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"History of evolution"

Hossein AnvariFar, Abdolsamad Keramat Amirkolaie, Hamed Kolangi Miandare, Hossein Ouraji, M Ali Jalali, Sema İşisağ Üçüncü
Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical component in maintaining homeostasis and growth in all tissues and plays a significant role in immunity and cytotoxicity. In contrast to necrosis or traumatic cell death, apoptosis is a well-controlled and vital process characterized mainly by cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. Our understanding of apoptosis is partly based on observations in invertebrates but mainly in mammals. Despite the great advantages of fish models in studying vertebrate development and diseases and the tremendous interest observed in recent years, reports on apoptosis in fish are still limited...
December 29, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Yabing Shan, Yiqun Liu, Li Yang, Honggang Nie, Sensen Shen, Chunxia Dong, Yu Bai, Qing Sun, Jindong Zhao, Huwei Liu
Glycerolipid is a main component of membranes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Up to now, the majority of publication in this area has focused on the physiological functions of glycerolipids and lipoprotein complexes in photosynthesis, but the study on the separation and identification of glycerolipids in thylakoid membrane in cyanobacteria is relatively rare. Here we report a new method to separate and identify five photosynthetic glycerolipid classes, including monoglucosyl diacylglycerol, monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, digalactosyl diacylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol, in cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp...
October 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Mario Mitkov, Marie Chrest, Nancy N Diehl, Michael G Heckman, Megha Tollefson, Anokhi Jambusaria-Pahlajani
BACKGROUND: Childhood melanoma can be misdiagnosed because of its rarity and atypical presentation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to correlate the clinical appearance of pediatric melanomas with Breslow depth and clinical behavior, and to identify diagnostic errors made by dermatologists and nondermatologist physicians. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of Mayo Clinic records of children and young adults 21 years of age or younger with a diagnosis of primary cutaneous melanoma between January 2000 and January 2015...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Paul M Oliver, Stephen J Richards, Mumpuni, Herbert Rösler
The diverse biota of New Guinea includes many nominally widespread species that actually comprise multiple deeply divergent lineages with more localised histories of evolution. Here we investigate the systematics of the very large geckos of the Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae complex using molecular and morphological data. These data reveal two widespread and divergent lineages that can be distinguished from each other, and from type material of Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae, by aspects of size, build, coloration and male scalation...
2016: ZooKeys
Swapnil Gupta, Mohini Ranganathan, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are amongst the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. There is an urgent need to develop methods to identify individuals at risk with greater precision and as early as possible. At present, a prerequisite for a diagnosis of schizophrenia is the occurrence of a psychotic episode. Therefore, attempting to detect schizophrenia on the basis of psychosis is analogous to diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction (MI). The introduction of cardiac stress testing (CST) has revolutionized the detection of CAD and the prevention and management of angina and MI...
January 2016: Psychopharmacology
Tam Hunt
Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution-both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place-has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology...
December 2014: Communicative & Integrative Biology
S D Trotsenko, V M Sotnikov, G A Pan'shin, V D Chkhikvadze
The review considers the history of evolution and the present state of the problem of postoperative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The randomized trials and meta-analyses given in recent publications provide evidence that it should be used in radically operated patients with morphologically verified regional metastases. The paper also shows promises of hypofractionation and a postoperative radiation/chemotherapy ratio for non-small cell lung cancer.
March 2015: Vestnik Rentgenologii i Radiologii
Byoung-Il Bae, Divya Jayaraman, Christopher A Walsh
The development and function of our brain are governed by a genetic blueprint, which reflects dynamic changes over the history of evolution. Recent progress in genetics and genomics, facilitated by next-generation sequencing and single-cell sorting, has identified numerous genomic loci that are associated with a neuroanatomical or neurobehavioral phenotype. Here, we review some of the genetic changes in both protein-coding and noncoding regions that affect brain development and evolution, as well as recent progress in brain transcriptomics...
February 23, 2015: Developmental Cell
Alena Kodádková, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Astrid S Holzer, Ivan Fiala
Myxosporea (Myxozoa), a group of parasitic Cnidaria, use mostly bony fishes (Teleostei) as intermediate hosts; however, they can also parasitize other vertebrates such as cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Molecular data of myxosporeans from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii) revealed these parasites to be one of the most basal representatives in the myxosporean phylogenetic tree, suggesting their ancient evolutionary history. A new myxosporean species, Bipteria vetusta n. sp., was found in the gall bladder of rabbit fish, Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes), and ssrDNA-based phylogeny revealed its basal position within the marine myxosporean lineage...
March 2015: International Journal for Parasitology
Leo Joseph, Árpád S Nyári, Michael J Andersen
The Golden Whistler (Aves: Passeriformes: Pachycephalidae) Pachycephala pectoralis sensu lato has long played a key role in the development of the theory of allopatric speciation (Mayr 1932a, b; Mayr 1942; Galbraith 1956). The P. pectoralis species complex formerly comprised 60-70 nominal subspecies and so had a distribution spanning the Indo-Pacific (Boles 2007). More recent taxonomic treatments consider the complex as multiple species-level taxa largely circumscribed by geography (Dickinson and Christidis 2014; Gill and Donsker 2014)...
2014: Zootaxa
Kumar Batuk Joshi
Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes...
December 2014: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis
This paper attempts a critical examination of scholarly understanding of the historical event referred to as "the Darwinian Revolution." In particular, it concentrates on some of the major scholarly works that have appeared since the publication in 1979 of Michael Ruse's The Darwinian Revolution: Nature Red in Tooth and Claw. The paper closes by arguing that fruitful critical perspectives on what counts as this event can be gained by locating it in a range of historiographic and disciplinary contexts that include the emergence of the discipline of evolutionary biology (following the "evolutionary synthesis"), the 1959 Darwin centenary, and the maturation of the discipline of the history of science...
2005: Journal of the History of Biology
Colin Raeside, Joël Gaffé, Daniel E Deatherage, Olivier Tenaillon, Adam M Briska, Ryan N Ptashkin, Stéphane Cruveiller, Claudine Médigue, Richard E Lenski, Jeffrey E Barrick, Dominique Schneider
UNLABELLED: Large-scale rearrangements may be important in evolution because they can alter chromosome organization and gene expression in ways not possible through point mutations. In a long-term evolution experiment, twelve Escherichia coli populations have been propagated in a glucose-limited environment for over 25 years. We used whole-genome mapping (optical mapping) combined with genome sequencing and PCR analysis to identify the large-scale chromosomal rearrangements in clones from each population after 40,000 generations...
2014: MBio
Md Anowar Hossain, Hairul Azman Roslan
beta-D-N-Acetylhexosaminidase, a family 20 glycosyl hydrolase, catalyzes the removal of β-1,4-linked N-acetylhexosamine residues from oligosaccharides and their conjugates. We constructed phylogenetic tree of β-hexosaminidases to analyze the evolutionary history and predicted functions of plant hexosaminidases. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the complex history of evolution of plant β-hexosaminidase that can be described by gene duplication events. The 3D structure of tomato β-hexosaminidase (β-Hex-Sl) was predicted by homology modeling using 1now as a template...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Jian-Bo Xie, Zhenglin Du, Lanqing Bai, Changfu Tian, Yunzhi Zhang, Jiu-Yan Xie, Tianshu Wang, Xiaomeng Liu, Xi Chen, Qi Cheng, Sanfeng Chen, Jilun Li
We provide here a comparative genome analysis of 31 strains within the genus Paenibacillus including 11 new genomic sequences of N2-fixing strains. The heterogeneity of the 31 genomes (15 N2-fixing and 16 non-N2-fixing Paenibacillus strains) was reflected in the large size of the shell genome, which makes up approximately 65.2% of the genes in pan genome. Large numbers of transposable elements might be related to the heterogeneity. We discovered that a minimal and compact nif cluster comprising nine genes nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV encoding Mo-nitrogenase is conserved in the 15 N2-fixing strains...
March 2014: PLoS Genetics
H Rogier van Doorn
The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics...
January 2014: Medicine (Abingdon, UK Edition)
Saurav Sarkar
The history of myringoplasty and tympanoplasty is one of the most interesting in the history of ear surgery. The aims and ambitions of otologists have evolved along with time and experience. The objective of this article is to give an idea about the evolution of tympanoplasty, thus giving inspiration to future surgeons in their quest for a perfect technique which would be as good as a normal ear and its hearing. The history of otology starts from the early Egyptian healers. Hippocrates in his time observed that ear infections may be cause of death especially in young children...
December 2013: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Manfred Weidmann, Stefan Frey, Caio C M Freire, Sandra Essbauer, Daniel Růžek, Boris Klempa, Dana Zubrikova, Maria Vögerl, Martin Pfeffer, Frank T Hufert, Paolo M Zanotto, Gerhard Dobler
In order to obtain a better understanding of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strain movements in central Europe the E gene sequences of 102 TBEV strains collected from 1953 to 2011 at 38 sites in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Germany were determined. Bayesian analysis suggests a 350-year history of evolution and spread in central Europe of two main lineages, A and B. In contrast to the east to west spread at the Eurasian continent level, local central European spreading patterns suggest historic west to east spread followed by more recent east to west spread...
September 2013: Journal of General Virology
Fang-Kui Wang, Amel Latifi, Wen-Li Chen, Cheng-Cai Zhang
Inositol monophosphatase (IMPase; EC acts at the last step in the inositol biosynthesis pathway by hydrolysing inositol-1-phosphate into inositol. In this study, an IMPase encoding gene, all2917 from Anabaena sp. PCC7120, was characterized. We found that All2917 exhibits a specific activity on inositol-1-phosphate, in a typical Mg(2+) -dependent, Li(+) -sensitive manner. The deletion of all2917 in Anabaena made the cells more sensitive to osmotic stress caused by sucrose or sorbitol, while its overexpression led to an increased resistance to such stress...
December 2012: Environmental Microbiology Reports
P Anoop
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has witnessed many changes and updates over the past decade. The definitions of disease subtypes, course and response to treatment have all been standardized recently. Consequent to the lack of an international consensus management guideline, wide variations exist in treatment practice. This is now being addressed to an extent by the much awaited ITP International Working Group 2010 recommendations. The pathophysiologic mechanisms have been unfolded at cellular, molecular and humoral levels...
October 2012: Indian Pediatrics
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