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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#1
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#2
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039330/dissecting-the-influence-of-two-structural-substituents-on-the-differential-neurotoxic-effects-of-methamphetamine-and-mephedrone-on-dopamine-nerve-endings-with-the-use-of-4-methylmethamphetamine-and-methcathinone
#3
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Perez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Mephedrone (MEPH) is a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse that is often a constituent of illicit bath salts formulations. While MEPH bears remarkable similarities to methamphetamine (METH) in terms of chemical structure, as well as its neurochemical and behavioral effects, it has been shown to have a reduced neurotoxic profile compared to METH. The addition of a β-keto moiety and a 4-methyl ring substituent to METH yields MEPH, and a loss of direct neurotoxic potential. In the present study, 2 analogs of METH, methcathinone (MeCa) and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4MM), were assessed for their effects on mouse dopamine (DA) nerve endings to determine the relative contribution of each individual moiety to the loss of direct neurotoxicity in MEPH...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024643/facile-and-innovative-method-for-bioglass-surface-modification-optimization-studies
#4
João Henrique Lopes, Emanuella Maria Barreto Fonseca, Italo O Mazali, Alviclér Magalhães, Richard Landers, Celso Aparecido Bertran
In this work it is presented a facile and novel method for modification of bioglass surface based on (Camolten salt bath(2+)|Naglass(+)) ion exchange by immersion in molten salt bath. This method allows changing selectively the chemical composition of a surface layer of glass, creating a new and more reactive bioglass in a shell that surrounds the unchanged bulk of the original BG45S5 bioglass (core-shell type system). The modified bioglass conserves the non-crystalline structure of BG45S5 bioglass and presents a significant increase of surface reactivity in comparison with BG45S5...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936151/osmoregulated-chloride-currents-in-hemocytes-from-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#5
Monica Bregante, Armando Carpaneto, Veronica Piazza, Francesca Sbrana, Massimo Vassalli, Marco Faimali, Franco Gambale
We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925866/there-s-something-about-molly-the-underresearched-yet-popular-powder-form-of-ecstasy-in-the-united-states
#6
Joseph J Palamar
Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in the United States since the early 2000s; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly," although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921290/-bath-salts-the-new-york-city-medical-examiner-experience-a-3-year-retrospective-review
#7
Stephen J deRoux, William A Dunn
"Bath salts" are synthetic derivatives of cathinones, compounds found in the leaves of Catha edulis, which possesses amphetamine-like properties. At the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a 3-year retrospective analysis of deaths in which cathinones were detected. Two categories emerged; those in which cathinones were a contributory cause of death (15 cases) and those in which they were an incidental finding (15 cases). Of the former group, 13 were associated with additional intoxicants; two deaths were attributed solely to cathinone intoxication, both survived 10 h: a man whose postmortem blood methylone concentration was 0...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#8
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830575/neuropharmacology-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-its-metabolites-and-related-analogs
#9
Michael H Baumann, Mohammad O Bukhari, Kurt R Lehner, Sebastien Anizan, Kenner C Rice, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive component of so-called bath salts products that has caused serious medical consequences in humans. In this chapter, we review the neuropharmacology of MDPV and related analogs, and supplement the discussion with new results from our preclinical experiments. MDPV acts as a potent uptake inhibitor at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) in nervous tissue. The MDPV formulation in bath salts is a racemic mixture, and the S isomer is much more potent than the R isomer at blocking DAT and producing abuse-related effects...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799294/structure-activity-relationships-of-substituted-cathinones-with-transporter-binding-uptake-and-release
#10
Amy J Eshleman, Katherine M Wolfrum, John F Reed, Sunyoung O Kim, Tracy Swanson, Robert A Johnson, Aaron Janowsky
Synthetic cathinones are components of "bath salts" and have physical and psychologic side effects, including hypertension, paranoia, and hallucinations. Here, we report interactions of 20 "bath salt" components with human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters [human dopamine transporter (hDAT), human serotonin transporter (hSERT), and human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), respectively] heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Transporter inhibitors had nanomolar to micromolar affinities (Ki values) at radioligand binding sites, with relative affinities of hDAT>hNET>hSERT for α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-heptanone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, 4-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 4-methoxy-α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (alpha-PVT), and α-methylaminovalerophenone, and hDAT>hSERT>hNET for methylenedioxypentedrone...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773724/cooling-down-the-bath-salts-carvedilol-attenuation-of-methylone-and-mephedrone-mediated-hyperthermia
#11
Luke C Zona, Gregory G Grecco, Jon E Sprague
The use of the synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"), methylone and mephedrone, has been associated with the development of life-threatening hyperthermia. To date, no direct pharmacological intervention to mitigate the hyperthermia induced by synthetic cathinones has been identified. Here, we investigated the effects of the non-selective α1 and β adrenergic receptor antagonist carvedilol (5mg/kg ip) on established hyperthermia mediated by methylone and mephedrone (30mg/kg sc) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methylone and mephedrone induced a hyperthermic response that peaked 60min post treatment...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771100/centrifuge-less-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-base-on-the-solidification-of-switchable-solvent-for-rapid-on-site-extraction-of-four-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-water-samples
#12
Lu Hu, Huazi Wang, Heng Qian, Chaoran Liu, Runhua Lu, Sanbing Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao, Donghui Xu
An on-site dispersive liquid liquid microextraction base on the solidification of switchable solvent has been developed as a simple, rapid and eco-friendly sample extraction method for the fast determination of pyrethroid insecticides in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In this extraction method, medium-chain saturated fatty acids (n≥10), which can rapidly solidify at low temperatures (<20°C), were investigated as switchable hydrophilic solvents...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753008/neurotoxicology-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs
#13
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714779/pharmacological-mechanisms-underlying-the-cardiovascular-effects-of-the-bath-salt-constituent-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv
#14
Charles W Schindler, Eric B Thorndike, Masaki Suzuki, Kenner C Rice, Michael H Baumann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone with stimulatory cardiovascular effects that can lead to serious medical complications. Here, we examined the pharmacological mechanisms underlying these cardiovascular actions of MDPV in conscious rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Sprague-Dawley rats had telemetry transmitters surgically implanted for the measurement of BP and heart rate (HR). On test days, rats were placed individually in standard isolation cubicles...
December 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681583/patterns-of-use-acute-subjective-experiences-and-motivations-for-using-synthetic-cathinones-bath-salts-in-recreational-users
#15
Lisham Ashrafioun, Francis A Bonadio, Kyoung Deok Baik, Stacey L Bradbury, Victoria L Carhart, Nicole A Cross, Alan K Davis, Margaret Feuille, Anna R Harper, Jennifer H Lackey, Brent Lang, Kirstin J Lauritsen, Jaclyn Leith, Lawrence A Osborn, Harold Rosenberg, Jacob Stock, Mariya Zaturenskaya
Given the variety and potential toxicity of synthetic cathinones, clinicians and educators would benefit from information about patterns of and motivations for use, frequency of psychosocial consequences, and experience of acute subjective effects. We administered a comprehensive, web-based survey to 104 recreational users of synthetic cathinones. Sixty percent of respondents consumed synthetic cathinones once or more per month, usually snorting or swallowing these drugs, typically at home, usually with others, customarily during the evening and nighttime hours, and often in combination with another drug such as alcohol or marijuana...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677783/electrophysiological-actions-of-synthetic-cathinones-on-monoamine-transporters
#16
Ernesto Solis
Products containing psychoactive synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are prevalent in our society. Synthetic cathinones are structurally similar to methamphetamine, and numerous synthetics have biological activity at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Importantly, monoamine transporters co-transport sodium ions along with their substrate, and movement of substrates and ions through the transporter can generate measurable ionic currents. Here we review how electrophysiological information has enabled us to determine how synthetic cathinones affect transporter-mediated currents in cells that express these transporters...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661470/self-reported-ecstasy-mdma-molly-use-in-a-sample-of-nightclub-and-dance-festival-attendees-in-new-york-city
#17
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Danielle C Ompad, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy (MDMA) use has regained popularity in the United States, particularly in the form of "Molly," which is often marketed as pure MDMA. Surveys have generally not included "Molly" in the definition of ecstasy, so rates of use may be underestimated. As popularity of ecstasy increases, research is needed to examine use among those at highest risk for use-nightlife attendees. METHODS: We surveyed 679 young adults (age 18-25) entering nightclubs and festivals holding electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2015...
January 2, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624531/permeation-of-topically-applied-magnesium-ions-through-human-skin-is-facilitated-by-hair-follicles
#18
Navin Chandrakanth Chandrasekaran, Washington Y Sanchez, Yousuf H Mohammed, Jeffrey E Grice, Michael S Roberts, Ross T Barnard
Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious...
June 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612782/synthesis-of-calcium-hydrogen-phosphate-and-hydroxyapatite-coating-on-ss316-substrate-through-pulsed-electrodeposition
#19
Rajib Chakraborty, Srijan Sengupta, Partha Saha, Karabi Das, Siddhartha Das
The orthopaedic implants for human body are generally made of different biomaterials like stainless steels or Ti based alloys. However, it has been found that from surface properties point of view, none of these materials is attractive for fast tissue or cell growth on the surface of implant. This is one of the most important criteria to assure quick bonding between implant and body tissues vis-à-vis minimum recovery time for the patient. Keeping in view of the above facts, this work involves the pulsed electro-deposition coating of biocompatible hydroxyapatite and its group compounds from a diluted bath of calcium and phosphate salt at various current densities over the biomaterial sheet of SS316...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591912/a-fatal-poisoning-case-by-intravenous-injection-of-bath-salts-containing-acetyl-fentanyl-and-4-methoxy-pv8
#20
Kosei Yonemitsu, Ako Sasao, Satoko Mishima, Yuki Ohtsu, Yoko Nishitani
A man in his 30's was found at home, not breathing. He was admitted to an emergency hospital and the doctor confirmed his death. He had a history of methamphetamine abuse spanning several years, and while fresh needle marks were visible on his arm, the only other autopsy findings indicated an acute death. A small plastic bag containing a pale brown white powder, and a small amount of liquid in a syringe were found at the scene. The police forensic laboratory detected acetyl fentanyl and 4-methoxy PV8 (4-methoxy PHPP) in both the powder and the liquid...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
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