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Bath salts

Elon Richman, Nathan J Skoller, Bernice Fokum, Brandi A Burke, Chelsea A Hickerson, Robert O Cotes
: Synthetic cathinones are a class of novel psychoactive substances. α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), or "Flakka", is one of these substances. Users often present acutely psychotic or agitated. We present the case of a 20-year-old male without prior psychiatric history who was brought to the hospital by his family because of increasingly bizarre and erratic behavior after reported ingestion of Flakka. What ensued was a prolonged course of psychosis and severe catatonia. Synthetic cathinones are thought to cause catatonia in approximately 1% of cases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Javier González-Sálamo, Miguel Ángel González-Curbelo, Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier Hernández-Borges, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado
A new hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method has been developed for the extraction of a group of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) of interest from different water samples prior to gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. HF-LPME was carried out using 1-octanol as extraction solvent followed by a back extraction step with cyclohexane. The different parameters that affect HF-LPME such as sample pH, ionic strength, extraction time, stirring rate, extraction temperature and back extraction conditions were investigated...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Anders Utoft, Koji Kinoshita, Deborah L Bitterfield, David Needham
A new 'three micropipette manipulation technique' for forming, dehydrating, crystallizing, and re-solvating nano-grams of salt material has been developed to study supersaturated single microdroplets and microcrystals. This is the first report of studies that have measured in situ both supersaturation (as homogeneous nucleation) and saturation (as microcrystal re-dissolution) for single microdroplets of NaCl solution using the micropipette technique. This work reports a measure of the critical supersaturation concentration for homogeneous nucleation of NaCl (10...
March 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ying Chen, Kunze Du, Jin Li, Yun Bai, Mingrui An, Zhijing Tan, Yan-Xu Chang
A simple cloud point preconcentration method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin in Ardisia japonica by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultrasonic assisted micellar extraction. Nonionic surfactant Genapol X-080 was selected as the extraction solvent. The effects of various experimental conditions such as the type and concentration of surfactant and salt, temperature, and solution pH on the extraction of these components were studied to optimize the conditions of Ardisia japonica ...
2018: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
O K Uche, J O Ofeimun
The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Shahid Adeel, Muhammad Zuber, Fazal-Ur-Rehman, Khalid Mahmood Zia
The revival of cultural heritage in a form of natural colorants for textile dyeing is gaining popularity due to their soothing nature and bright shades. The present study was conducted to explore the coloring potential of harmala (Peganum harmala) seeds and to improve color strength of dye using microwave radiations followed by a mordanting process. The results showed that harmala plant seeds could be an excellent source of natural dyes for cotton dyeing if the irradiated acidified methanolic extract (RE, 4 min) is used to dye un-irradiated fabric (NRC) at 85 °C for 45 min using a dye bath of pH 9...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dongping Li, Jingbin Zhang, Sijia Song, Ligeng Feng, Yongkang Luo
Ready-to-eat products have become popular with most of the busy people in modern cities. Heat processing combined with vacuum-packaging is one of the most common methods to make ready-to-eat products with an extended shelf-life. In this study, the influence of heat processing [80 °C (LT) and 98 °C (HT) in water bath] on the quality of salted and vacuum-packaged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets, stored at 20 ± 1 °C, was investigated by sensory analysis, biochemical analysis, and microbial diversity...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
J Strube, A Schaper
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of serious poisonings and deaths after the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). These are usually bought online: sometimes legally, often illegally or "in the grey area". OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of different NPS. Legal status concerning the New Psychoactive Substances Act (NpSG). Risk assessment of several substance groups, possible complications of acute poisonings, therapeutic recommendations...
February 5, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Chiraag Talati, Jose C A Carvalho, Alice Luca, Mrinalini Balki
BACKGROUND: Prolonged continuous oxytocin administration during labor may induce oxytocin receptor desensitization, which attenuates the response of the myometrium to further oxytocin, increasing the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The literature comparing pulsatile (intermittent) versus continuous oxytocin administration for induction and augmentation of labor is inconsistent with regard to maternal outcomes. We aimed to determine the effect of intermittent versus continuous oxytocin preexposure on myometrial responsiveness to subsequent oxytocin...
February 2, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Li Liu, Sarah E Wheeler, Raman Venkataramanan, Jacqueline A Rymer, Anthony F Pizon, Michael J Lynch, Kenichi Tamama
Objectives: Illicit drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury-related deaths since 2008 due to the recent surge of opioid overdose by heroin, controlled prescription drugs, and nonmethadone synthetic opioids. Synthetic designer drugs such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("Spice" and "K2") continue to emerge and attract recreational users. Methods: The emergence of new drugs of abuse poses a steep challenge for clinical toxicology laboratories...
January 29, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
M Vieira, I Rosmaninho, I Lopes, A Guilherme, J P Moreira da Silva
Aquagenic urticaria (AU) is a rare form of chronic inducible urticaria elicited by water at any temperature. We describe the case of a 25-year-old atopic woman who presented to our unit with a 4-year history of recurrent urticarial rashes, highly pruritic, confined to the neck and lower part of the face, occurring solely on contact with sea water. The lesions were reproduced by challenge tests with aqueous 3.5% NaCl and other hypertonic aqueous solutions but not with 20% glucose neither tap water. Our case supports the existence of a distinct salt-dependent subtype of aquagenic urticaria (SDAU), which seems to be triggered mostly by sea bathing, affects young women and has a characteristic localization on the inferior facial contours and neck...
November 20, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Joan Perelló, M Gómez, M D Ferrer, N Y Rodríguez, C Salcedo, J M Buades, M M Pérez, J V Torregrosa, E Martín, F Maduell
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular calcification (CVC) is a major concern in hemodialysis (HD) and the loss of endogenous modulators of calcification seems involved in the process. Phytate is an endogenous crystallization inhibitor and its low molecular mass and high water solubility make it potentially dialyzable. SNF472 (the hexasodium salt of phytate) is being developed for the treatment of calciphylaxis and CVC in HD patients. We aimed to verify if phytate is lost during dialysis, and evaluate SNF472's behaviour during dialysis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Kristen L Fowble, Jason R E Shepard, Rabi A Musah
An approach to the rapid determination of the structures of novel synthetic cathinone designer drugs, also known as bath salts, is reported. While cathinones fragment so extensively by electron impact mass spectrometry that their mass spectra often cannot be used to identify the structure, collision-induced dissociation (CID) direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) experiments furnished spectra that provided diagnostic fragmentation patterns for the analyzed cathinones. From this data, neutral loss spectra, which reflect the presence of specific chemical moieties, could be acquired...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Chengqian Lin, Yong Chi, Yuqi Jin, Xuguang Jiang, Alfons Buekens, Qi Zhang, Jian Chen
Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
Wei Ma, Kezhan Shen, Nan Xiang, Shufen Zhang
In order to facilely achieve pretreatment and salt-free dyeing of greige knitted cotton fabrics, a combinative scouring, bleaching, and cationization pretreatment of the fabrics is designed in this study. The fabrics are first treated in a bath containing commercial scouring and bleaching agents, and then glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTA) is directly added into the bath to achieve cationization of the fabrics. Utilization of the alkaline and high-temperature conditions in scouring and bleaching process, cationization can facilely proceed in a short time...
December 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Luther Elliott, Ellen Benoit, Stephanie Campos, Eloise Dunlap
Using the case of synthetic cathinones (commonly referred to as 'bath salts' in the US context), this paper analyses structural factors surrounding novel psychoactive substances (NPS) as contributing to the unique risk environment surrounding their use. Drawing on interviews with 39 people who use bath salts from four U.S. cities and analysis of the infrastructural, social, economic, and policy contexts, we document the unique harms related to changing contexts for illicit drug regulation, manufacture, and consumption...
January 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Brenda M Gannon, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Lorcaserin is a serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor-preferring agonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Lorcaserin decreases cocaine self-administration in rats and monkeys. Although this effect is partially inhibited by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB242084), lorcaserin also has effects at 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, and the relative contribution of these receptors to its anti-cocaine effects has not been investigated. The goals of this study were to determine 1) the potency and effectiveness of lorcaserin to decrease self-administration of cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a common "bath salts" constituent; and 2) the receptor(s) mediating the effects of lorcaserin on cocaine and MDPV self-administration...
March 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Nikola Pinterova, Rachel R Horsley, Tomas Palenicek
Objectives: Aminoindanes ("bath salts," a class of novel psychoactive substances, NPSs) increased rapidly in popularity on the recreational drug market, particularly after mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones were banned in the UK in 2010. Novel aminoindanes continue to emerge, but relatively little is known about their effects and risks. Their history, chemistry, pharmacology, behavioral effects, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity are reviewed in this paper. Methods: Scientific literature was searched on ISI Web of Knowledge: Web of Science (WoS) during June and July 2017, using English language terms: aminoindanes such as 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI), 5-iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI), 2-aminoindane (2-AI), 5,6-methylenedioxy- N -methyl-2-aminoindane (MDMAI), and 5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindane (MMAI)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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