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Bath salts

Katarzyna Hubkowska, Mariusz Łukaszewski, Michał Soszko, Urszula Koss, Bartosz Hamankiewicz, Andrzej Czerwiński
Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh, Pd-Pt-Ru, and Pd-Rh-Ru electrodes were prepared as thin layers by potentiostatic codeposition or chemical co-precipitation of metals from baths containing mixtures of chloride salts. The formation of substitutional solid solutions, with lattice parameters smaller than that of pure Pd, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The compositions at various levels of sample volume and thickness were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and also electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0...
May 15, 2018: Materials
K Frisch, S B Småge, C Vallestad, H Duesund, Ø J Brevik, A Klevan, R H Olsen, S T Sjaatil, D Gauthier, B Brudeseth, A Nylund
Mouthrot, or bacterial stomatitis, is a disease which mainly affects farmed Atlantic salmon, (Salmo salar, L.), smolts recently transferred into salt water in both British Columbia (BC), Canada, and Washington State, USA. It is a significant fish welfare issue which results in economic losses due to mortality and antibiotic treatments. The associated pathogen is Tenacibaculum maritimum, a bacterium which causes significant losses in many species of farmed fish worldwide. This bacterium has not been proven to be the causative agent of mouthrot in BC despite being isolated from affected Atlantic salmon...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Matthew P Levitas, Emily Andrews, Ira Lurie, Ioan Marginean
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is currently among the methods of choice for the analysis of synthetic cathinones. However, these analytes are extremely labile, and classical electron ionization (EI) results in excessive and relatively uninformative fragmentation, yielding little to no molecular ions. Cold EI reduces the internal energy of the analytes by expansion of supersonic molecular beams prior to their ionization, leading to improved molecular ion information. In this study, classical and cold EI were compared for the analysis of synthetic cathinones...
April 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Luis M Colon-Perez, Jose A Pino, Kaustuv Saha, Marjory Pompilus, Sherman Kaplitz, Nafisa Choudhury, Darin A Jagnarine, Jean R Geste, Brandon A Levin, Isaac Wilks, Barry Setlow, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Gonzalo E Torres, Marcelo Febo
Among cathinone drugs known as bath salts, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) exerts its potent actions via the dopamine (DA) system, and at intoxicating doses may produce adverse behavioral effects. Previous work by our group suggests that prolonged alterations in correlated neural activity between cortical and striatal areas could underlie, at least in part, the adverse reactions to this bath salt drug. In the present study, we assessed the effect of acute MDPV administration on brain functional connectivity at 1 and 24 h in rats...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Federica Valentini, Emanuela Mari, Alessandra Zicari, Andrea Calcaterra, Maurizio Talamo, Maria Giovanna Scioli, Augusto Orlandi, Stefania Mardente
The in vitro biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets, which were obtained by the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite electrodes in an electrolytic bath containing salts, was compared with the pristine Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (p-SWCNTs) under the same experimental conditions in different human cell lines. The cells were treated with different concentrations of GO and SWCNTs for up to 48 h. GO did not induce any significant morphological or functional modifications (demonstrating a high biocompatibility), while SWNCTs were toxic at any concentration used after a few hours of treatment...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
F Ursin, F Steger, C Borelli
BACKGROUND: Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. OBJECTIVE: We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications...
April 28, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Amy R Johnson, Matthew L Banks, Dana E Selley, S Stevens Negus
Amphetamine maintenance is effective clinically to reduce the consumption of the monoamine uptake inhibitor cocaine but not of the monoamine releaser methamphetamine, and its effectiveness in treating the abuse of other psychostimulants is not known. The mechanisms for differential amphetamine-maintenance effectiveness to treat different types of psychostimulant abuse are also not known. Accordingly, the present study compared the effects of amphetamine maintenance on abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine, methamphetamine, and the "bath salts" constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in rats...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ana Maria Salgueiro Baptisttella, Andressa Aziz Diniz Araújo, Matheus Caldas Barreto, Vivian Stumpf Madeira, Mauricio Alves da Motta Sobrinho
Industrial waste such as metal hydroxide sludge (in natura and calcined) from galvanic bath was evaluated as an adsorbent in the removal of brilliant blue synthetic dye (NB 180) in aqueous solution. The samples were characterised using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FT - IR), as well as the specific surface area (BET) and the point of zero charge (pHZCP ). The effects of the conditions in relation to pH and adsorbent dosage were also investigated...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Thierry Astruc, Amandine Desfrétières, Annie Vénien
Efforts to reduce NaCl content in meat products hinge on gaining a deeper understanding of how NaCl content shapes product changes during the salting process. Bovine semitendinosus muscle samples were incubated for 5 days in 7 different brine baths at NaCl concentrations of 0 (control), 0.15, 0.30, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5 M, respectively. Histological and ultrastructural analyses showed that after incubation, muscle fiber size increased almost 30% in 0.15 and 0.3 M NaCl brine but decreased in 0.50 and 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Julija Zavadlav, Jurij Sablić, Rudolf Podgornik, Matej Praprotnik
The composition and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous bathing environment have important consequences for many biological processes and can profoundly affect the behavior of biomolecules. Nevertheless, because of computational limitations, many molecular simulations of biophysical systems can be performed only at specific ionic conditions: either at nominally zero salt concentration, i.e., including only counterions enforcing the system's electroneutrality, or at excessive salt concentrations. Here, we introduce an efficient molecular dynamics simulation approach for an atomistic DNA molecule at realistic physiological ionic conditions...
April 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
James B Adams, Tapan Audhya, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Valeria Fimbres, Elena L Pollard, Jessica Mitchell, Julie Ingram, Robert Hellmers, Dana Laake, Julie S Matthews, Kefeng Li, Jane C Naviaux, Robert K Naviaux, Rebecca L Adams, Devon M Coleman, David W Quig
This study involved a randomized, controlled, single-blind 12-month treatment study of a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention. Participants were 67 children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 3-58 years from Arizona and 50 non-sibling neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. Treatment began with a special vitamin/mineral supplement, and additional treatments were added sequentially, including essential fatty acids, Epsom salt baths, carnitine, digestive enzymes, and a healthy gluten-free, casein-free, soy-free (HGCSF) diet...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Elon Richman, Nathan J Skoller, Bernice Fokum, Brandi A Burke, Chelsea A Hickerson, Robert O Cotes
: Synthetic cathinones are a class of novel psychoactive substances. α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), or "Flakka", is one of these substances. Users often present acutely psychotic or agitated. We present the case of a 20-year-old male without prior psychiatric history who was brought to the hospital by his family because of increasingly bizarre and erratic behavior after reported ingestion of Flakka. What ensued was a prolonged course of psychosis and severe catatonia. Synthetic cathinones are thought to cause catatonia in approximately 1% of cases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Javier González-Sálamo, Miguel Ángel González-Curbelo, Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier Hernández-Borges, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado
A new hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method has been developed for the extraction of a group of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) of interest from different water samples prior to gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. HF-LPME was carried out using 1-octanol as extraction solvent followed by a back extraction step with cyclohexane. The different parameters that affect HF-LPME such as sample pH, ionic strength, extraction time, stirring rate, extraction temperature and back extraction conditions were investigated...
June 2018: Chemosphere
Anders Utoft, Koji Kinoshita, Deborah L Bitterfield, David Needham
A new "three-micropipette manipulation technique" for forming, dehydrating, crystallizing, and resolvating nanograms of salt material has been developed to study supersaturated single microdroplets and microcrystals. This is the first report of studies that have measured in situ both supersaturation (as homogeneous nucleation) and saturation (as microcrystal redissolution) for single microdroplets of NaCl solution using the micropipette technique. This work reports a measure of the critical supersaturation concentration for homogeneous nucleation of NaCl (10...
March 27, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ying Chen, Kunze Du, Jin Li, Yun Bai, Mingrui An, Zhijing Tan, Yan-Xu Chang
A simple cloud point preconcentration method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin in Ardisia japonica by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultrasonic assisted micellar extraction. Nonionic surfactant Genapol X-080 was selected as the extraction solvent. The effects of various experimental conditions such as the type and concentration of surfactant and salt, temperature, and solution pH on the extraction of these components were studied to optimize the conditions of Ardisia japonica ...
2018: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
O K Uche, J O Ofeimun
The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Shahid Adeel, Muhammad Zuber, Fazal-Ur-Rehman, Khalid Mahmood Zia
The revival of cultural heritage in a form of natural colorants for textile dyeing is gaining popularity due to their soothing nature and bright shades. The present study was conducted to explore the coloring potential of harmala (Peganum harmala) seeds and to improve color strength of dye using microwave radiations followed by a mordanting process. The results showed that harmala plant seeds could be an excellent source of natural dyes for cotton dyeing if the irradiated acidified methanolic extract (RE, 4 min) is used to dye un-irradiated fabric (NRC) at 85 °C for 45 min using a dye bath of pH 9...
April 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dongping Li, Jingbin Zhang, Sijia Song, Ligeng Feng, Yongkang Luo
Ready-to-eat products have become popular with most of the busy people in modern cities. Heat processing combined with vacuum-packaging is one of the most common methods to make ready-to-eat products with an extended shelf-life. In this study, the influence of heat processing [80 °C (LT) and 98 °C (HT) in water bath] on the quality of salted and vacuum-packaged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets, stored at 20 ± 1 °C, was investigated by sensory analysis, biochemical analysis, and microbial diversity...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
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