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Bath salts

Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Charles W Schindler, Eric B Thorndike, Masaki Suzuki, Kenner C Rice, Michael H Baumann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone with stimulatory cardiovascular effects that can lead to serious medical complications. Here we examined the pharmacological mechanisms underlying these cardiovascular actions of MDPV in conscious rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Sprague-Dawley rats had telemetry transmitters surgically implanted for the measurement of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). On test days, rats were placed individually in standard isolation cubicles...
October 7, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Lisham Ashrafioun, Francis A Bonadio, Kyoung Deok Baik, Stacey L Bradbury, Victoria L Carhart, Nicole A Cross, Alan K Davis, Margaret Feuille, Anna R Harper, Jennifer H Lackey, Brent Lang, Kirstin J Lauritsen, Jaclyn Leith, Lawrence A Osborn, Harold Rosenberg, Jacob Stock, Mariya Zaturenskaya
Given the variety and potential toxicity of synthetic cathinones, clinicians and educators would benefit from information about patterns of and motivations for use, frequency of psychosocial consequences, and experience of acute subjective effects. We administered a comprehensive, web-based survey to 104 recreational users of synthetic cathinones. Sixty percent of respondents consumed synthetic cathinones once or more per month, usually snorting or swallowing these drugs, typically at home, usually with others, customarily during the evening and nighttime hours, and often in combination with another drug such as alcohol or marijuana...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Ernesto Solis
Products containing psychoactive synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are prevalent in our society. Synthetic cathinones are structurally similar to methamphetamine, and numerous synthetics have biological activity at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Importantly, monoamine transporters co-transport sodium ions along with their substrate, and movement of substrates and ions through the transporter can generate measurable ionic currents. Here we review how electrophysiological information has enabled us to determine how synthetic cathinones affect transporter-mediated currents in cells that express these transporters...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Danielle C Ompad, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy (MDMA) use has regained popularity in the United States, particularly in the form of "Molly," which is often marketed as pure MDMA. Surveys have generally not included "Molly" in the definition of ecstasy, so rates of use may be underestimated. As popularity of ecstasy increases, research is needed to examine use among those at highest risk for use-nightlife attendees. METHODS: We surveyed 679 young adults (age 18-25) entering nightclubs and festivals holding electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2015...
September 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Navin Chandrakanth Chandrasekaran, Washington Y Sanchez, Yousuf H Mohammed, Jeffrey E Grice, Michael S Roberts, Ross T Barnard
Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious...
June 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
Rajib Chakraborty, Srijan Sengupta, Partha Saha, Karabi Das, Siddhartha Das
The orthopaedic implants for human body are generally made of different biomaterials like stainless steels or Ti based alloys. However, it has been found that from surface properties point of view, none of these materials is attractive for fast tissue or cell growth on the surface of implant. This is one of the most important criteria to assure quick bonding between implant and body tissues vis-à-vis minimum recovery time for the patient. Keeping in view of the above facts, this work involves the pulsed electro-deposition coating of biocompatible hydroxyapatite and its group compounds from a diluted bath of calcium and phosphate salt at various current densities over the biomaterial sheet of SS316...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Kosei Yonemitsu, Ako Sasao, Satoko Mishima, Yuki Ohtsu, Yoko Nishitani
A man in his 30's was found at home, not breathing. He was admitted to an emergency hospital and the doctor confirmed his death. He had a history of methamphetamine abuse spanning several years, and while fresh needle marks were visible on his arm, the only other autopsy findings indicated an acute death. A small plastic bag containing a pale brown white powder, and a small amount of liquid in a syringe were found at the scene. The police forensic laboratory detected acetyl fentanyl and 4-methoxy PV8 (4-methoxy PHPP) in both the powder and the liquid...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Elena Fernandez Burguera, Rosa Meijide-Failde, Francisco J Blanco
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are widespread rheumatic diseases characterized by persistent inflammation and joint destruction. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gas with important physiologic functions in the brain, vasculature and other organs. Recent studies have found H2S to be a mediator in inflammatory joint diseases. H2S exhibited anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and/or anti-oxidant effects in rodent models of acute arthritis and in in vitro models using human synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes from RA and OA tissues...
August 29, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Shengli Ding, Yanqiu Cao, Aijun Gong, Yujiao Wang
An efficient and easy sample pretreatment methodology was proposed for the detection of photoinitiator 4-methylbenzophenone from milk before high-performance liquid chromatography. Appropriate conditions for demulsification were studied. The parameters affecting cloud point extraction, such as concentration of Tween-20, electrolyte salt, equilibration temperature, and time, have been investigated. When the spiked level was 200-1000 μg/kg, the average addition standard recovery was 99.14-105.98% with the optimum cloud point extraction conditions (concentration of Tween-20, 138 g/L; mass of anhydrous sodium sulfate, 0...
October 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Honggang Nie, Xianjiang Li, Zhendong Hua, Wei Pan, Yanping Bai, Xiaofang Fu
RATIONALE: With the amounts and types of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) increasing rapidly in recent years, an excellent high-throughput method for the analysis of these compounds is urgently needed. In this article, a rapid screening method and a quantitative analysis method for 11 NPSs are described and compared, respectively. METHOD: A simple direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) method was developed for the analysis of 11 NPSs including three categories of these substances present on the global market such as four cathinones, one phenylethylamine, and six synthetic cannabinoids...
August 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Kaitlin A McSorley, Allison Rutter, Robert Cumming, Barbara A Zeeb
Phragmites australis, Puccinnellia nuttalliana (salt accumulators), and Spartina pectinata (salt excretor) were investigated based on their relative abilities to phytoextract chloride from a cement kiln dust landfill in Bath, ON. Salt tolerance mechanisms were found to affect phytoextraction performance. On the basis of accumulation alone, P. australis had the greatest phytoextraction efficiency compared to the other two species due to its high biomass (despite having the lowest shoot ion concentrations). Conversely, when weekly salt excretion on the leaf surfaces of S...
August 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Claudia J Woloshchuk, Katharine H Nelson, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: Drug use is thought to be a balance of the rewarding and aversive effects of drugs. Understanding how various factors impact these properties and their relative balance may provide insight into their abuse potential. In this context, the present study attempted to evaluate the effects of drug history on the aversive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of a variety of synthetic cathinones (collectively known as "bath salts"). METHODS: Different groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either vehicle or MDPV (1...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jacob R Peters, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
The abuse of synthetic cathinones, formerly marketed as "bath salts", has emerged over the last decade. Three common drugs in this class include 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone). An LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone in brain tissue. Briefly, MDPV, mephedrone, methylone, and their deuterium-labeled analogs were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated using an HILIC Silica Column...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lucas R Watterson, M Foster Olive
Since the mid- to late 2000s, there has been a dramatic rise in the use and abuse of synthetic derivatives of cathinone, a stimulant alkaloid found in the African shrub Catha edulis. Cathinone novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also referred to as synthetic cathinones or "bath salt"-type drugs, have gained popularity among drug users due to their potency, low cost, ease of procurement, and diverse array of evolving chemical structures. While the ability of cathinone NPS to produce psychotomimetic effects, multiple organ system toxicity, and death in humans is well documented, there has been limited scientific investigation into the reinforcing effects and abuse liability of these drugs...
July 19, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
A Saleh, J Tittley, S Anand
"Bath salts" are synthetic designer drugs that have stimulant properties and are a growing medical concern. The chemical compounds in the mixtures have an affinity for receptors in the brain resulting in a stimulant effect similar to that seen with methamphetamines and cocaine. Although illegal in Canada, these drugs are widely available online with over 20 synthetic drugs marketed as "bath salts" and used increasingly among recreational drug users. Much of the medical literature regarding these drugs comes from emergency medicine case reports, which outline the acute, severe medical and psychiatric effects of "bath salt" toxicity...
July 13, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Noureddine Baaka, Adel Mahfoudhi, Wafa Haddar, Mohamed Farouk Mhenni, Zine Mighri
This research work involves an eco-friendly dyeing process of modified cotton with the aqueous extract of Tamarix aphylla leaves. During this process, the dyeing step was carried out on modified cotton by several cationising agents in order to improve its dyeability. The influence of the main dyeing conditions (dye bath pH, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, salt addition) on the performances of this dyeing process were studied. The dyeing performances of this process were appreciated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the fastness properties of the dyed samples...
July 14, 2016: Natural Product Research
Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Behruz Feriduni
A simple and efficient analytical method known as pH- and heat-induced homogenous liquid-liquid extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography has been successfully developed for the extraction and determination of neonicotinoid pesticides in aqueous samples. In this method, a few mL of a water-miscible basic extraction solvent is mixed with a high volume of an aqueous phase containing the analytes and passed through a tube which a portion of the tube is filled with sodium carbonate as a separating agent...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli Albuquerque, Marco Túlio Menezes Carvalho, Patricia Martinez Evora, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Andrea Carla Celotto, Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora
The present text was motivated by the difficulties faced by our postgraduate students when using airways studies protocols and will take into consideration the three mechanisms of relaxation: (I) guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)/NO-dependent; (II) adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/PGI2-dependent, and (III) hyperpolarization-dependent. Tracheal rings are studied in an organ bath containing a gassed physiological salt solution, usually at a temperature of 37 °C. An agent or procedure that causes contraction [acetylcholine (Ach) or metacholine] of the smooth muscle is needed before study airway dilator drugs...
June 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Susan M Lantz, Kenner C Rice, Brenda M Gannon, William E Fantegrossi, Carmen Gonzalez, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB...
August 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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