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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097633/meropenem-dosing-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-in-elderly-patients-with-infection-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#1
Qing-Tao Zhou, Bei He, Ning Shen, Ying Liang, Li-Na Sun
BACKGROUND: Meropenem is used for the treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical benefits of a strategy of meropenem dosing based on a population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model in elderly patients with an LRTI. METHODS: In this prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial, 79 elderly patients with an LRTI caused by Gram-negative bacilli were randomized to a study group (SG) or a control group (CG)...
January 17, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087547/risk-of-pneumonia-in-patients-with-isolated-minor-rib-fractures-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#2
Sai-Wai Ho, Ying-Hock Teng, Shun-Fa Yang, Han-Wei Yeh, Yu-Hsun Wang, Ming-Chih Chou, Chao-Bin Yeh
OBJECTIVES: Isolated minor rib fractures (IMRFs) after blunt chest traumas are commonly observed in emergency departments. However, the relationship between IMRFs and subsequent pneumonia remains controversial. This nationwide cohort study investigated the association between IMRFs and the risk of pneumonia in patients with blunt chest traumas. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based cohort study. SETTING: Patients with IMRFs were identified between 2010 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072747/the-clinical-characteristics-and-short-term-prognosis-in-elderly-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#3
Bing Zhang, Xiujuan Wu, Donghui Shen, Ting Li, Chunrong Li, Mei Mao, Hong-Liang Zhang, Kangding Liu
To investigate the clinical characteristics and short-term prognosis of elderly patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of adult GBS. According to the age, the enrolled subjects were divided into 2 groups, that is, patients ≥60 years (elderly group) and those aged 18 to 59 years (nonelderly group). The clinical characteristics and short-term prognosis of the patients in the 2 groups were compared.In total, 535 patients were enrolled. There were 67 patients fell into the elderly group with a mean age of 69 years old; while 468 patients fell into the nonelderly group with a mean age of 39 years old...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065660/time-trends-in-incidence-and-outcomes-of-hospitalizations-for-aspiration-pneumonia-among-elderly-people-in-spain-2003-2013
#4
Domingo Palacios-Ceña, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Ana López-de-Andrés, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, María Palacios-Ceña, Javier de Miguel-Díez, Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Rodrigo Jiménez-García
BACKGROUND: Aspiration pneumonia (AP) is an infectious process causing high rates of mortality. The purpose of this study was: 1, to describe the incidence from 2003 to 2013 of AP hospitalizations; 2, to assess time trends in hospital outcomes variables, and; 3, to identify the factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM). METHODS: A retrospective observational study using the Spanish National Hospital Database, with patients discharged between January 2003 and December 2013 was conducted...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065635/meals-enhancing-nutrition-after-discharge-findings-from-a-pilot-randomized-controlled%C3%A2-trial
#5
David R Buys, Anthony D Campbell, Alice Godfryd, Kellie Flood, Elizabeth Kitchin, Meredith L Kilgore, Sally Allocca, Julie L Locher
BACKGROUND: After older adults experience episodes of poor health or are hospitalized, they may not return to premorbid or prehospitalization eating behaviors. Furthermore, poor nutrition increases hospital readmission risk, but evidence-based interventions addressing these risks are limited. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study's objective was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial assessing a post-discharge home-delivered meal program's impact on older adults' nutritional intake and hospital readmissions and to assess patient acceptability and satisfaction with the program...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065474/a-single-low-dose-of-a-cgmp-recombinant-bcg-vaccine-elicits-protective-t-cell-immunity-against-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-and-prevents-lung-pathology-in-mice
#6
Pablo F Céspedes, Emma Rey-Jurado, Janyra A Espinoza, Claudia A Rivera, Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061505/effectiveness-of-the-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-ppv23-against-pneumococcal-disease-in-the-elderly-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Gerhard Falkenhorst, Cornelius Remschmidt, Thomas Harder, Eva Hummers-Pradier, Ole Wichmann, Christian Bogdan
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination of elderly people against pneumococcal diseases is recommended in many countries. National guidelines differ, recommending either the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) or both. Considering the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of PPV23, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the vaccine efficacy/effectiveness (VE) of PPV23 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults aged ≥60 years living in industrialized countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049046/the-business-cycle-and-mortality-urban-versus-rural-counties
#8
Sediq Sameem, Kevin Sylwester
Many studies have found that mortality declines during recessions, but do such results remain consistent in both urban and rural settings? To help uncover explanations for such a pro-cyclical nature of mortality, the present study revisits this topic but allows for associations between unemployment and mortality to differ between urban and rural areas. Using a total of 66 863 observations across 3066 counties of the U.S. from 1990 to 2013, we allow the coefficient on unemployment to differ between urban and rural counties...
December 23, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045395/structural-characterization-of-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-carbohydrate-substrate-binding-protein-sp0092
#9
Simone Culurgioni, Minzhe Tang, Martin Austin Walsh
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with infants and the elderly at the highest risk. S. pneumoniae relies entirely on carbohydrates as a source of carbon and dedicates a third of all uptake systems to carbohydrate import. The structure of the carbohydrate-free substrate-binding protein SP0092 at 1.61 Å resolution reveals it to belong to the newly proposed subclass G of substrate-binding proteins, with a ligand-binding pocket that is large enough to accommodate complex oligosaccharides...
January 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040259/postoperative-fever-after-hemiarthroplasty-in-elderly-patients-over-70-years-of-age-with-displaced-femoral-neck-fracture-necessity-of-routine-workup
#10
Je-Hyun Yoo, Ki-Tae Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Ji-Hyo Hwang, Jun-Dong Chang
OBJECTIVES: Displaced femoral neck fracture in elderly patients has been treated with hemiarthroplasty as the treatment of choice. Fever following HA is common in these elderly patients. The aim of this study was to determine which post-HA fever workup could be beneficial in this group of patients. METHODS: A total of 272 consecutive patients aged ≥70 years undergoing HA for displaced femoral neck fracture were retrospectively investigated. Postoperative fever (POF) was defined as any recorded body temperature ≥38°C in the early postoperative period...
December 23, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032354/end-of-life-treatment-decisions-in-nursing-home-residents-dying-with-dementia-in-the-netherlands
#11
Simone A Hendriks, Martin Smalbrugge, Luc Deliens, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Bregje D Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Cees M P M Hertogh, Jenny T van der Steen
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe end-of-life treatment decisions for patients dying with dementia in various stages of dementia in long-term care facilities in the Netherlands with elderly care physicians responsible for treatment and care. METHODS: We present data collected in the nationally representative Dutch End of Life in Dementia study (2007-2011). Within 2 weeks after death, 103 physicians completed questionnaires about the last phase of life in 330 residents with dementia who resided in 1 of 34 participating long-term care facilities...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031086/respiratory-and-cardiac-characteristics-of-icu-patients-aged-90-years-and-older-a-report-of-12-cases
#12
Hong-Min Zhang, Da-Wei Liu, Xiao-Ting Wang, Yun Long, Quan-Hui Yang
Objective To investigate the respiratory and cardiac characteristics of elderly Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients.Methods Twelve senior ICU patients aged 90 years and older were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively collected all patients' clinical data through medical record review. The basic demographics, primary cause for admission, the condition of respiratory and circulatory support, as well as prognosis were recorded. Shock patients and pneumonia patients were specifically analyzed in terms of clinical manifestations, laboratory variables, echocardiography, and lung ultrasound Results...
March 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024956/effectiveness-of-mf59-adjuvanted-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Alexander Domnich, Lucia Arata, Daniela Amicizia, Joan Puig-Barberà, Roberto Gasparini, Donatella Panatto
BACKGROUND: In the elderly, traditional influenza inactivated vaccines are often only modestly immunogenic, owing to immunosenescence. Given that adjuvantation is a means of enhancing the immune response, the trivalent inactivated vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 (MF59-TIV) was specifically designed to overcome this problem. Considering that, for ethical reasons, the absolute effectiveness of an influenza vaccine in the elderly cannot be demonstrated in placebo-controlled studies, the present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59-TIV in preventing influenza-related outcomes in the elderly...
December 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004179/the-prevalence-of-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-in-danish-patients-hospitalised-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#14
Dorte Melgaard, Ulrik Baandrup, Martin Bøgsted, Mette Dahl Bendtsen, Tina Hansen
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) are prevalent conditions in the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between CAP, OD, and frailty in patients admitted to a department of respiratory medicine at a regional hospital. The outcome was mortality during hospitalization and within 30 days of discharge and rehospitalization within 30 days of discharge. A total of 154 consecutive patients (54.5% male, mean age 77.4 years (SD 11.51)) hospitalized because of CAP from September 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014 at North Denmark Regional Hospital were included in this study...
December 22, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003110/eosinophilic-pneumonia-caused-by-daptomycin-six-cases-from-two-institutions-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Jun Hirai, Mao Hagihara, Shusaku Haranaga, Takeshi Kinjo, Hiroe Hashioka, Hideo Kato, Daisuke Sakanashi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo, Jiro Fujita
Here we report six cases of daptomycin (DAP)-induced eosinophilic pneumonia (DIEP) encountered at two medical centers and present a review of 43 DIEP patients from 26 studies to compare the clinical characteristics and radiographic findings of acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP; CEP). Four of the six patients did not exhibit respiratory symptoms, and one patient with only fever was misdiagnosed with DAP-induced fever. According to our literature review and the present findings, male sex and old age were dominant risk factors for DIEP...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999664/daptomycin-induced-eosinophilic-pneumonia-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Priyasha Uppal, Kerry L LaPlante, Melissa M Gaitanis, Matthew D Jankowich, Kristina E Ward
PURPOSE: Eosinophilic pneumonia comprises a group of lung diseases in which eosinophils appear in increased numbers in the lungs and sometimes in the bloodstream. Several case reports link daptomycin use to this phenomenon. SUMMARY: We performed a systematic literature review to identify cases of eosinophilic pneumonia associated with daptomycin use. Relevant studies were identified by searching Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Clin-Alert from inception to May 2016, and manual searches of reference lists...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998266/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-cases-in-france-between-2001-and-2014-a-time-series-analysis
#17
Anna Alari, Hélène Chaussade, Matthieu Domenech De Cellès, Lénaig Le Fouler, Emmanuelle Varon, Lulla Opatowski, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a major invasive pneumococcal disease. Two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced in France: PCV7 was recommended in 2003 and replaced in 2010 by PCV13, which has six additional serotypes. The impact of introducing those vaccines on the evolution of PM case numbers and serotype distributions in France from 2001 to 2014 is assessed herein. METHODS: Data on 5166 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid between 2001 and 2014 in the 22 regions of France were obtained from the National Reference Center for Pneumococci...
December 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988919/diabetes-affects-length-of-stay-and-hospital-costs-for-elderly-patients-with-pneumonia-an-analysis-of-a-hospital-administrative-database
#18
Yusuke Kabeya, Akira Shimada, Nobuhiro Tsukada, Yoshihito Atsumi, Megumu Higaki
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the association of having diabetes with length of stay and hospital costs for elderly patients with pneumonia who were admitted to an acute-care hospital in Japan. METHODS: Based on the inpatient administrative claims database of an acute-care hospital in central Tokyo between 2010 and 2013, 753 patients aged ≥ 65 years who were admitted to the hospital presenting with pneumonia and discharged alive were analyzed. The association was analyzed using a negative binomial model, having adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, dyspnea grade, functional evaluation of feeding, use of mechanical ventilation, and use of renal replacement therapy...
December 20, 2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988091/pulmonary-complications-after-open-abdominal-aortic-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Laura Pasin, Pasquale Nardelli, Alessandro Belletti, Massimiliano Greco, Giovanni Landoni, Luca Cabrini, Roberto Chiesa, Alberto Zangrillo
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) are among the most common complications after noncardiac surgery. Men, smokers, and elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure are more likely to experience PPC. The majority of patients undergoing vascular surgery belong in these categories and are at higher risk of developing PPC. Moreover, the surgical site is one of the most important risk factors associated with PPC, and aortic surgery carries the highest risk...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986788/integrating-teaching-into-everyday-clinical-practice
#20
David King, Noreen West, Charlotte Elder
The teaching and training of doctors-in-training in paediatrics has become increasingly challenging in recent times. All too often there is a perception that training must come second to service provision. In this article, the case of a child with community-acquired pneumonia is considered and used to illustrate how a culture of teaching can be embedded in everyday clinical practice.
December 16, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
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