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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684875/order-and-interactions-in-dna-arrays-multiscale-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#1
Julija Zavadlav, Rudolf Podgornik, Matej Praprotnik
While densely packed DNA arrays are known to exhibit hexagonal and orthorhombic local packings, the detailed mechanism governing the associated phase transition remains rather elusive. Furthermore, at high densities the atomistic resolution is paramount to properly account for fine details, encompassing the DNA molecular order, the contingent ordering of counterions and the induced molecular ordering of the bathing solvent, bringing together electrostatic, steric, thermal and direct hydrogen-bonding interactions, resulting in the observed osmotic equation of state...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684237/monoaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-cathinone-phthalimide-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Susan M Lantz, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Bonnie Robinson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi, Syed Z Imam, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683184/comparison-of-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-gas-chromatography-for-the-separation-of-synthetic-cathinones
#3
Stephanie Carnes, Stacey O'Brien, Angelica Szewczak, Lauriane Tremeau-Cayel, Walter F Rowe, Bruce McCord, Ira S Lurie
A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677665/reinforcing-effects-of-binary-mixtures-of-common-bath-salts-constituents-studies-with-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-3-4-methylenedioxymethcathinone-methylone-and-caffeine-in-rats
#4
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Bath salts use is associated with high rates of abuse, toxicity, and death. Bath salts preparations often contain mixtures of drugs including multiple synthetic cathinones (eg, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone [MDPV] or 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone [methylone]) or synthetic cathinones and caffeine; however, little is known about whether interactions among bath salts constituents contribute to the abuse-related effects of bath salts preparations. This study used male Sprague Dawley rats responding under a progressive ratio schedule to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of MDPV, methylone, and caffeine, administered alone and as binary mixtures (n=12 per mixture)...
July 5, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677501/prevalence-and-surveillance-of-synthetic-cathinones-use-by-hair-analysis-an-update-review
#5
J C Alvarez, N Fabresse, I A Larabi
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in a threatening way in the last decades. They are sold via the internet or head shops with several names (bath salts, Research chemical, RCs, Legal Highs) and forms (pills, tablets, powder...etc.), and are labelled ambiguously to escape governmental legislation. Designer drugs belong to different chemical classes, but cathinones derivatives presented the most prevalent group. In 2013, this group accounted for 30% of NPS seizures in Europe with more than 450 different compounds, including 101 new molecules reported for the first time in 2014...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668284/is-there-a-role-for-diaphoresis-therapy-for-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#6
REVIEW
Norio Hanafusa, Bereket Tessema Lodebo, Anuja Shah, Joel D Kopple
Diaphoresis therapy to remove water and solutes for the treatment of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic dialysis patients is an inadequately characterized treatment that was first reported over 50 years ago. Intensive diaphoresis, induced by heat treatment with saunas (dry heat) or hot baths (wet heat), can substantially increase cutaneous losses of water, urea, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, and possibly other solutes. How effectively diaphoresis therapy might remove many uremic toxins is not known...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646469/the-cathinones-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-elicit-different-behavioral-and-molecular-effects-following-acute-exposure
#7
Giuseppe Giannotti, Isabella Canazza, Lucia Caffino, Sabrine Bilel, Andrea Ossato, Fabio Fumagalli, Matteo Marti
Since the mid-to-late 2000s, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among drug users due to their psychostimulant effects greater than those produced by cocaine and amphetamine. Among them, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PVP) are ones of the most popular cathinones available in the clandestine market as "bath salts" or "fertilizers." Pre-clinical studies indicate that MDPV and α-PVP induced psychomotor stimulation, affected thermoregulation, and promoted reinforcing properties in rodents...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622100/prevalence-of-substance-use-among-middle-school-aged-e-cigarette-users-compared-with-cigarette-smokers-nonusers-and-dual-users-implications-for-primary-prevention
#8
Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Michael J Mann, Megan L Smith
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of substance use in e-cigarette (EC)-only users with combustible cigarette (CC)-only users, dual users, and nonusers in a large sample of middle school-aged adolescents. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional school survey conducted in 15 middle schools in 3 counties in West Virginia in the United States between October and December of 2015 (N = 6547, girls = 49.6%; response rate 84.7%). RESULTS: Approximately 4...
June 16, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600746/dopamine-induces-inhibitory-effects-on-the-circular-muscle-contractility-of-mouse-distal-colon-via-d1-and-d2-like-receptors
#9
Michelangelo Auteri, Maria Grazia Zizzo, Antonella Amato, Rosa Serio
Dopamine (DA) acts as gut motility modulator, via D1- and D2-like receptors, but its effective role is far from being clear. Since alterations of the dopaminergic system could lead to gastrointestinal dysfunctions, a characterization of the enteric dopaminergic system is mandatory. In this study, we investigated the role of DA and D1- and D2-like receptors in the contractility of the circular muscle of mouse distal colon by organ-bath technique. DA caused relaxation in carbachol-precontracted circular muscle strips, sensitive to domperidone, D2-like receptor antagonist, and mimicked by bromocriptine, D2-like receptor agonist...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570297/reinforcing-effects-of-abused-bath-salts-constituents-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-and-their-enantiomers
#10
Brenda M Gannon, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Synthetic cathinones found in abused 'bath salts' preparations are chiral molecules. Racemic 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) are two common constituents of these preparations that have been reported to be highly effective reinforcers; however, the relative contribution of each enantiomer toward these effects has not been determined. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for racemic MDPV or α-PVP (n=9/drug), with full dose-response curves for the racemate and the S and R enantiomers of MDPV and α-PVP generated under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement...
May 31, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543168/a-new-tool-to-tackle-the-opioid-epidemic-description-utility-and-results-from-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#11
Brian J Piper, Clare E Desrosiers, Harriet C Fisher, Kenneth L McCall, Stephanie D Nichols
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The opioid epidemic continues to impact the United States, and new strategies are needed to combat this epidemic. The objective of this study was to analyze 2015 drug arrest data from Maine's Diversion Alert (DA) program (diversionalert.org), compare arrest data between the first quarters of 2015 and 2016, and provide an analysis of the sex differences in the arrests as well as information about DA use. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based descriptive study using data from the Maine DA program...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542788/saturated-salt-solution-a-further-step-to-a-formaldehyde-free-embalming-method-for-veterinary-gross-anatomy
#12
M Lombardero, M M Yllera, A Costa-E-Silva, M J Oliveira, P G Ferreira
In the field of veterinary anatomy, most of the specimens used in practical sessions are perfused with fixatives. Thus, they can be used for a longer time, reducing the number of animals for educational purposes. Formalin is the most commonly used fixative, consisting of a 37% formaldehyde solution. However, formaldehyde is a powerful irritant of the eyes and airways and is considered carcinogenic, causing nasopharyngeal cancer in exposed workers and professionals. In the present study, we explored an alternative method to avoid the use of formaldehyde in specimens used for gross anatomy practical sessions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506835/impact-of-common-clandestine-structural-modifications-on-synthetic-cathinone-bath-salt-pharmacokinetics
#13
Gregory G Grecco, David F Kisor, Joseph S Magura, Jon E Sprague
Since 2009, the synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") have risen in popularity as drugs of abuse. However, there are a paucity of studies that have determined the impact of functional group modifications in the synthetic cathinone chemical structures on plasma and central nervous system (CNS) pharmacokinetics. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo plasma and CNS pharmacokinetics of three synthetic cathinones whose structures differ by lengthening of the α-alkyl chain: methylone (-CH3), butylone (-CH2CH3), and pentylone (-CH2CH2CH3)...
August 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501162/solidification-of-floating-organic-droplet-in-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-as-a-green-analytical-tool
#14
REVIEW
Fotouh R Mansour, Neil D Danielson
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is a special type of microextraction in which a mixture of two solvents (an extracting solvent and a disperser) is injected into the sample. The extraction solvent is then dispersed as fine droplets in the cloudy sample through manual or mechanical agitation. Hence, the sample is centrifuged to break the formed emulsion and the extracting solvent is manually separated. The organic solvents commonly used in DLLME are halogenated hydrocarbons that are highly toxic...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485987/assessing-self-reported-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances-the-impact-of-gate-questions
#15
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Fermín Fernández Calderón, Scott Sherman, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge; however, few surveys of substance use ask about NPS use. Research is needed to determine how to most effectively query use of NPS and other uncommon drugs. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prevalence of self-reported lifetime and past-year use differs depending on whether or not queries about NPS use are preceded by "gate questions." Gate questions utilize skip-logic, such that only a "yes" response to the use of specific drug class is followed by more extensive queries of drug use in that drug class...
September 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456284/resolution-of-isomeric-new-designer-stimulants-using-gas-chromatography-vacuum-ultraviolet-spectroscopy-and-theoretical-computations
#16
Ludovit Skultety, Petr Frycak, Changling Qiu, Jonathan Smuts, Lindsey Shear-Laude, Karel Lemr, James X Mao, Peter Kroll, Kevin A Schug, Angelica Szewczak, Cory Vaught, Ira Lurie, Vladimir Havlicek
Distinguishing isomeric representatives of "bath salts", "plant food", "spice", or "legal high" remains a challenge for analytical chemistry. In this work, we used vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy combined with gas chromatography to address this issue on a set of forty-three designer drugs. All compounds, including many isomers, returned differentiable vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet spectra. The pair of 3- and 4-fluoromethcathinones (m/z 181.0903), as well as the methoxetamine/meperidine/ethylphenidate (m/z 247...
June 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444659/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-challenge-for-the-addiction-treatment-services
#17
Norbert Scherbaum, F Schifano, Udo Bonnet
Over the last few years, hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been identified in Europe. Apart from some herbal compounds, NPS mainly include synthetic cannabinoids and a range of new synthetic stimulants (e. g., cathinones). Synthetic NPS are often developed whilst modifying the basic chemical (e. g., phenethylamine or tryptamine) structure. Although the pharmacology and toxicology of most NPS are hardly known, they are being offered, especially online, as "bath salts," as "incense mixtures," or under other misleading labels...
May 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433504/intensification-of-ultrasonic-assisted-crude-oil-demulsification-based-on-acoustic-field-distribution-data
#18
Matheus F Pedrotti, Michele S P Enders, Leticia S F Pereira, Marcia F Mesko, Erico M M Flores, Cezar A Bizzi
Water removal is an essential step during crude oil production due to several problems such as increased transportation costs and high corrosion rate due to dissolved salts. Indirect low frequency ultrasonic energy (US), using baths, has been recently proposed as an effective alternative for crude oil demulsification. However, the reactor position during sonication and its influence on the demulsification efficiency for crude oil has not been evaluated. In this sense, the aim of this study was to develop an automated system based on an open source hardware for mapping the acoustic field distribution in an US bath operating at 35kHz using a hydrophone...
April 2, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428739/high-salt-intake-augments-excitability-of-pvn-neurons-in-rats-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-store
#19
Robert A Larson, Andrew D Chapp, Le Gui, Michael J Huber, Zixi Jack Cheng, Zhiying Shan, Qing-Hui Chen
High salt (HS) intake sensitizes central autonomic circuitry leading to sympathoexcitation. However, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of PVN endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store function would augment PVN neuronal excitability and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We further hypothesized that a 2% (NaCl) HS diet for 5 weeks would reduce ER Ca(2+) store function and increase excitability of PVN neurons with axon projections to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) identified by retrograde label...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#20
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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