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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#1
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340108/cigarette-smoking-and-musculoskeletal-pain-severity-among-male-and-female-afghanistan-iraq-era-veterans
#2
Kimberly T Green, Sarah M Wilson, Paul A Dennis, Jennifer J Runnals, Rebecca A Williams, Lori A Bastian, Jean C Beckham, Eric A Dedert, Harold S Kudler, Kristy Straits-Tröster, Jennifer M Gierisch, Patrick S Calhoun
Objective.:  Cigarette smoking and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system users. These conditions frequently co-occur; however, there is limited empirical information specific to Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. The present study sought to examine gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking and moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain in US veterans with Afghanistan/Iraq era service. Methods.:  A random sample of 5,000 veterans with service after November 11, 2001, participated in a survey assessing health care needs and barriers to care...
March 14, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338716/neurological-evidence-for-the-role-of-construal-level-in-future-directed-thought
#3
Paul E Stillman, Hyojin Lee, Xiaoyan Deng, Rao Unnava, William A Cunningham, Kentaro Fujita
The ability to mentally represent future events is a significant human psychological achievement. A challenge that people encounter is that they often lack detailed specifics about distant relative to near future events. Construal level theory (Liberman & Trope, 2014) proposes that people represent distant future events by their abstract and essential features - a process referred to as high-level construal. As events become temporally proximal, people represent events by their increasingly available and reliable concrete and idiosyncratic features - a process referred to as low-level construal...
February 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336563/complex-multifault-rupture-during-the-2016-mw-7-8-kaik%C3%A5-ura-earthquake-new-zealand
#4
Ian J Hamling, Sigrun Hreinsdóttir, Kate Clark, John Elliott, Cunren Liang, Eric Fielding, Nicola Litchfield, Pilar Villamor, Laura Wallace, Tim J Wright, Elisabetta D'Anastasio, Stephen Bannister, David Burbidge, Paul Denys, Paula Gentle, Jamie Howarth, Christof Mueller, Neville Palmer, Chris Pearson, William Power, Philip Barnes, David J A Barrell, Russ Van Dissen, Robert Langridge, Tim Little, Andrew Nicol, Jarg Pettinga, Julie Rowland, Mark Stirling
On 14th November 2016, the northeastern South Island of New Zealand was struck by a major Mw 7.8 earthquake. Field observations, in conjunction with InSAR, GPS, and seismology reveal this to be one of the most complex earthquakes ever recorded. The rupture propagated northward for more than 170 km along both mapped and unmapped faults, before continuing offshore at its northeastern extent. Geodetic and field observations reveal surface ruptures along at least 12 major faults, including possible slip along the southern Hikurangi subduction interface, extensive uplift along much of the coastline and widespread anelastic deformation including the ~8 m uplift of a fault-bounded block...
March 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336209/transboundary-movement-of-marine-litter-in-an-estuarine-gradient-evaluating-sources-and-sinks-using-hydrodynamic-modelling-and-ground-truthing-estimates
#5
Allan Paul Krelling, Mihael Machado Souza, Allan Thomas Williams, Alexander Turra
Marine debris' transboundary nature and new strategies to identify sources and sinks in coastal areas were investigated along the Paranaguá estuarine gradient (southern Brazil), through integration of hydrodynamic modelling, ground truthing estimates and regressive vector analysis. The simulated release of virtual particles in different parts of the inner estuary suggests a residence time shorter than 5days before being exported through the estuary mouth (intermediate compartment) to the open ocean. Stranded litter supported this pathway, with beaches in the internal compartment presenting proportionally more items from domestic sources, while fragmented items with unknown sources were proportionally more abundant in the oceanic beaches...
March 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334939/association-between-tau-deposition-and-antecedent-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-rates-in-normal-and-early-symptomatic-individuals
#6
Duygu Tosun, Susan Landau, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Mark Mintun, William Jagust, Michael W Weiner
A long-term goal of our field is to determine the sequence of pathological events, which ultimately lead to cognitive decline and dementia. In this study, we first assessed the patterns of brain tau tangle accumulation (measured with the positron emission tomography tracer 18F-AV-1451) associated with well-established Alzheimer's disease factors in a cohort including cognitively healthy elderly individuals and individuals at early symptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease. We then explored highly associated patterns of greater 18F-AV-1451 binding and increased annualized change in cortical amyloid-β plaques measured as florbetapir positron emission tomography binding antecedent to 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography scans, and to what extent these multimodal pattern associations explained the variance in cognitive performance and clinical outcome measures, independently and jointly...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333910/establishing-a-timeline-to-discontinue-routine-testing-of-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-for-zika-virus-infection-american-samoa-2016-2017
#7
W Thane Hancock, Heidi M Soeters, Susan L Hills, Ruth Link-Gelles, Mary E Evans, W Randolph Daley, Emily Piercefield, Magele Scott Anesi, Mary Aseta Mataia, Anaise M Uso, Benjamin Sili, Aifili John Tufa, Jacqueline Solaita, Elizabeth Irvin-Barnwell, Dana Meaney-Delman, Jason Wilken, Paul Weidle, Karrie-Ann E Toews, William Walker, Phillip M Talboy, William K Gallo, Nevin Krishna, Rebecca L Laws, Megan R Reynolds, Alaya Koneru, Carolyn V Gould
The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3)(...
March 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333187/eldelumab-anti-interferon-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-10-antibody-induction-therapy-for-active-crohn-s-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-iia-study
#8
William J Sandborn, Paul Rutgeerts, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Subrata Ghosh, Robert Petryka, Bruce E Sands, Pranab Mitra, Allison Luo
Background and Aims: This 11-week Phase IIa induction study evaluated the efficacy and safety of eldelumab in patients with active Crohn's disease. Methods: Adults with Crohn's Disease Activity Index 220-450 were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo or eldelumab 10 or 20 mg/kg intravenously on Days 1 and 8, and alternate weeks thereafter. All patients underwent ileocolonoscopy at baseline. Patients with active inflammation according to the Simplified Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease criteria [the originally planned endoscopy cohort] underwent another ileocolonoscopy at Week 11 at the investigator's discretion...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332622/b-lymphocytes-play-a-limited-role-in-clearance-of-campylobacter-jejuni-from-the-chicken-intestinal-tract
#9
Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Gemma Chaloner, Rachel Gilroy, Suzanne Humphrey, Kirsty Gibbs, Sue Jopson, Elli Wright, William Reid, Julian Ketley, Tom Humphrey, Nicola Williams, Steven Rushton, Paul Wigley
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis with contaminated poultry meat its main source. Control of C. jejuni is a priority for the poultry industry but no vaccines are available and their development hampered by poor understanding of the immunobiology of C. jejuni infection. Here we show the functional role of B lymphocytes in response to C. jejuni in the chicken through depletion of the B lymphocyte population (bursectomy) followed by challenge. B lymphocyte depletion has little effect on bacterial numbers in the ceca, the main site of colonisation, where C...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330991/limb-flexion-induced-twist-and-associated-intramural-stresses-in-the-human-femoropopliteal-artery
#10
Anastasia Desyatova, William Poulson, Paul Deegan, Carol Lomneth, Andreas Seas, Kaspars Maleckis, Jason MacTaggart, Alexey Kamenskiy
High failure rates of femoropopliteal artery (FPA) interventions are often attributed to severe mechanical deformations that occur with limb movement. Torsion of the FPA likely plays a significant role, but is poorly characterized and the associated intramural stresses are currently unknown. FPA torsion in the walking, sitting and gardening postures was characterized in n = 28 in situ FPAs using intra-arterial markers. Principal mechanical stresses and strains were quantified in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), adductor hiatus segment (AH) and the popliteal artery (PA) using analytical modelling...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328347/prevention-of-hereditary-angioedema-attacks-with-a-subcutaneous-c1-inhibitor
#11
Hilary Longhurst, Marco Cicardi, Timothy Craig, Konrad Bork, Clive Grattan, James Baker, Huamin H Li, Avner Reshef, James Bonner, Jonathan A Bernstein, John Anderson, William R Lumry, Henriette Farkas, Constance H Katelaris, Gordon L Sussman, Joshua Jacobs, Marc Riedl, Michael E Manning, Jacques Hebert, Paul K Keith, Shmuel Kivity, Sergio Neri, Donald S Levy, Maria L Baeza, Robert Nathan, Lawrence B Schwartz, Teresa Caballero, William Yang, Ioana Crisan, María D Hernandez, Iftikhar Hussain, Michael Tarzi, Bruce Ritchie, Pavlina Králíčková, Mar Guilarte, Syed M Rehman, Aleena Banerji, Richard G Gower, Debra Bensen-Kennedy, Jonathan Edelman, Henrike Feuersenger, John-Philip Lawo, Thomas Machnig, Dipti Pawaskar, Ingo Pragst, Bruce L Zuraw
Background Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. Methods We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening...
March 23, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326422/late-hemorrhagic-pseudoseptic-arthritis-encountered-during-total-knee-arthroplasty-due-to-hyaluronic-acid-viscosupplementation
#12
Jeremy M Korsh, William Paul Bassett, Donald R Polakoff
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and affects approximately one-third of people in the United Sates aged 65 years and older. Since 2013, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has not been able to recommended using hyaluronic acid for patients with symptomatic OA of the knee. Subsequent publications have also cautioned against the use of viscosupplementation based on lack of efficacy and the potential for harm. We present a case of late hemorrhagic pseudoseptic arthritis encountered during TKA due to hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation...
December 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326068/negative-regulation-of-violacein-biosynthesis-in-chromobacterium-violaceum
#13
Giulia Devescovi, Milan Kojic, Sonia Covaceuszach, Miguel Cámara, Paul Williams, Iris Bertani, Sujatha Subramoni, Vittorio Venturi
In Chromobacteium violaceum, the purple pigment violacein is under positive regulation by the N-acylhomoserine lactone CviI/R quorum sensing system and negative regulation by an uncharacterized putative repressor. In this study we report that the biosynthesis of violacein is negatively controlled by a novel repressor protein, VioS. The violacein operon is regulated negatively by VioS and positively by the CviI/R system in both C. violaceum and in a heterologous Escherichia coli genetic background. VioS does not regulate the CviI/R system and apart from violacein, VioS, and quorum sensing regulate other phenotypes antagonistically...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325312/structural-and-enzyme-kinetic-studies-of-retrograded-starch-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amylase-and-consequences-for-intestinal-digestion-of-starch
#14
Hamung Patel, Paul G Royall, Simon Gaisford, Gareth R Williams, Cathrina H Edwards, Frederick J Warren, Bernadine M Flanagan, Peter R Ellis, Peter J Butterworth
Retrograded starch is known to be resistant to digestion. We used enzyme kinetic experiments to examine how retrogradation of starch affects amylolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic amylase. Parallel studies employing differential scanning calorimetry, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy were performed to monitor changes in supramolecular structure of gelatinised starch as it becomes retrograded. The total digestible starch and the catalytic efficiency of amylase were both decreased with increasing evidence of retrogradation...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324092/association-between-choice-of-radical-prostatectomy-external-beam-radiotherapy-brachytherapy-or-active-surveillance-and-patient-reported-quality-of-life-among-men-with-localized-prostate-cancer
#15
Ronald C Chen, Ramsankar Basak, Anne-Marie Meyer, Tzy-Mey Kuo, William R Carpenter, Robert P Agans, James R Broughman, Bryce B Reeve, Matthew E Nielsen, Deborah S Usinger, Kiayni C Spearman, Sarah Walden, Dianne Kaleel, Mary Anderson, Til Stürmer, Paul A Godley
Importance: Patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer have to decide among treatment strategies that may differ in their likelihood of adverse effects. Objective: To compare quality of life (QOL) after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, and brachytherapy vs active surveillance. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based prospective cohort of 1141 men (57% participation among eligible men) with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were enrolled from January 2011 through June 2013 in collaboration with the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry...
March 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323799/a-prospective-randomized-trial-to-assess-oral-versus-intravenous-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-wound-infection-after-extremity-fractures-poviv-study
#16
William T Obremskey, Andrew H Schmidt, Robert V OʼToole, Jennifer DeSanto, Saam Morshed, Paul Tornetta, Clinton K Murray, Clifford B Jones, Daniel O Scharfstein, Tara J Taylor, Anthony R Carlini, Renan C Castillo
Patients surgically treated for infection after extremity fractures are typically discharged with a 6- to 12-week antibiotic regimen. Intravenous (IV) antibiotics are associated with significant cost and potential complications of deep vein thrombosis, line clotting, and sepsis. Many of the pathogens that cause musculoskeletal infection have both oral (PO) and IV antibiotic options with adequate bioavailability and antibacterial effect, yet IV antibiotics remain the standard of care absent evidence that PO options are clinically as efficacious...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320369/breathlessness-and-presentation-to-the-emergency-department-a-survey-and-clinical-record-review
#17
Ann Hutchinson, Alistair Pickering, Paul Williams, J Martin Bland, Miriam J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is a frequently occurring symptom of cardiorespiratory conditions and is a common cause of emergency department presentation. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acute-on-chronic breathlessness as a cause for presentation to the major emergencies area of the emergency department. METHODS: A prospective patient self-report survey and clinical record review of consecutive attendees to the major emergencies area of the emergency department in a single tertiary hospital between 12/5/14 and 29/5/14 was conducted...
March 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319801/first-trimester-prediction-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-clinical-model-based-on-maternal-demographic-parameters
#18
Arianne N Sweeting, Heidi Appelblom, Glynis P Ross, Jencia Wong, Heikki Kouru, Paul F Williams, Mikko Sairanen, Jon A Hyett
AIM: Develop a first trimester risk prediction model for GDM based on maternal clinical characteristics in a large metropolitan multi-ethnic population and compare its performance to that of other recently published GDM prediction models and clinical risk scoring systems. METHODS: A retrospective case control study of 248 women who developed GDM and 732 controls who did not. Maternal clinical parameters were prospectively obtained at 11-13(+6) weeks' gestation. A predictive multivariate regression model for GDM was developed, evaluated using areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUC) curve...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319148/the-incremental-benefit-of-eus-for-identifying-unresectable-disease-among-adults-with-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-meta-analysis
#19
Paul D James, Zhao Wu Meng, Mei Zhang, Paul J Belletrutti, Rachid Mohamed, William Ghali, Derek J Roberts, Guillaume Martel, Steven J Heitman
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: It is unclear to what extent EUS influences the surgical management of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This systematic review sought to determine if EUS evaluation improves the identification of unresectable disease among adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, bibliographies of included articles and conference proceedings for studies reporting original data regarding surgical management and/or survival among patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, from inception to January 7th 2017...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314919/interference-between-a-fast-paced-spatial-puzzle-task-and-verbal-memory-demands
#20
Samantha L Epling, Megan J Blakely, Paul N Russell, William S Helton
Research continues to provide evidence that people are poor multi-taskers. Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for the inability to efficiently perform multiple tasks at the same time. This theory proposes that one's limited supply of cognitive resources can be utilized faster than it is replenished, which results in a performance decline, particularly when these limited resources must be allocated among multiple tasks. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example, spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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