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Rugang Geng, Ram C Subedi, Hoang M Luong, Minh T Pham, Weichuan Huang, Xiaoguang Li, Kunlun Hong, Ming Shao, Kai Xiao, Lawrence A Hornak, Tho D Nguyen
Hyperfine interaction (HFI), originating from the coupling between spins of charge carriers and nuclei, has been demonstrated to strongly influence the spin dynamics of localized charges in organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, the role of charge localization on the HFI strength in organic thin films has not yet been experimentally investigated. In this study, the statistical relation hypothesis that the effective HFI of holes in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is proportional to 1/N^{0.5} has been examined, where N is the number of the random nuclear spins within the envelope of the hole wave function...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Duong Tung Pham, Joseph Paul Baboo, Jinju Song, Sungjin Kim, Jeonggeun Jo, Vinod Mathew, Muhammad Hilmy Alfaruqi, Balaji Sambandam, Jaekook Kim
Pyrite (FeS2 ) is a promising electrode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high natural availability, low toxicity, cost-effectiveness, high theoretical capacity (894 mA h g-1 ) and high theoretical specific energy density (1270 W h kg-1 , 4e- /FeS2 ). Nevertheless, the use of FeS2 in electrochemical capacitors was restricted due to fast capacity fading as a result of polysulfide (S/Sn 2- ) formation during the initial electrochemical cycling. In order to avoid the formation of polysulfides, we employed the strategy of utilizing an ether based electrolyte (1...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Ngan Thi Kim Pham, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang Duy Trinh, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Of 972 stool samples collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in six different regions (Hokkaido, Tokyo, Shizuoka, Kyoto, Osaka, and Saga) of Japan during 2-year period from July 2014 to June 2016, 63 samples (6.5%) determined to be positive for enterovirus by multiplex RT-PCR were subjected to genotype determination based on the partial VP1 region using the CODEHOP method. Sixty-two strains were succeeded in genotyping and seventeen EV types were identified. The majority of the studied strains belonged to EV-A (30 of 62; 48...
March 11, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Michael Huy Cuong Pham, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Alternative splicing (AS) of protein-coding messenger RNAs is an essential regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic gene expression that controls the proper function of proteins. It is also implicated in the physiological regulation of mitochondria and various ion channels. Considering that mis-splicing can result in various human diseases by modifying or abrogating important physiological protein functions, a fine-tuned balance of AS is essential for human health. Accumulated data highlight the importance of alternatively spliced isoforms in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, immune and infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic conditions...
March 13, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Duy-Truong Quach, Duc-Thang Pham, Duc-The Ngo, The-Long Phan, Seung-Young Park, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Dong-Hyun Kim
Hysteresis of ferromagnetic system exhibits a fundamental stimulus-response behavior, thereby casting all the important macromagnetic system parameters such as coercivity, nucleation field, saturation magnetization, and hysteresis loss. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to exploration of relatively less understood minor loop behavior, since faster operation of magnetic devices is inevitably accompanied by minor hysteresis behavior from cycling among unsaturated ferromagnetic states. Here, we report our microscopic investigation of unusual minor hysteresis loop behavior, represented by rounded or sharpened response of minor hysteresis loop of (CoFeB/Pd)4 multilayer film...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
V Hepnarova, J Korabecny, L Matouskova, P Jost, L Muckova, M Hrabinova, N Vykoukalova, M Kerhartova, T Kucera, R Dolezal, E Nepovimova, K Spilovska, E Mezeiova, N L Pham, D Jun, F Staud, D Kaping, K Kuca, O Soukup
Novel tacrine-benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (tacrine-BQCA) hybrids were designed based on multi-target directed ligands (MTLDs) paradigm, synthesized and evaluated in vitro as inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE). Tacrine moiety is represented herein as 7-methoxytacrine, 6-chlorotacrine or unsubstituted tacrine forming three different families of seven members, i.e. 21 compounds in overall. Introducing BQCA, a positive modulator of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), the action of novel compounds on M1 mAChRs was evaluated via Fluo-4 NW assay on the Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO-M1WT2) cell line...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Van Luan Pham, Do-Gun Kim, Seok-Oh Ko
A core-shell nanostructure composed of zero-valent Cu (core) and Fe3 O4 (shell) (Cu@Fe3 O4 ) was prepared by a simple reduction method and was evaluated for the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibiotic. The Cu core and the Fe3 O4 shell were verified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. The optimal molar ratio of [Cu]/[Fe] (1/1) in Cu@Fe3 O4 created an outstanding synergic effect, leading to >99% OTC degradation as well as H2 O2 decomposition within 10min at the reaction conditions of 1g/L Cu@Fe3 O4 , 20mg/L OTC, 20mM H2 O2 , and pH3...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jacobs H Jordan, Corinne L D Gibb, Anthony Wishard, Thu Pham, Bruce C Gibb
A combination of1 H NMR spectroscopy, DLS, and turbidity measurements reveal that polarizable anions engender both the Hofmeister and reverse Hofmeister effects in positand 2. Host 2 possesses two principal and distinctly different binding sites: a "soft" nonpolar pocket and a "hard" crown of ammonium cations. NMR spectroscopy reveals that anion affinity to both sites is comparable, with each site showing characteristic selectivities. NMR spectroscopy also reveals that anions competitively bind to the pocket and induce the Hofmeister effect in host-guest binding at very low concentrations (∼2 mM)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
John Pham, Talal Asif, Majdi S Hamarshi
Methicillin-resistant S taphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was previously considered a purely nosocomial pathogen. However, community-acquired MRSA has recently emerged as an important cause of severe necrotizing community-acquired pneumonia (CA-MRSA) in previously healthy individuals. This new pathogen exhibits antibiotic resistance and is linked to extended hospital stay and higher mortality. CA-MRSA has presented new therapeutic challenges due to high vancomycin treatment failure and lack of specificity of clinical findings...
January 3, 2018: Curēus
Xiaobo Wu, Irina Hutson, Antonina M Akk, Smita Mascharak, Christine T N Pham, Dennis E Hourcade, Rebecca Brown, John P Atkinson, Charles A Harris
Factor D (FD) is an essential component of the complement alternative pathway (AP). It is an attractive pharmaceutical target because it is an AP-specific protease circulating in blood. Most components of the complement activation pathways are produced by the liver, but FD is highly expressed by adipose tissue. Two critical questions are: 1) to what degree does adipose tissue contribute to circulating FD levels and 2) what quantity of FD is sufficient to maintain a functional AP? To address these issues, we studied a novel mouse strain with complete lipodystrophy (LD), the fld mouse with partial LD, an FD-deficient mouse, and samples from lipodystrophic patients...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Phuong L Trinh, Yen Pham
Numerous studies have identified Nucleophosmin 1 ( NPM1 ) and Fms -like tyrosine kinase 3 ( FLT3 ) as the most frequently mutated genes in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients. Mutations occurring in these genes, including NPM1+4 (tetranucleotide insertions), FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplications), and FLT3-TKD (tyrosine kinase domain point mutations) account for approximately 80% of all mutations found in normal karyotype AML (AML-NK) cases. Different methods have been established to detect the three listed mutations, in which, PCR-based techniques are the most widely used due to their efficiency...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Ha Thanh Tung Pham, Minh Chau Hoang, Thi Kim Quy Ha, Lan Huong Dang, Van On Tran, Thi Bich Thu Nguyen, Chul Ho Lee, Won Keun Oh
Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm. (Asclepiadaceae) is a well-known Ayurvedic anti-sweet plant for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it was previously proposed that G. sylvestre exhibits chemical variation based on geography, most research on G. sylvestre has used material originating from India. Morphological and anatomical descriptions, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 DNA sequencing, and acid hydrolysis analyses showed that G. sylvestre samples from Vietnam are distinguishable from those of Indian origin and thus suggest a dissimilarity among G...
March 9, 2018: Phytochemistry
Lloyd Einsiedel, Hai Pham, Kim Wilson, Rebecca Walley, Jocelyn Turpin, Charles Bangham, Antoine Gessain, Richard J Woodman
BACKGROUND: The Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1c subtype (HTLV-1c) is highly endemic to central Australia where the most frequent complication of HTLV-1 infection in Indigenous Australians is bronchiectasis. We carried out a prospective study to quantify the prognosis of HTLV-1c infection and chronic lung disease and the risk of death according to the HTLV-1c proviral load (pVL). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 840 Indigenous adults (discharge diagnosis of bronchiectasis, 154) were recruited to a hospital-based prospective cohort...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marek A Mikulski, Michael D Wichman, Donald L Simmons, Anthony N Pham, Valentina Clottey, Laurence J Fuortes
Background Herbal formulations, traditional medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine are used by the majority of the world's population. Toxicity associated with use of Ayurvedic products due to metal content is an increasingly recognized potential public health problem. Objectives Report on toxic metals content of Ayurvedic products obtained during an investigation of lead poisoning among users of Ayurvedic medicine. Methods Samples of Ayurvedic formulations were analyzed for metals and metalloids following established US...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Christopher J Gill, Ngoc Bao Le, Nafisa Halim, Cao Thi Hue Chi, Viet Ha Nguyen, Rachael Bonawitz, Pham Vu Hoang, Hoang Long Nguyen, Phan Thi Thu Huong, Anna Larson Williams, Ngoc Anh Le, Lora Sabin
Background: Continuing medical education (CME) is indispensable, but costs are a barrier. We tested the effectiveness of a novel mHealth intervention (mCME V.2.0) promoting CME among Vietnamese HIV clinicians. Methods: We enrolled HIV clinicians from three provinces near Hanoi. The 6-month intervention consisted of (1) daily short message service multiple-choice quiz questions, (2) daily linked readings, (3) links to online CME courses and (4) feedback messages describing the performance of the participant relative to the group...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Thi Thu Hang Pham, Pierre Rossi, Hoang Dang Khoa Dinh, Ngoc Tu Anh Pham, Phuong Anh Tran, To Thi Khai Mui Ho, Quoc Tuc Dinh, Luiz Felippe De Alencastro
In Vietnam, intensive shrimp farms heavily rely on a wide variety of antibiotics (ABs) to treat animals or prevent disease outbreak. Potential for the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria is high, with the concomitant contamination of adjacent natural aquatic habitats used for irrigation and drinking water, impairing in turn human health system. In the present study, quantification of AB multi-resistant bacteria was carried out in water and sediment samples from effluent channels connecting a shrimp farming area to the Vam Co River (Long An Province, Vietnam)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Michael Chao, Huong Ho, Yee Chan, Alwin Tan, Trung Pham, Damien Bolton, Andrew Troy, Catherine Temelcos, Shomik Sengupta, Kevin McMillan, Chee Wee Cham, Madalena Liu, Wei Ding, Brindha Subramanian, Jason Wasiak, Daryl Lim Joon, Sandra Spencer, Nathan Lawrenstchuk
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report on the dosimetric benefits and late toxicity outcomes following injection of a hydrogel spacer (HS) between the prostate and rectum for patients treated with prostate radiotherapy. METHODS: A total of 76 patients with a clinical stage of T1-T3a prostate cancer underwent general anaesthesia for fiducial marker insertion plus injection of the HS into the peri-rectal space prior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT)...
March 9, 2018: BJU International
Zhongying Mo, Xiaobei Zhao, Huaqing Liu, Qinghua Hu, Xu-Qiao Chen, Jessica Pham, Na Wei, Ze Liu, Jiadong Zhou, Robert W Burgess, Samuel L Pfaff, C Thomas Caskey, Chengbiao Wu, Ge Bai, Xiang-Lei Yang
Dominant mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) cause a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT2D). Although previous studies have shown that GlyRS mutants aberrantly interact with Nrp1, giving insight into the disease's specific effects on motor neurons, these cannot explain length-dependent axonal degeneration. Here, we report that GlyRS mutants interact aberrantly with HDAC6 and stimulate its deacetylase activity on α-tubulin. A decrease in α-tubulin acetylation and deficits in axonal transport are observed in mice peripheral nerves prior to disease onset...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Binh Pham, Duc Nguyen, Vien Huynh, Eh Hau Pan, Bhavna Shirodkar-Robinson, Michelle Carey, Algirdas Serelis, Gregory G Warr, Tim Davey, Christopher H Such, Brian Stanley Hawkett
A robust polymerization technique that enables the surfactant-free aqueous synthesis of a high solid content latex containing polymeric hollow particles is presented. Uniquely designed amphiphilic macro-RAFT copolymers were used as sole stabilizers for monomer emulsification as well as free radical emulsion polymerization. The polymerization was found to be under RAFT control, generating various morphologies from spherical particles, worm-like structures to polymer vesicles. The final particles were dominantly polymeric vesicles which had a substantially uniform and continuous polymer layer around a single aqueous filled void...
March 8, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Alessandra M Valcarcel, Kristin A Linn, Simon N Vandekar, Theodore D Satterthwaite, John Muschelli, Peter A Calabresi, Dzung L Pham, Melissa Lynne Martin, Russell T Shinohara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for in vivo detection and characterization of white matter lesions (WMLs) in multiple sclerosis. While WMLs have been studied for over two decades using MRI, automated segmentation remains challenging. Although the majority of statistical techniques for the automated segmentation of WMLs are based on single imaging modalities, recent advances have used multimodal techniques for identifying WMLs. Complementary modalities emphasize different tissue properties, which help identify interrelated features of lesions...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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