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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310273/identification-and-classification-of-cathinone-unknowns-by-statistical-analysis-processing-of-direct-analysis-in-real-time-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-derived-neutral-loss-spectra
#1
Kristen L Fowble, Jason R E Shepard, Rabi A Musah
An approach to the rapid determination of the structures of novel synthetic cathinone designer drugs, also known as bath salts, is reported. While cathinones fragment so extensively by electron impact mass spectrometry that their mass spectra often cannot be used to identify the structure, collision-induced dissociation (CID) direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) experiments furnished spectra that provided diagnostic fragmentation patterns for the analyzed cathinones. From this data, neutral loss spectra, which reflect the presence of specific chemical moieties, could be acquired...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307304/molten-salt-oxidation-of-organic-hazardous-waste-with-high-salt-content
#2
Chengqian Lin, Yong Chi, Yuqi Jin, Xuguang Jiang, Alfons Buekens, Qi Zhang, Jian Chen
Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275216/mdpv-in-forensic-routine-cases-psychotic-and-aggressive-behavior-in-relation-to-plasma-concentrations
#3
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258222/combinative-scouring-bleaching-and-cationization-pretreatment-of-greige-knitted-cotton-fabrics-for-facilely-achieving-salt-free-reactive-dyeing
#4
Wei Ma, Kezhan Shen, Nan Xiang, Shufen Zhang
In order to facilely achieve pretreatment and salt-free dyeing of greige knitted cotton fabrics, a combinative scouring, bleaching, and cationization pretreatment of the fabrics is designed in this study. The fabrics are first treated in a bath containing commercial scouring and bleaching agents, and then glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTA) is directly added into the bath to achieve cationization of the fabrics. Utilization of the alkaline and high-temperature conditions in scouring and bleaching process, cationization can facilely proceed in a short time...
December 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248872/the-long-tail-of-a-demon-drug-the-bath-salts-risk-environment
#5
Luther Elliott, Ellen Benoit, Stephanie Campos, Eloise Dunlap
Using the case of synthetic cathinones (commonly referred to as 'bath salts' in the US context), this paper analyses structural factors surrounding novel psychoactive substances (NPS) as contributing to the unique risk environment surrounding their use. Drawing on interviews with 39 people who use bath salts from four U.S. cities and analysis of the infrastructural, social, economic, and policy contexts, we document the unique harms related to changing contexts for illicit drug regulation, manufacture, and consumption...
December 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217539/inhibition-of-cocaine-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-self-administration-by-lorcaserin-is-mediated-by-5-ht2c-receptors-in-rats
#6
Brenda M Gannon, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Lorcaserin is a serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor-preferring agonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Lorcaserin has been shown to decrease cocaine self-administration in rats and monkeys. Although this effect is partially inhibited by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB 242084), lorcaserin also has effects at 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors and the relative contribution of these receptors to its anti-cocaine effects has not been investigated. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) the potency and effectiveness of lorcaserin to decrease self-administration of cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a common "bath salts" constituent; and (2) the receptor(s) mediating the effects of lorcaserin on cocaine and MDPV self-administration...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204127/synthetic-aminoindanes-a-summary-of-existing-knowledge
#7
REVIEW
Nikola Pinterova, Rachel R Horsley, Tomas Palenicek
Objectives: Aminoindanes ("bath salts," a class of novel psychoactive substances, NPSs) increased rapidly in popularity on the recreational drug market, particularly after mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones were banned in the UK in 2010. Novel aminoindanes continue to emerge, but relatively little is known about their effects and risks. Their history, chemistry, pharmacology, behavioral effects, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity are reviewed in this paper. Methods: Scientific literature was searched on ISI Web of Knowledge: Web of Science (WoS) during June and July 2017, using English language terms: aminoindanes such as 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI), 5-iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI), 2-aminoindane (2-AI), 5,6-methylenedioxy-N-methyl-2-aminoindane (MDMAI), and 5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindane (MMAI)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183686/neurocognitive-dysfunction-following-repeated-binge-like-self-administration-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv
#8
REVIEW
Kaveish Sewalia, Lucas R Watterson, Alyssa Hryciw, Anna Belloc, J Bryce Ortiz, M Foster Olive
Synthetic cathinones, frequently referred to as "bath salts", have significant abuse potential, and recent evidence suggests that these novel psychoactive substances can also produce cognitive deficits as well as cytotoxic effects. However, most of these latter findings have been obtained either using high concentrations in vitro or following non-contingent high dose administration in vivo. The present study utilized a model of long-term voluntary binge-like self-administration to determine potential detrimental effects of synthetic cathinones on cognitive function and their known underlying neural circuits, collectively referred to as neurocognitive dysfunction...
November 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164274/detection-and-sizing-of-ti-containing-particles-in-recreational-waters-using-single-particle-icp-ms
#9
Arjun K Venkatesan, Robert B Reed, Sungyun Lee, Xiangyu Bi, David Hanigan, Yu Yang, James F Ranville, Pierre Herckes, Paul Westerhoff
Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) was used to detect Ti-containing particles in heavily-used bathing areas of a river (Salt River) and five swimming pools. Ti-containing particle concentrations in swimming pools ranged from 2.8 × 10(3) to 4.4 × 10(3) particles/mL and were an order of magnitude lower than those detected in the Salt River. Measurements from the Salt River showed an 80% increase in Ti-containing particle concentration over baseline concentration during peak recreational activity (at 16:00 h) in the river...
November 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153914/determination-of-orientin-in-trollius-chinensis-using-ultrasound-assisted-extraction-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-several-often-overlooked-sample-preparation-parameters-in-an-ultrasonic-bath
#10
Mengxia Wei, Lei Yang
The erratic pressure intensities and cavitation exhibited in an ultrasonic bath pose various during practical application. To achieve the most efficient experimental design, this manuscript aims to discover violently sites that are subject to the effect of slight changes in position on cavitation and ultrasound intensity distributed in the ultrasonic bath. In addition, optimization several often over-looked ultrasound parameters and experimental conditions, are intended to place the reaction vessel properly and operate under suitable experimental conditions to obtain the maximum yield of target analyte...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134999/micelle-assisted-electrodeposition-of-highly-mesoporous-fe-pt-nodular-films-with-soft-magnetic-and-electrocatalytic-properties
#11
Eloy Isarain-Chávez, Maria Dolors Baró, Eva Pellicer, Jordi Sort
Mesoporous Fe-Pt nodular films (with a regular spatial arrangement of sub-15 nm pores) are grown onto evaporated Au, Cu and Al conductive layers by micelle-assisted electrodeposition from metal chloride salts in the presence of Pluronic P123 tri-block copolymer dissolved in the aqueous electrolytic bath. This synthetic approach constitutes a simple, one-step, versatile procedure to grow multifunctional mesoporous layers appealing for diverse applications that take advantage of materials with an ultra-high surface area-to-volume ratio...
November 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128711/polysubstance-use-profiles-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees-in-new-york-city-and-their-relation-to-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#12
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M Cleland, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. METHOD: Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City...
November 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055673/hemorrhoids-during-pregnancy-sitz-bath-vs-ano-rectal-cream-a-comparative-prospective-study-of-two-conservative-treatment-protocols
#13
Bader Hamza Shirah, Hamza Asaad Shirah, Abdelelah Hussein Fallata, Shaima Nassar Alobidy, Majdah Mohammad Al Hawsawi
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhoids are a very common ano-rectal condition affecting pregnant females worldwide and representing a major medical and socioeconomic problem. In this paper, we aim to compare the effectiveness of the Sitz bath method with an ano-rectal cream as part of a conservative management protocol to treat hemorrhoids among pregnant Saudi Arabian females. METHODS: A prospective comparative study of the results of two conservative treatment protocols of 495 pregnant females diagnosed to have hemorrhoids during pregnancy between January 2010 and December 2014 was done...
October 18, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042316/concurrent-repeated-exposure-to-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-cocaine-produce-locomotor-sensitization-with-minimal-effects-on-brain-monoamines
#14
REVIEW
Robert J Kohler, Shane A Perrine, Lisa E Baker
Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042260/pldt-planarian-light-dark-test-an-invertebrate-assay-to-quantify-defensive-responding-and-study-anxiety-like-effects
#15
Ashenafi Mebratu Zewde, Frances Yu, Sunil Nayak, Christopher Tallarida, Allen B Reitz, Lynn G Kirby, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND: Planarians, like rodents, instinctively spend more time in dark versus light environments when given a choice. This behavioral phenomenon is called negative phototaxis, which may reflect defensive responding related to an anxiety-like phenotype. NEW METHOD: We propose a planarian light/dark test, designated PLDT, to predict anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects. Experimentally, we placed a planarian at the midline of a Petri dish, containing test compound or water, that was split evenly into light and dark compartments and determined time spent in the light over 10min...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034384/phase-formation-and-stability-of-ag-60-at-cu-alloy-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-chemical-routes-in-aqueous-media
#16
Kirtiman Deo Malviya, Chandan Srivastava, Kamanio Chattopadhyay
The present work reports the nature of the evolution of an array of nanoparticles during the synthesis of alloy nanoparticles of Ag-60 at%Cu by the co-reduction of metal salt precursors using NaBH4 in an aqueous medium. This was achieved by studying samples extracted at different intervals of time from the reaction bath. The microstructural characterization reveals that at the initial stage of synthesis, a single-phase solid solution of alloy nanoparticles of very small sizes was formed; however, as the reaction time increases, a network of chains of nanoparticles evolves containing particles rich in either Ag or Cu...
October 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030166/mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-use-in-humans-the-twisted-sisters
#17
REVIEW
Laurent Karila, Geneviève Lafaye, Amandine Scocard, Olivier Cottencin, Amine Benyamina
The new psychoactive substances phenomenon continues to represent a considerable public health challenge. Synthetic cathinones are β-keto amphetamine analogues, also known as legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts. These drugs have surfaced as a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine, due to their potent psychostimulant and empathogenic effects. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct group of designer cathinones, such as MDPV...
October 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985394/a-validated-method-for-the-detection-of-32-bath-salts-in-oral-fluid
#18
Michelle Williams, Jennifer Martin, Peter Galettis
Workplace drug testing in Australia is usually adherent to one of two standards, AS/NZS 4308:2008 for urine or AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards prescribe the drugs tested, devices used and testing methodology followed by the testing agency. However, they are not comprehensive and for many years workers have been able to consume novel psychoactive substances to avoid detection and without consequences. Here, we present a validated method for the detection of 32 Synthetic Stimulant and Hallucogenic drugs, commonly sold as bath salts, in oral fluid...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920811/salt-bath-as-a-treatment-for-idiopathic-dermatitis-in-captive-nile-hippopotamus-hippopotamus-amphibius
#19
Kelly E Helmick
Ulcerative skin lesions were observed in two captive adult female hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius) from a zoological collection. Lesions appeared as cracking, peeling, or vesicles of the skin affecting the lateral and ventral aspects of the neck, limbs, thorax, and abdomen, dorsum, toes, and perineal region. Some lesions drained blood, serum, or purulent material. Histologic evaluation of sloughed skin consisted of deep dermal collagen with bacterial cellulitis and vasculitis and superficial fungal colonization...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917791/development-of-salt-and-ph-induced-solidified-floating-organic-droplets-homogeneous-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-extraction-of-ten-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-fresh-fruits-and-fruit-juices-followed-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Mohammadali Torbati, Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Mostafa Torbati, Ali Akbar Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Mohebbi, Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam
A new microextraction method named salt and pH-induced homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed in a home-made extraction device for the extraction and preconcentration of some pyrethroid insecticides from different fruit juice samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the present work, an extraction device made from two parallel glass tubes with different lengths and diameters was used in the microextraction procedure. In this method, a homogeneous solution of a sample solution and an extraction solvent (pivalic acid) was broken by performing an acid-base reaction and the extraction solvent was produced in whole of the solution...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
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