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"Evolutionary history"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087774/the-origin-of-mitochondrial-cristae-from-alphaproteobacteria
#1
Sergio A Muñoz-Gómez, Jeremy G Wideman, Andrew J Roger, Claudio H Slamovits
Mitochondria are the respiratory organelles of eukaryotes and their evolutionary history is deeply intertwined with that of eukaryotes. The compartmentalization of respiration in mitochondria occurs within cristae, whose evolutionary origin has remained unclear. Recent discoveries, however, have revived the old notion that mitochondrial cristae could have had a pre-endosymbiotic origin. Mitochondrial cristae are likely homologous to the intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) used by diverse alphaproteobacteria for harnessing energy...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087768/the-rice-paradox-multiple-origins-but-single-domestication-in-asian-rice
#2
Jae Young Choi, Adrian E Platts, Dorian Q Fuller, Yue-Ie Hsing, Rod A Wing, Michael D Purugganan
The origin of domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) has been a contentious topic, with conflicting evidence for either single or multiple domestication of this key crop species. We examined the evolutionary history of domesticated rice by analyzing de novo assembled genomes from domesticated rice and its wild progenitors. Our results indicate multiple origins, where each domesticated rice subpopulation (japonica, indica, and aus) arose separately from progenitor O. rufipogon and/or O. nivara Coalescence-based modeling of demographic parameters estimate that the first domesticated rice population to split off from O...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087686/amoebozoans-are-secretly-but-ancestrally-sexual-evidence-for-sex-genes-and-potential-novel-crossover-pathways-in-diverse-groups-of-amoebae
#3
Yonas I Tekle, Fiona C Wood, Laura A Katz, Mario A Cerón-Romero, Lydia A Gorfu
Sex is beneficial in eukaryotes as it can increase genetic diversity, reshuffle their genomes, and purge deleterious mutations. Yet, its evolution remains a mystery. The eukaryotic clade supergroup Amoebozoa encompasses diverse lineages of polymorphic amoeboid forms, including both free-living and parasitic lineages. The group is generally believed to be asexual, though recent studies show that some of its members are implicated in cryptic forms of sexual cycles. In this study we conduct a comprehensive inventory and analysis of genes involved in meiosis and related processes, in order to investigate the evolutionary history of sex in the clade...
January 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086860/nicotiana-attenuata-data-hub-nadh-an-integrative-platform-for-exploring-genomic-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-in-wild-tobacco
#4
Thomas Brockmöller, Zhihao Ling, Dapeng Li, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata (coyote tobacco) is an ecological model for studying plant-environment interactions and plant gene function under real-world conditions. During the last decade, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data have been generated with this plant which has provided new insights into how native plants interact with herbivores, pollinators and microbes. However, an integrative and open access platform that allows for the efficient mining of these -omics data remained unavailable until now...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081503/in-silico-identification-of-alternative-oxidase-2-aox2-in-monocots-a-new-evolutionary-scenario
#5
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Beatriz de Sousa E Lima, Anthônio Nunes Moreira Netto, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
We identified AOX2 genes in monocot species from Lemnoideae (Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata), Pothoideae (Anthurium andraeanum and Anthurium amnicola) and Monsteroideae (Epipremnum aureum) subfamilies within the Araceae, an early-diverging monocot family. These findings highlight the presence of AOX2 in the most ancient monocot ancestor and also that at least partial loss of this gene occurred during speciation events within several monocot orders. The presence of AOX2 in monocot species challenges (1) new understanding of the evolutionary history of the AOX gene family in angiosperms and (2) drives experimental and bioinformatics efforts to explore functional relevance of the two AOX gene family members for plant growth and development...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080989/overview-of-chytrid-emergence-and-impacts-on-amphibians
#6
REVIEW
Karen R Lips
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians that affects over 700 species on all continents where amphibians occur. The amphibian-chytridiomycosis system is complex, and the response of any amphibian species to chytrid depends on many aspects of the ecology and evolutionary history of the amphibian, the genotype and phenotype of the fungus, and how the biological and physical environment can mediate that interaction. Impacts of chytridiomycosis on amphibians are varied; some species have been driven extinct, populations of others have declined severely, whereas still others have not obviously declined...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080981/phenotypic-interactions-between-tree-hosts-and-invasive-forest-pathogens-in-the-light-of-globalization-and-climate-change
#7
REVIEW
Jan Stenlid, Jonàs Oliva
Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host-pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host-tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078104/discovery-of-flavivirus-derived-endogenous-viral-elements-in-anopheles-mosquito-genomes-supports-the-existence-of-anopheles-associated-insect-specific-flaviviruses
#8
Sebastian Lequime, Louis Lambrechts
The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077688/pattern-process-inference-and-prediction-in-extinction-biology
#9
Barry W Brook, John Alroy
Extinction is a key feature of the evolutionary history of life, and assessments of extinction risk are essential for the effective protection of biodiversity. The goal in assembling this special issue of Biology Letters was to highlight problems and questions at the research frontier of extinction biology, with an emphasis on recent developments in the methodology of inferring the patterns and processes of extinction from a background of often noisy and sparse data. In selecting topics, we sought to illustrate how extinction is not simply a self-evident phenomenon, but the subject of a dynamic and quantitatively rigorous field of natural science, with practical applications to conservation...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075073/resolving-the-relationships-of-paleocene-placental-mammals
#10
Thomas J D Halliday, Paul Upchurch, Anjali Goswami
The 'Age of Mammals' began in the Paleocene epoch, the 10 million year interval immediately following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene mass extinction. The apparently rapid shift in mammalian ecomorphs from small, largely insectivorous forms to many small-to-large-bodied, diverse taxa has driven a hypothesis that the end-Cretaceous heralded an adaptive radiation in placental mammal evolution. However, the affinities of most Paleocene mammals have remained unresolved, despite significant advances in understanding the relationships of the extant orders, hindering efforts to reconstruct robustly the origin and early evolution of placental mammals...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073527/new-scenario-for-speciation-in-the-benthic-dinoflagellate-genus-coolia-dinophyceae
#11
Chui Pin Leaw, Toh Hii Tan, Hong Chang Lim, Sing Tung Teng, Hwa Lin Yong, Kirsty F Smith, Lesley Rhodes, Matthias Wolf, William C Holland, Mark W Vandersea, R Wayne Litaker, Patricia A Tester, Haifeng Gu, Gires Usup, Po Teen Lim
In this study, inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity within the marine harmful dinoflagellate genus Coolia Meunier was evaluated using isolates obtained from the tropics to subtropics in both Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. The aim was to assess the phylogeographic history of the genus and to clarify the validity of established species including Coolia malayensis. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D2 LSU rDNA sequences identified six major lineages (L1-L6) corresponding to the morphospecies Coolia malayensis (L1), C...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070614/outgroup-alignment-and-modelling-improvements-indicate-that-two-tnfsf13-like-genes-existed-in-the-vertebrate-ancestor
#12
Anthony K Redmond, Rita Pettinello, Helen Dooley
The molecular machinery required for lymphocyte development and differentiation appears to have emerged concomitantly with distinct B- and T-like lymphocyte subsets in the ancestor of all vertebrates. The TNFSF superfamily (TNFSF) members BAFF (TNFSF13/Blys) and APRIL (TNFSF13) are key regulators of B cell development survival, and activation in mammals, but the temporal emergence of these molecules, and their precise relationship to the newly identified TNFSF gene BALM (BAFF and APRIL-like molecule), have not yet been elucidated...
January 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070297/phylogeographic-patterns-of-a-lower-intertidal-isopod-in-the-gulf-of-california-and-the-caribbean-and-comparison-with-other-intertidal-isopods
#13
Luis A Hurtado, Mariana Mateos, Shuang Liu
A growing body of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of intertidal isopods across different regions worldwide has enhanced our understanding on biological diversification at the poorly studied, yet vast, sea-land interface. High genetic divergences among numerous allopatric lineages have been identified within presumed single broadly distributed species. Excirolana mayana is an intertidal isopod that is commonly found in sandy beaches throughout the Gulf of California. Its distribution in the Pacific extends from this basin to Colombia and in the Atlantic from Florida to Venezuela...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070289/is-xenodontine-snake-reproduction-shaped-by-ancestry-more-than-by-ecology
#14
Gisela P Bellini, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro R Giraudo
One of the current challenges of evolutionary ecology is to understand the effects of phylogenetic history (PH) and/or ecological factors (EF) on the life-history traits of the species. Here, the effects of environment and phylogeny are tested for the first time on the reproductive biology of South American xenodontine snakes. We studied 60% of the tribes of this endemic and most representative clade in a temperate region of South America. A comparative method (canonical phylogenetic ordination-CPO) was used to find the relative contributions of EF and PH upon life-history aspects of snakes, comparing the reproductive mode, mean fecundity, reproductive potential, and frequency of nearly 1,000 specimens...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070287/mountains-too-high-and-valleys-too-deep-drive-population-structuring-and-demographics-in-a-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-frog-nanorana-pleskei-dicroglossidae
#15
Weiwei Zhou, Jieqiong Jin, Jun Wu, Hongman Chen, Junxiao Yang, Robert W Murphy, Jing Che
Pleistocene glacial-interglacial climatic oscillations greatly shaped the current genetic structure of many species. However, geographic features may influence the impact of climatic cycling. Distinct geographic and environmental characters between northern and southern parts of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (EQTP) facilitate explorations into the impacts of geographic features on species. The northern parts of EQTP contain large areas of marsh, and the environment is rather homogeneous. In contrast, the southern EQTP harbors complex alpine valleys and a much more heterogeneous setting...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069633/population-level-genetic-variation-and-climate-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#16
REVIEW
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069534/genetic-spatial-structure-of-an-anchialine-cave-annelid-indicates-connectivity-within-but-not-between-islands-of-the-great-bahama-bank
#17
Brett C Gonzalez, Alejandro Martínez, Elizabeth Borda, Thomas M Iliffe, Diego Fontaneto, Katrine Worsaae
Land-locked anchialine blue holes are karstic sinkholes and caves with tidally influenced, vertically stratified water bodies that harbor endemic fauna exhibiting variable troglomorphic features. These habitats represent island-like systems, which can serve to elucidate evolutionary and biogeographic processes at local scales. We investigated whether the 'continuous spelean corridor' hypothesis may elucidate the biogeographical distributions of the stygobitic annelid Pelagomacellicephala iliffei (Polynoidae) collected from the Great Bahama and Caicos Banks of the Bahamas Archipelago...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068920/comparative-transcriptomics-provide-insight-into-the-morphogenesis-and-evolution-of-fistular-leaves-in-allium
#18
Siyuan Zhu, Shouwei Tang, Zhijian Tan, Yongting Yu, Qiuzhong Dai, Touming Liu
BACKGROUND: Fistular leaves frequently appear in Allium species, and previous developmental studies have proposed that the process of fistular leaf formation involves programmed cell death. However, molecular evidence for the role of programmed cell death in the formation of fistular leaf cavities has yet to be reported. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized the leaf transcriptomes of nine Allium species, including six fistular- and three solid-leaved species...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068650/evolution-of-gyrification-in-carnivores
#19
George A Lyras, Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, Miranda Kouvari, Georgios C Papadopoulos
The order Carnivora is a large and highly diverse mammalian group with a long and well-documented evolutionary history. Nevertheless, our knowledge on the degree of cortical folding (or degree of gyrification) is limited to just a few species. Here we investigate the degree of cortical folding in 64 contemporary and 37 fossil carnivore species. We do so by measuring the length of gyri impressions on endocranial casts. We use this approach because we have found that there is a very good correlation between the degree of cortical folding and the relative length of the gyri that are exposed on the outer surface of the hemispheres...
January 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068336/correction-phylosymbiosis-relationships-and-functional-effects-of-microbial-communities-across-host-evolutionary-history
#20
Andrew W Brooks, Kevin D Kohl, Robert M Brucker, Edward J van Opstal, Seth R Bordenstein
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2000225.].
January 2017: PLoS Biology
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