
The use of the synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"), methylone and mephedrone, has been associated with the development of life-threatening hyperthermia. To date, no direct pharmacological intervention to mitigate the hyperthermia induced by synthetic cathinones has been identified. Here, we investigated the effects of the non-selective α1 and β adrenergic receptor antagonist carvedilol (5mg/kg ip) on established hyperthermia mediated by methylone and mephedrone (30mg/kg sc) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methylone and mephedrone induced a hyperthermic response that peaked 60min post treatment...
October 20, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771100/centrifuge-less-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-base-on-the-solidification-of-switchable-solvent-for-rapid-on-site-extraction-of-four-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-water-samples
#6
Lu Hu, Huazi Wang, Heng Qian, Chaoran Liu, Runhua Lu, Sanbing Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao, Donghui Xu
An on-site dispersive liquid liquid microextraction base on the solidification of switchable solvent has been developed as a simple, rapid and eco-friendly sample extraction method for the fast determination of pyrethroid insecticides in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In this extraction method, medium-chain saturated fatty acids (n≥10), which can rapidly solidify at low temperatures (<20°C), were investigated as switchable hydrophilic solvents...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753008/neurotoxicology-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs
#7
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714779/pharmacological-mechanisms-underlying-the-cardiovascular-effects-of-the-bath-salt-constituent-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv
#8
Charles W Schindler, Eric B Thorndike, Masaki Suzuki, Kenner C Rice, Michael H Baumann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone with stimulatory cardiovascular effects that can lead to serious medical complications. Here, we examined the pharmacological mechanisms underlying these cardiovascular actions of MDPV in conscious rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Sprague-Dawley rats had telemetry transmitters surgically implanted for the measurement of BP and heart rate (HR). On test days, rats were placed individually in standard isolation cubicles...
December 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681583/patterns-of-use-acute-subjective-experiences-and-motivations-for-using-synthetic-cathinones-bath-salts-in-recreational-users
#9
Lisham Ashrafioun, Francis A Bonadio, Kyoung Deok Baik, Stacey L Bradbury, Victoria L Carhart, Nicole A Cross, Alan K Davis, Margaret Feuille, Anna R Harper, Jennifer H Lackey, Brent Lang, Kirstin J Lauritsen, Jaclyn Leith, Lawrence A Osborn, Harold Rosenberg, Jacob Stock, Mariya Zaturenskaya
Given the variety and potential toxicity of synthetic cathinones, clinicians and educators would benefit from information about patterns of and motivations for use, frequency of psychosocial consequences, and experience of acute subjective effects. We administered a comprehensive, web-based survey to 104 recreational users of synthetic cathinones. Sixty percent of respondents consumed synthetic cathinones once or more per month, usually snorting or swallowing these drugs, typically at home, usually with others, customarily during the evening and nighttime hours, and often in combination with another drug such as alcohol or marijuana...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677783/electrophysiological-actions-of-synthetic-cathinones-on-monoamine-transporters
#10
Ernesto Solis
Products containing psychoactive synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are prevalent in our society. Synthetic cathinones are structurally similar to methamphetamine, and numerous synthetics have biological activity at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Importantly, monoamine transporters co-transport sodium ions along with their substrate, and movement of substrates and ions through the transporter can generate measurable ionic currents. Here we review how electrophysiological information has enabled us to determine how synthetic cathinones affect transporter-mediated currents in cells that express these transporters...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661470/self-reported-ecstasy-mdma-molly-use-in-a-sample-of-nightclub-and-dance-festival-attendees-in-new-york-city
#11
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Danielle C Ompad, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy (MDMA) use has regained popularity in the United States, particularly in the form of "Molly," which is often marketed as pure MDMA. Surveys have generally not included "Molly" in the definition of ecstasy, so rates of use may be underestimated. As popularity of ecstasy increases, research is needed to examine use among those at highest risk for use-nightlife attendees. METHODS: We surveyed 679 young adults (age 18-25) entering nightclubs and festivals holding electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2015...
January 2, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624531/permeation-of-topically-applied-magnesium-ions-through-human-skin-is-facilitated-by-hair-follicles
#12
Navin Chandrakanth Chandrasekaran, Washington Y Sanchez, Yousuf H Mohammed, Jeffrey E Grice, Michael S Roberts, Ross T Barnard
Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious...
June 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612782/synthesis-of-calcium-hydrogen-phosphate-and-hydroxyapatite-coating-on-ss316-substrate-through-pulsed-electrodeposition
#13
Rajib Chakraborty, Srijan Sengupta, Partha Saha, Karabi Das, Siddhartha Das
The orthopaedic implants for human body are generally made of different biomaterials like stainless steels or Ti based alloys. However, it has been found that from surface properties point of view, none of these materials is attractive for fast tissue or cell growth on the surface of implant. This is one of the most important criteria to assure quick bonding between implant and body tissues vis-à-vis minimum recovery time for the patient. Keeping in view of the above facts, this work involves the pulsed electro-deposition coating of biocompatible hydroxyapatite and its group compounds from a diluted bath of calcium and phosphate salt at various current densities over the biomaterial sheet of SS316...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591912/a-fatal-poisoning-case-by-intravenous-injection-of-bath-salts-containing-acetyl-fentanyl-and-4-methoxy-pv8
#14
Kosei Yonemitsu, Ako Sasao, Satoko Mishima, Yuki Ohtsu, Yoko Nishitani
A man in his 30's was found at home, not breathing. He was admitted to an emergency hospital and the doctor confirmed his death. He had a history of methamphetamine abuse spanning several years, and while fresh needle marks were visible on his arm, the only other autopsy findings indicated an acute death. A small plastic bag containing a pale brown white powder, and a small amount of liquid in a syringe were found at the scene. The police forensic laboratory detected acetyl fentanyl and 4-methoxy PV8 (4-methoxy PHPP) in both the powder and the liquid...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572743/hydrogen-sulfide-and-inflammatory-joint-diseases
#15
Elena Fernandez Burguera, Rosa Meijide-Failde, Francisco J Blanco
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are widespread rheumatic diseases characterized by persistent inflammation and joint destruction. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gas with important physiologic functions in the brain, vasculature and other organs. Recent studies have found H2S to be a mediator in inflammatory joint diseases. H2S exhibited anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and/or anti-oxidant effects in rodent models of acute arthritis and in in vitro models using human synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes from RA and OA tissues...
August 29, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569853/determination-of-photoinitiator-4-methylbenzophenone-in-milk-by-cloud-point-extraction
#16
Shengli Ding, Yanqiu Cao, Aijun Gong, Yujiao Wang
An efficient and easy sample pretreatment methodology was proposed for the detection of photoinitiator 4-methylbenzophenone from milk before high-performance liquid chromatography. Appropriate conditions for demulsification were studied. The parameters affecting cloud point extraction, such as concentration of Tween-20, electrolyte salt, equilibration temperature, and time, have been investigated. When the spiked level was 200-1000 μg/kg, the average addition standard recovery was 99.14-105.98% with the optimum cloud point extraction conditions (concentration of Tween-20, 138 g/L; mass of anhydrous sodium sulfate, 0...
October 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539429/rapid-screening-and-determination-of-11-new-psychoactive-substances-by-direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-and-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#17
Honggang Nie, Xianjiang Li, Zhendong Hua, Wei Pan, Yanping Bai, Xiaofang Fu
RATIONALE: With the amounts and types of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) increasing rapidly in recent years, an excellent high-throughput method for the analysis of these compounds is urgently needed. In this article, a rapid screening method and a quantitative analysis method for 11 NPSs are described and compared, respectively. METHOD: A simple direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) method was developed for the analysis of 11 NPSs including three categories of these substances present on the global market such as four cathinones, one phenylethylamine, and six synthetic cannabinoids...
August 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528483/chloride-accumulation-vs-chloride-excretion-phytoextraction-potential-of-three-halophytic-grass-species-growing-in-a-salinized-landfill
#18
Kaitlin A McSorley, Allison Rutter, Robert Cumming, Barbara A Zeeb
Phragmites australis, Puccinnellia nuttalliana (salt accumulators), and Spartina pectinata (salt excretor) were investigated based on their relative abilities to phytoextract chloride from a cement kiln dust landfill in Bath, ON. Salt tolerance mechanisms were found to affect phytoextraction performance. On the basis of accumulation alone, P. australis had the greatest phytoextraction efficiency compared to the other two species due to its high biomass (despite having the lowest shoot ion concentrations). Conversely, when weekly salt excretion on the leaf surfaces of S...
August 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520883/effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-pre-exposure-on-the-aversive-effects-of-mdpv-cocaine-and-lithium-chloride-implications-for-abuse-vulnerability
#19
Claudia J Woloshchuk, Katharine H Nelson, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: Drug use is thought to be a balance of the rewarding and aversive effects of drugs. Understanding how various factors impact these properties and their relative balance may provide insight into their abuse potential. In this context, the present study attempted to evaluate the effects of drug history on the aversive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of a variety of synthetic cathinones (collectively known as "bath salts"). METHODS: Different groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either vehicle or MDPV (1...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474358/quantification-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-rat-brain-using-hilic-esi-ms-ms
#20
Jacob R Peters, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
The abuse of synthetic cathinones, formerly marketed as "bath salts", has emerged over the last decade. Three common drugs in this class include 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone). An LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone in brain tissue. Briefly, MDPV, mephedrone, methylone, and their deuterium-labeled analogs were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated using an HILIC Silica Column...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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