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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110205/a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-of-interventions-designed-to-decrease-child-abuse-in-high-risk-families
#1
Elizabeth J Levey, Bizu Gelaye, Paul Bain, Marta B Rondon, Christina P C Borba, David C Henderson, Michelle A Williams
Child abuse is a global problem, and parents with histories of childhood abuse are at increased risk of abusing their offspring. The objective of this systematic review is to provide a clear overview of the existing literature of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to prevent child abuse. PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. This review includes all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions designed to prevent abuse among mothers identified as high-risk...
January 19, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108497/cortical-thickness-and-local-gyrification-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#2
Victoria J Williams, Jenifer Juranek, Paul Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
Developmental dyslexia is frequently associated with atypical brain structure and function within regions of the left hemisphere reading network. To date, few studies have employed surface-based techniques to evaluate cortical thickness and local gyrification in dyslexia. Of the existing cortical thickness studies in children, many are limited by small sample size, variability in dyslexia identification, and the recruitment of prereaders who may or may not develop reading impairment. Further, no known study has assessed local gyrification index (LGI) in dyslexia, which may serve as a sensitive indicator of atypical neurodevelopment...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107352/coping-well-with-advanced-cancer-a-serial-qualitative-interview-study-with-patients-and-family-carers
#3
Catherine Walshe, Diane Roberts, Lynda Appleton, Lynn Calman, Paul Large, Mari Lloyd-Williams, Gunn Grande
OBJECTIVES: To understand successful strategies used by people to cope well when living with advanced cancer; to explore how professionals can support effective coping strategies; to understand how to support development of effective coping strategies for patients and family carers. DESIGN: Qualitative serial (4-12 week intervals) interview study with people with advanced cancer and their informal carers followed by focus groups. The iterative design had a novel focus on positive coping strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107066/hematologic-plasma-biochemical-and-lipid-panel-reference-intervals-in-orange-winged-amazon-parrots-amazona-amazonica
#4
Claire Vergneau-Grosset, Tamsen Polley, Danielle Carrade Holt, William Vernau, Joanne Paul-Murphy
To establish reference intervals in orange-winged Amazon parrots ( Amazona amazonica ) for the complete blood count, plasma biochemical values, and lipid panel and to evaluate age- and sex-related variations, blood samples were obtained from 29 healthy juvenile and adult parrots. Concentrations of total protein, bile acids, phosphorus, total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in adult compared with juvenile birds, while uric acid concentration was significantly higher in juveniles...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106231/a-case-control-study-of-cemented-acetabular-total-hip-arthroplasty-components-in-patients-less-than-50-with-5-year-minimum-follow-up
#5
Thomas F M Yeoman, William Smy, Paul Gaston
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the outcomes of cemented sockets in young patients (<50 years) requiring a total hip replacement (THR) compared to older patients (>50 years) having the same procedure, under the same surgeon between June 2005 and May 2009. METHODS: Prosthesis survivorship rates, patient outcomes and radiological findings were compared between a consecutive series of 56 young patients (mean 42, range 25-49) and 56 older patients (mean 69, range 53-81) that underwent a primary THR using a cemented Stryker® Exeter™ Contemporary™ flanged cup...
January 20, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104287/enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-and-acquisition-and-infection-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-clostridium-difficile-the-benefits-of-enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-study-a-cluster-randomised-multicentre-crossover-study
#6
Deverick J Anderson, Luke F Chen, David J Weber, Rebekah W Moehring, Sarah S Lewis, Patricia F Triplett, Michael Blocker, Paul Becherer, J Conrad Schwab, Lauren P Knelson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, William A Rutala, Hajime Kanamori, Maria F Gergen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to hospital can acquire multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile from inadequately disinfected environmental surfaces. We determined the effect of three enhanced strategies for terminal room disinfection (disinfection of a room between occupying patients) on acquisition and infection due to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, C difficile, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, crossover trial at nine hospitals in the southeastern USA...
January 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104212/left-atrial-appendage-thrombus-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-incidence-clinical-impact-and-the-role-of-cardiac%C3%A2-computed%C3%A2-tomography
#7
Sonny Palmer, Nicholas Child, Mark A de Belder, Douglas F Muir, Paul Williams
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and clinical impact of left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) in a population referred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and to examine the role of cardiac computed tomography (CCT) in the diagnosis of LAAT. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is common in patients undergoing TAVR. Embolization of LAAT is a potential mechanism of periprocedural stroke. The incidence and clinical impact of LAAT in a TAVR cohort have not been reported, and the optimal method for diagnosing LAAT remains unclear...
January 23, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100476/chronic-anemic-hypoxemia-attenuates-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-in-fetal-sheep
#8
Joshua S Benjamin, Christine B Culpepper, Laura D Brown, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Sonnet S Jonker, Melissa Ann Davis, Sean W Limesand, Randall B Wilkening, William W Hay, Paul J Rozance
Fetal insulin secretion is inhibited by acute hypoxemia. The relationship between prolonged hypoxemia and insulin secretion, however, is less well defined. To test the hypothesis that prolonged fetal hypoxemia impairs insulin secretion, studies were performed in sheep fetuses that were bled to anemic conditions for 9 ± 0 days (anemic, n=19) and compared to control fetuses (n=15). Arterial hematocrit and oxygen content were 34% and 52% lower, respectively, in anemic vs. control fetuses (P<0.0001). Plasma glucose concentrations were 21% higher in the anemic group (P<0...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100185/an-improved-genome-assembly-uncovers-prolific-tandem-repeats-in-atlantic-cod
#9
Ole K Tørresen, Bastiaan Star, Sissel Jentoft, William B Reinar, Harald Grove, Jason R Miller, Brian P Walenz, James Knight, Jenny M Ekholm, Paul Peluso, Rolf B Edvardsen, Ave Tooming-Klunderud, Morten Skage, Sigbjørn Lien, Kjetill S Jakobsen, Alexander J Nederbragt
BACKGROUND: The first Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome assembly published in 2011 was one of the early genome assemblies exclusively based on high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. Since then, rapid advances in sequencing technologies have led to a multitude of assemblies generated for complex genomes, although many of these are of a fragmented nature with a significant fraction of bases in gaps. The development of long-read sequencing and improved software now enable the generation of more contiguous genome assemblies...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097694/serial-cytokine-alterations-and-abnormal-neuroimaging-in-newborn-infants-with-encephalopathy
#10
Fiona M O'Hare, R William G Watson, Amanda O'Neill, Ricardo Segurado, Deirdre Sweetman, Paul Downey, Eoghan Mooney, John Murphy, Veronica Donoghue, Eleanor J Molloy
AIM: Inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the final common pathway in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischaemic injury in experimental models. We aimed to profile the systemic pro- and anti-inflammatory response over the first week of life in term infants at risk of neonatal encephalopathy. METHOD: In a tertiary referral university neonatal intensive care unit, serial blood samples were analysed from 41 term infants (requiring resuscitation at birth) in this prospective observational pilot study...
January 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097409/genetic-and-epigenetic-intra-tumour-heterogeneity-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Huw Geraint Jones, Gareth Jenkins, Namor Williams, Paul Griffiths, Phil Chambers, John Beynon, Dean Harris
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, with pathologically similar cancers having completely different responses to treatment and patient survival. Intra-tumour heterogeneity (defined as distinct morphological and phenotypic differences) has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in the development and behaviour of cancer cells and can be used to determine response to anticancer therapy. METHOD: Patients with resected CRC had DNA extracted from eight defined tumour areas which were analysed for two genetic mutations (BRAF and KRAS) and one epigenetic trait (CpG island methylator phenotype/CIMP)...
January 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097244/minimising-costs-in-spinal-surgery-is-group-save-testing-justified-in-lumbar-decompression-surgery
#12
William T Wilson, Adam M H Young, Paul Fivey
BACKGROUND: Lumbar microdiscectomy and laminectomy are two of the most common neurosurgical procedures performed worldwide. Current practice still sees pre-operative group and save testing prior to this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the need for pre-operative group and save and post-operative blood checks. METHODS: Patient archives were reviewed to identify those undergoing primary elective lumbar decompression surgery at the Institute of Neurological Sciences, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK...
December 2016: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095147/management-of-small-renal-masses-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline
#13
Antonio Finelli, Nofisat Ismaila, Bill Bro, Jeremy Durack, Scott Eggener, Andrew Evans, Inderbir Gill, David Graham, William Huang, Michael A S Jewett, Sheron Latcha, William Lowrance, Mitchell Rosner, Bobby Shayegan, Houston R Thompson, Robert Uzzo, Paul Russo
Purpose To provide recommendations for the management options for patients with small renal masses (SRMs). Methods By using a literature search and prospectively defined study selection, we sought systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, prospective comparative observational studies, and retrospective studies published from 2000 through 2015. Outcomes included recurrence-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Results Eighty-three studies, including 20 systematic reviews and 63 primary studies, met the eligibility criteria and form the evidentiary basis for the guideline recommendations...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092168/associations-between-at-risk-alcohol-use-substance-use-and-smoking-with-lipohypertrophy-and-lipoatrophy-among-patients-living-with-hiv
#14
Marisela Noorhasan, Daniel Drozd, Carl Grunfeld, Joe Merrill, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, James H Willig, Amanda Willig, Karen L Cropsey, Kenneth Mayer, Aaron Blashill, Matthew Mimiaga, Mary E McCaul, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, William C Matthews, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob Fredericksen, Robin Nance, Joseph Chris Delaney, Paul Crane, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi Crane
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at 6 sites across the US completed 21,279 clinical assessments including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091601/massively-parallel-digital-transcriptional-profiling-of-single-cells
#15
Grace X Y Zheng, Jessica M Terry, Phillip Belgrader, Paul Ryvkin, Zachary W Bent, Ryan Wilson, Solongo B Ziraldo, Tobias D Wheeler, Geoff P McDermott, Junjie Zhu, Mark T Gregory, Joe Shuga, Luz Montesclaros, Jason G Underwood, Donald A Masquelier, Stefanie Y Nishimura, Michael Schnall-Levin, Paul W Wyatt, Christopher M Hindson, Rajiv Bharadwaj, Alexander Wong, Kevin D Ness, Lan W Beppu, H Joachim Deeg, Christopher McFarland, Keith R Loeb, William J Valente, Nolan G Ericson, Emily A Stevens, Jerald P Radich, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Benjamin J Hindson, Jason H Bielas
Characterizing the transcriptome of individual cells is fundamental to understanding complex biological systems. We describe a droplet-based system that enables 3' mRNA counting of tens of thousands of single cells per sample. Cell encapsulation, of up to 8 samples at a time, takes place in ∼6 min, with ∼50% cell capture efficiency. To demonstrate the system's technical performance, we collected transcriptome data from ∼250k single cells across 29 samples. We validated the sensitivity of the system and its ability to detect rare populations using cell lines and synthetic RNAs...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087211/the-effect-of-bone-growth-onto-massive-prostheses-collars-in-protecting-the-implant-from-fracture
#16
Paul Fromme, Gordon W Blunn, William J Aston, Tasneem Abdoola, Jacob Koris, Melanie J Coathup
Limb-sparing distal femoral endoprotheses used in cancer patients have a high risk of aseptic loosening. It had been reported that young adolescent patients have a higher rate of loosening and fatigue fracture of intramedullary stems because the implant becomes undersized as patients grow. Extracortical bone growth into the grooved hydroxyapatite-coated collar had been shown to reduce failure rates. The stresses in the implant and femur have been calculated from Finite Element models for different stages of bone growth onto the collar...
January 10, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080063/optimization-of-2-anilino-4-amino-substituted-quinazolines-into-potent-antimalarial-agents-with-oral-in-vivo-activity
#17
Paul R Gilson, Cyrus Tan, Kate E Jarman, Kym N Lowes, Joan M Curtis, William Nguyen, Adrian E Di Rago, Hayley E Bullen, Boris Prinz, Sandra Duffy, Jonathan B Baell, Craig A Hutton, Helene Jousset Sabroux, Brendan S Crabb, Vicky M Avery, Alan F Cowman, Brad E Sleebs
Novel antimalarial therapeutics that target multiple stages of the parasites lifecycle are urgently required to tackle the emerging problem of resistance with current drugs. Here we describe the optimization of the 2-anilino quinazoline class as antimalarial agents. The class, identified from publicly available antimalarial screening data, was optimized to generate lead compounds that possess potent antimalarial activity against P. falciparum parasites equivalent to the known antimalarials, chloroquine and mefloquine...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079743/normal-radiographic-parameters-in-paediatric-pelvic-radiographs-from-a-chinese-population
#18
Evelyn E Kuong, William T Gardner, Paul A Koljonen, Sudhir K Mahapatra, Wang Chow
: Paediatric pelvic and hip radiographs are a common investigation used when assessing a child for suspected developmental dysplasia of the hip. This report describes an attempt to establish normal values of medial joint space, acetabular index and centre edge angle according to specific age groups and sex in a Chinese population. Patients who had undergone a pelvic radiograph as part of their assessment, but were subsequently found to have normal hips were recruited retrospectively. These patients were grouped according to sex and age; medial joint space, acetabular index and centre edge angle were measured in all radiographs...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079552/clinical-experience-using-dehydrated-human-amnion-chorion-membrane-allografts-for-acute-and-reconstructive-burn-care
#19
Debra Ann Reilly, Sean Hickey, Paul Glat, William C Lineaweaver, Jeremy Goverman
Amniotic membrane is immunologically privileged and is a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines known to modulate inflammation and enhance the healing process, while also possessing antimicrobial, antifibrosis, and antiscarring properties. These properties establish a strong argument for using amniotic membrane derived products as a treatment for burns. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of commercially available dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allografts in patients with partial-thickness and full-thickness burns...
February 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077676/a-ptk7-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-reduces-tumor-initiating-cells-and-induces-sustained-tumor-regressions
#20
Marc Damelin, Alexander Bankovich, Jeffrey Bernstein, Justin Lucas, Liang Chen, Samuel Williams, Albert Park, Jorge Aguilar, Elana Ernstoff, Manoj Charati, Russell Dushin, Monette Aujay, Christina Lee, Hanna Ramoth, Milly Milton, Johannes Hampl, Sasha Lazetic, Virginia Pulito, Edward Rosfjord, Yongliang Sun, Lindsay King, Frank Barletta, Alison Betts, Magali Guffroy, Hadi Falahatpisheh, Christopher J O'Donnell, Robert Stull, Marybeth Pysz, Paul Escarpe, David Liu, Orit Foord, Hans Peter Gerber, Puja Sapra, Scott J Dylla
Disease relapse after treatment is common in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), ovarian cancer (OVCA), and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therapies that target tumor-initiating cells (TICs) should improve patient survival by eliminating the cells that can drive tumor recurrence and metastasis. We demonstrate that protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7), a highly conserved but catalytically inactive receptor tyrosine kinase in the Wnt signaling pathway, is enriched on TICs in low-passage TNBC, OVCA, and NSCLC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs)...
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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