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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433504/intensification-of-ultrasonic-assisted-crude-oil-demulsification-based-on-acoustic-field-distribution-data
#1
Matheus F Pedrotti, Michele S P Enders, Leticia S F Pereira, Marcia F Mesko, Erico M M Flores, Cezar A Bizzi
Water removal is an essential step during crude oil production due to several problems such as increased transportation costs and high corrosion rate due to dissolved salts. Indirect low frequency ultrasonic energy (US), using baths, has been recently proposed as an effective alternative for crude oil demulsification. However, the reactor position during sonication and its influence on the demulsification efficiency for crude oil has not been evaluated. In this sense, the aim of this study was to develop an automated system based on an open source hardware for mapping the acoustic field distribution in an US bath operating at 35kHz using a hydrophone...
April 2, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428739/high-salt-intake-augments-excitability-of-pvn-neurons-in-rats-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-store
#2
Robert A Larson, Andrew D Chapp, Le Gui, Michael J Huber, Zixi Jack Cheng, Zhiying Shan, Qing-Hui Chen
High salt (HS) intake sensitizes central autonomic circuitry leading to sympathoexcitation. However, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of PVN endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store function would augment PVN neuronal excitability and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We further hypothesized that a 2% (NaCl) HS diet for 5 weeks would reduce ER Ca(2+) store function and increase excitability of PVN neurons with axon projections to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) identified by retrograde label...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#3
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#4
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
April 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367551/interactions-between-charged-particles-with-bathing-multivalent-counterions-experiments-vs-dressed-ion-theory
#5
Matej Kanduč, Mohsen Moazzami-Gudarzi, Valentina Valmacco, Rudolf Podgornik, Gregor Trefalt
We compare the recent experimentally measured forces between charged colloidal particles, as well as their effective surface potentials (surface charge) in the presence of multivalent counterions in a bathing monovalent salt solution, with the predictions of the dressed ion theory of strongly charged colloidal systems. The benchmark for comparison is provided by the DLVO theory and the deviations from its predictions at small separations are taken as an indication of the additional non-DLVO attractions that can be fitted by an additional phenomenological exponential term...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362414/preparation-and-observation-of-thick-biological-samples-by-scanning-transmission-electron-tomography
#6
Sylvain Trépout, Philippe Bastin, Sergio Marco
This report describes a protocol for preparing thick biological specimens for further observation using a scanning transmission electron microscope. It also describes an imaging method for studying the 3D structure of thick biological specimens by scanning transmission electron tomography. The sample preparation protocol is based on conventional methods in which the sample is fixed using chemical agents, treated with a heavy atom salt contrasting agent, dehydrated in a series of ethanol baths, and embedded in resin...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331910/traditional-practices-adopted-by-jordanian-mothers-when-caring-for-their-infants-in-rural-areas
#7
Ahmad Yahya Al-Sagarat, Amani Al-Kharabsheh
BACKGROUND: Traditional practices are commonly present within the Jordanian society, especailly those concerned with infant's care. Some of these practices might be harmful and thus health professioanls are required to substitute these practices with safe and healthy ones. The goal of this study is to determine the traditional practices adopted by Jordanian mothers when caring for their infants in rural areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study design using qualitative method was utilized in this study...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284383/tubulointerstitial-injury-and-drugs-of-abuse
#8
REVIEW
Arani Nanavati, Leal C Herlitz
Drug abuse is widespread in many populations, and patients abusing illicit substances are at a significantly increased risk of kidney injury. The tubulointerstitial compartment is a common target of these nephrotoxic agents. This review will cover some of the common illicit drugs and will focus on the tubulointerstitial injuries seen in the setting of drug abuse. Agents addressed in this review are synthetic cannabinoids, "bath salts," ecstasy, anabolic steroids, inhaled solvents, heroin, and cocaine. The most frequent biopsy findings are those of acute tubular necrosis and acute interstitial nephritis...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254034/biphasic-reduction-model-for-predicting-the-impacts-of-dye-bath-constituents-on-the-reduction-of-tris-azo-dye-direct-green-1-by-zero-valent-iron-fe-0
#9
Raja Kumar, Alok Sinha
Influence of common dye-bath additives, namely sodium chloride, ammonium sulphate, urea, acetic acid and citric acid, on the reductive decolouration of Direct Green 1 dye in the presence of Fe(0) was investigated. Organic acids improved dye reduction by augmenting Fe(0) corrosion, with acetic acid performing better than citric acid. NaCl enhanced the reduction rate by its 'salting out' effect on the bulk solution and by Cl(-) anion-mediated pitting corrosion of iron surface. (NH4)2SO4 induced 'salting out' effect accompanied by enhanced iron corrosion by SO4(2-) anion and buffering effect of NH4(+) improved the reduction rates...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235997/centrifugeless-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-based-on-salting-out-phenomenon-as-an-efficient-method-for-determination-of-phenolic-compounds-in-environmental-samples
#10
Ehsan Mirparizi, Maryam Rajabi, Mohammad Bazregar, Alireza Asghari
A new centrifugeless dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was applied for the convenient extraction of some phenolic compounds from environmental samples. After dispersing the extracting solvent into the sample solution (10.0 mL), the mixture was passed through a small column filled with 5 g sodium chloride. As a result, phase separation was achieved via the salting-out phenomenon, and the extracting solvent was suspended on top of the sample solution. Using a low-toxic and solidifiable extracting solvent (1-dodecanol), after immersing the column into an ice bath, the extracting solvent was solidified, collected easily, and injected into an HPLC-UV instrument...
April 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212938/the-combined-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-and-selected-substituted-methcathinones-on-measures-of-neurotoxicity
#11
Nicholas B Miner, James P O'Callaghan, Tamara J Phillips, Aaron Janowsky
The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i.p. injection of the drugs, at 2h intervals, either singularly: MDMA 15 or 30mg/kg, methylone 20mg/kg, MDPV 1mg/kg; or in combination: methylone/MDMA 20/15mg/kg, MDPV/MDMA 1/15mg/kg...
February 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183068/electroless-deposition-of-nickel-boron-coatings-using-low-frequency-ultrasonic-agitation-effect-of-ultrasonic-frequency-on-the-coatings
#12
L Bonin, N Bains, V Vitry, A J Cobley
The effect of ultrasound on the properties of Nickel-Boron (NiB) coatings was investigated. NiB coatings were fabricated by electroless deposition using either ultrasonic or mechanical agitation. The deposition of Ni occurred in an aqueous bath containing a reducible metal salt (nickel chloride), reducing agent (sodium borohydride), complexing agent (ethylenediamine) and stabilizer (lead tungstate). Due to the instability of the borohydride in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline media, pH was controlled at pH 12±1 in order to avoid destabilizing the bath...
May 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179474/individual-differences-in-the-relative-reinforcing-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-under-fixed-and-progressive-ratio-schedules-of-reinforcement-in-rats
#13
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
The recreational use of designer drugs, including synthetic cathinones (bath salts), is associated with high levels of abuse and toxicity, and represents a growing threat to public health. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a cocaine-like monoamine uptake inhibitor, and one of the most widely available and abused synthetic cathinones. The present study used male Sprague-Dawley rats to directly compare: (1) the acquisition of responding for MDPV and cocaine under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement; (2) full dose-response curves for MDPV and cocaine under a FR5 schedule; and (3) progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163218/atypical-dopamine-efflux-caused-by-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-via-the-human-dopamine-transporter
#14
Aparna Shekar, Jenny I Aguilar, Greta Galli, Nicholas V Cozzi, Simon D Brandt, Arnold E Ruoho, Michael H Baumann, Heinrich J G Matthies, Aurelio Galli
Synthetic cathinones are similar in chemical structure to amphetamines, and their behavioral effects are associated with enhanced dopaminergic signaling. The past ten years of research on the common constituent of bath salts, MDPV (the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), has aided the understanding of how synthetic cathinones act at the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT). Several groups have described the ability of MDPV to block the DAT with high-affinity. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a new mode of action of MDPV, namely its ability to promote DAT-mediated DA efflux...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132972/a-new-desorption-method-for-removing-organic-solvents-from-activated-carbon-using-surfactant
#15
Mitsuo Hinoue, Sumiyo Ishimatsu, Yukiko Fueta, Hajime Hori
OBJECTIVES: A new desorption method was investigated, which does not require toxic organic solvents. Efficient desorption of organic solvents from activated carbon was achieved with an ananionic surfactant solution, focusing on its washing and emulsion action. METHODS: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were used as test solvents. Lauryl benzene sulfonic acid sodium salt (LAS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were used as the surfactant. Activated carbon (100 mg) was placed in a vial and a predetermined amount of organic solvent was added...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#16
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#17
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039330/dissecting-the-influence-of-two-structural-substituents-on-the-differential-neurotoxic-effects-of-acute-methamphetamine-and-mephedrone-treatment-on-dopamine-nerve-endings-with-the-use-of-4-methylmethamphetamine-and-methcathinone
#18
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Pérez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Mephedrone (MEPH) is a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse that is often a constituent of illicit bath salts formulations. Although MEPH bears remarkable similarities to methamphetamine (METH) in terms of chemical structure, as well as its neurochemical and behavioral effects, it has been shown to have a reduced neurotoxic profile compared with METH. The addition of a β-keto moiety and a 4-methyl ring substituent to METH yields MEPH, and a loss of direct neurotoxic potential. In the present study, two analogs of METH, methcathinone (MeCa) and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4MM), were assessed for their effects on mouse dopamine (DA) nerve endings to determine the relative contribution of each individual moiety to the loss of direct neurotoxicity in MEPH...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024643/facile-and-innovative-method-for-bioglass-surface-modification-optimization-studies
#19
João Henrique Lopes, Emanuella Maria Barreto Fonseca, Italo O Mazali, Alviclér Magalhães, Richard Landers, Celso Aparecido Bertran
In this work it is presented a facile and novel method for modification of bioglass surface based on (Camolten salt bath(2+)|Naglass(+)) ion exchange by immersion in molten salt bath. This method allows changing selectively the chemical composition of a surface layer of glass, creating a new and more reactive bioglass in a shell that surrounds the unchanged bulk of the original BG45S5 bioglass (core-shell type system). The modified bioglass conserves the non-crystalline structure of BG45S5 bioglass and presents a significant increase of surface reactivity in comparison with BG45S5...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936151/osmoregulated-chloride-currents-in-hemocytes-from-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#20
Monica Bregante, Armando Carpaneto, Veronica Piazza, Francesca Sbrana, Massimo Vassalli, Marco Faimali, Franco Gambale
We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution...
2016: PloS One
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