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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052275/effectiveness-of-current-policing-related-mental-health-interventions-a-systematic-review
#1
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh
BACKGROUND: There are three commonly used mental health interventions associated with policing: liaison and diversion, street triage and having specialist staff embedded in police contact control rooms. Crisis intervention teams (CITs), already used in the USA, are now attracting wider interest, including in the UK. Investment in these interventions is growing, so it is important to have evidence of their effectiveness. AIM: To conduct a systematic literature review to answer questions about effectiveness of police-mental health service models for responding to people with mental disorder and suspected offending or public safety problems...
October 19, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046126/co-occurrence-of-ochratoxin-a-and-citrinin-in-unprocessed-cereals-established-during-a-three-year-investigation-period
#2
Jelka Pleadin, Manuela Zadravec, Tina Lešić, Nada Vahčić, Jadranka Frece, Mario Mitak, Ksenija Markov
The aim of this study was to investigate ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) co-occurrence in different unprocessed cereals (n=189) originating from Croatia during a three-year investigation period (2014-2016) using validated enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) methods. CIT and OTA were determined in 49% and 7% of samples, respectively. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) overall mean concentrations were determined for CIT (66.8 ± 76.0 µg/kg) in comparison to OTA (5.2 ± 1.1 µg/kg). Based on the analysis of all investigated cereals, CIT was found about 15 times more frequently than OTA and in similarly (15-fold) higher concentrations, irrespective of the cultivation year...
October 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038492/correlation-of-plasma-egf-with-striatal-dopamine-transporter-availability-in-healthy-subjects
#3
Kyoungjune Pak, Seunghyeon Shin, So Jung Kim, Keunyoung Kim, Bum Soo Kim, Seong Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
We aimed to evaluate the association between plasma epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the availability of dopamine transporter (DAT) measured from (123)I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography in healthy controls in this study. Volume of interest template was applied to measure specific binding ratios (SBRs) of caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum representing DAT availability as follows; SBR = (target- cerebellum)/cerebellum. Plasma EGF was negatively correlated with the availabilities of both caudate nucleus (r = -0...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037389/lower-critical-temperature-and-cold-induced-thermogenesis-of-lean-and-overweight-humans-are-inversely-related-to-body-mass-and-basal-metabolic-rate
#4
Kimberly J Nahon, Mariëtte R Boon, Fleur Doornink, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira
It is colloquially stated that body size plays a role in the human response to cold, but the magnitude and details of this interaction are unclear. To explore the inherent influence of body size on cold-exposed metabolism, we investigated the relation between body composition and resting metabolic rate in humans at thermoneutrality and during cooling within the nonshivering thermogenesis range. Body composition and resting energy expenditure were measured in 20 lean and 20 overweight men at thermoneutrality and during individualized cold exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037378/l-citrulline-acts-as-potential-hypothermic-agent-to-afford-thermotolerance-in-chicks
#5
Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Guofeng Han, Mohammad A Bahry, Phuong V Tran, Phong H Do, Hui Yang, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Recently we demonstrated that L-citrulline (L-Cit) causes hypothermia in chicks. However, the question of how L-Cit mediates hypothermia remained elusive. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine some possible factors in the process of L-Cit-mediated hypothermia and to confirm whether L-Cit can also afford thermotolerance in young chicks. Chicks were subjected to oral administration of L-Cit along with intraperitoneal injection of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME), to examine the involvement of NO in the process of hypothermia...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036999/-the-contamination-and-dietary-exposure-analysis-for-seven-mycotoxins-in-the-fifth-chinese-total-diet-study
#6
N N Qiu, B Lyu, S Zhou, Y F Zhao, Y N Wu
Objective: To investigate the contamination levels and dietary intakes of seven mycotoxins in Chinese diets. Methods: In Chinese Total Diet Study, food aggregation was based on the food consumption of local residents, thus generating the sampling scheme. According to the sampling scheme, the food items were sampled at three survey points in each province and then mixed in the same proportion. The mixed dietary samples were prepared after being cooked and processed. The samples comprised of 13 categories of food: cereals, beans, potatoes, meat, eggs, aquatic products, milk, vegetables, fruits, saccharides, beverages and drinking water, alcohol, and condiments...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030270/preliminary-data-on-citrinin-kinetics-in-humans-and-their-use-to-estimate-citrinin-exposure-based-on-biomarkers
#7
Gisela H Degen, Nurshad Ali, Ursula Gundert-Remy
Citrinin (CIT), a fungal metabolite causing nephrotoxicity, has a tolerable daily intake (TDI) value of 0.2μg/kg bw. Contamination of food with CIT is not sufficiently known to allow dietary exposure assessment. Urinary biomonitoring data are available from cohorts of several countries. However, kinetic information is lacking for CIT, hampering the use of urinary biomonitoring data to estimate the daily intake. We have investigated the kinetics of CIT after oral intake in two human volunteers on two occasions...
October 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993214/a-comprehensive-review-on-biological-properties-of-citrinin
#8
José Williams G de Oliveria Filho, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Eunus S Ali, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Jose Victor de Oliveira Santos, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Maria Dos Remédios Mendes de Brito, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Subrata Shaw, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura Dantas, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Magdalena D Pieczynska, Niranjan Das, Vijai K Gupta, Andrei Mocan, Teresinha de Jesus Aguiar Dos Santos Andrade, Brahma Nand Singh, Siddhartha K Mishra, Atanas G Atanasov, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin which causes contamination in the food and is associated with different toxic effects. A web search on CIT has been conducted covering the timespan since 1946. The accumulated data indicate that CIT is produced by several fungal strains belonging to Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascus genera, and is usually found together with another nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A. Although, it is evident that CIT exposure can exert toxic effects on the heart, liver, kidney, as well as reproductive system, the mechanism of CIT-induced toxicity remains largely elusive...
October 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992379/association-between-anti-citrullinated-fibrinogen-antibodies-and-coronary-artery-disease-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Boris P Hejblum, Jing Cui, Lauren J Lahey, Andrew Cagan, Jeffrey A Sparks, Jeremy Sokolove, Tianxi Cai, Katherine P Liao
OBJECTIVE: Antibodies against citrullinated fibrinogen (anti-cit-fibrinogen) have been implicated in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cardiovascular (CV) risk in RA. The objective of this study was to examine the association between anti-cit-fibrinogens and coronary artery disease (CAD) outcomes. METHODS: We performed the study in an RA cohort based in a large academic institution linked with electronic medical record data (EMR) containing data on CAD outcomes from medical record review...
October 9, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991698/pitx3-genotype-and-risk-of-dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-population-based-study
#10
David Bäckström, Magdalena Eriksson Domellöf, Gabriel Granåsen, Jan Linder, Sofia Mayans, Eva Elgh, Susanna Jakobson Mo, Lars Forsgren
Dementia is a devastating manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates whether a common polymorphism in the PITX3 gene (rs2281983), which is of importance for the function of dopaminergic neurons, affects the risk of developing dementia in PD and whether it affects dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake. We PITX3 genotyped 133 patients with new-onset, idiopathic PD, participating in a population-based study in Sweden. Patients were followed prospectively during 6-11years with extensive investigations, including neuropsychology and DAT-imaging with (123)I FP-CIT...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985260/validation-of-the-6-item-cognitive-impairment-test-and-the-4at-test-for-combined-delirium-and-dementia-screening-in-older-emergency-department-attendees
#11
Dawn O'Sullivan, Noeleen Brady, Edmund Manning, Emma O'Shea, Síle O'Grady, Niamh O 'Regan, Suzanne Timmons
Background: screening for cognitive impairment in Emergency Department (ED) requires short, reliable tools. Objective: to validate the 4AT and 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT) for ED dementia and delirium screening. Design: diagnostic accuracy study. Setting/subjects: attendees aged ≥70 years in a tertiary care hospital's ED. Methods: trained researchers assessed participants using the Standardised Mini Mental State Examination, Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 98 and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, informing ultimate expert diagnosis using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) criteria for dementia and delirium (reference standards)...
September 1, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983959/countywide-implementation-of-crisis-intervention-teams-multiple-methods-measures-and-sustained-outcomes
#12
Sheryl Kubiak, Erin Comartin, Edita Milanovic, Deborah Bybee, Elizabeth Tillander, Celeste Rabaut, Heidi Bisson, Lisa M Dunn, Michael J Bouchard, Todd Hill, Steven Schneider
The crisis intervention team (CIT) is a tool that can be used to foster pre-booking diversion of individuals with mental illness from the criminal justice system and into community treatment services. Although CIT is often implemented solely as the training of law enforcement officers, the model stipulates that CIT is a vehicle for collaboration with community stakeholders who share a similar philosophy, as well as expanded mental health services offering a 24 hour-seven days per week drop-off option for law enforcement officers...
October 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982695/use-and-outcomes-of-kidneys-from-donation-after-circulatory-death-donors-in-the-united-states
#13
John Gill, Caren Rose, Julie Lesage, Yayuk Joffres, Jagbir Gill, Kevin O'Connor
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are an important source of kidneys for transplantation, but DCD donor transplantation is less common in the United States than in other countries. In this study of national data obtained between 2008 and 2015, recovery of DCD kidneys varied substantially among the country's 58 donor service areas, and 25% of DCD kidneys were recovered in only four donor service areas. Overall, 20% of recovered DCD kidneys were discarded, varying from 3% to 33% among donor service areas...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976130/a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerance-and-outcomes-of-cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-in-patients-receiving-adjuvant-interferon-alpha-2b-a-community-oncology-perspective
#14
Muhammad Zubair Afzal, Vani Pinnamaneni, K C Birendra, Alan T Davis, Tracy J Koehler, Nehal Lakhani
INTRODUCTION: Interferon alpha 2B (IFN-α) therapy in malignant melanoma has improved relapse free survival and overall survival but is considerably toxic and lowers the overall quality of life (QoL) substantially. A significant number of patients do not complete the full duration (one year) of therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' ability to tolerate IFN-α therapy and to compare our results to reported data in the literature. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma who received IFN therapy after surgical resection...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972967/ex-vivo-metabolic-fingerprinting-identifies-biomarkers-predictive-of-prostate-cancer-recurrence-following-radical-prostatectomy
#15
Peder R Braadland, Guro Giskeødegård, Elise Sandsmark, Helena Bertilsson, Leslie R Euceda, Ailin F Hansen, Ingrid J Guldvik, Kirsten M Selnæs, Helene H Grytli, Betina Katz, Aud Svindland, Tone F Bathen, Lars M Eri, Ståle Nygård, Viktor Berge, Kristin A Taskén, May-Britt Tessem
BACKGROUND: Robust biomarkers that identify prostate cancer patients with high risk of recurrence will improve personalised cancer care. In this study, we investigated whether tissue metabolites detectable by high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS) were associated with recurrence following radical prostatectomy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective ex vivo study using HR-MAS MRS on tissue samples from 110 radical prostatectomy specimens obtained from three different Norwegian cohorts collected between 2002 and 2010...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972665/impact-of-machine-perfusion-after-long-static-cold-storage-on-delayed-graft-function-incidence-and-duration-and-time-to-hospital-discharge
#16
Ana Cristina Carvalho Matos, Lúcio Roberto Requiao Moura, Milton Borrelli, Mario Nogueira, Gabriela Clarizia, Paula Ongaro, Marcelino Souza Durao, Alvaro Pacheco-Silva
Delayed graft function (DGF) is very high in our center (70-80%), we usually receive a kidney for transplant after more than 22 hours of static cold ischemia time (CIT). Also, there is an inadequate care of the donors contributing to a high rate of delayed graft function (DGF). We decided to test whether machine perfusion (MP) after a cold ischemic time (CIT) improved the outcome of our transplant patients. We analyzed the incidence of DGF, its duration and the length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients who received a kidney preserved with MP after a CIT (Hybrid Perfusion - HP)...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971009/refining-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-with-deep-learning-based-interpretation-of-dopamine-transporter-imaging
#17
Hongyoon Choi, Seunggyun Ha, Hyung Jun Im, Sun Ha Paek, Dong Soo Lee
Dopaminergic degeneration is a pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), which can be assessed by dopamine transporter imaging such as FP-CIT SPECT. Until now, imaging has been routinely interpreted by human though it can show interobserver variability and result in inconsistent diagnosis. In this study, we developed a deep learning-based FP-CIT SPECT interpretation system to refine the imaging diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. This system trained by SPECT images of PD patients and normal controls shows high classification accuracy comparable with the experts' evaluation referring quantification results...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954074/insights-into-the-intracellular-mechanisms-of-citronellal-in-candida-albicans-implications-for-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-necrosis-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-dna-damage
#18
Venkata Saibabu, Shweta Singh, Moiz A Ansari, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
INTRODUCTION: Citronellal (Cit) possesses antifungal activity and has possible implications for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Candida albicans. In this study, the effects of Cit on ROS generation and the mechanisms by which Cit exerts anti-Candida effects were examined. METHODS: A 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay was used to assess oxidative damage. Cell necrosis was determined by flow cytometry after FITC-Annexin V staining. Mitochondrial function was studied based on mitochondrial potential, metabolic activity (MTT assay), and phenotypic susceptibility on a non-fermentable carbon source...
July 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945050/decreased-nitric-oxide-serum-level-after-pituitary-adenoma-resection
#19
Daniel Babula, Anna Horecka, Dorota Luchowska-Kocot, Joanna Kocot, Jacek Kurzepa
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by the conversion of Arginine (Arg) into the NO and Citrulline (Cit). Although the NO is involved into the pathogenesis of several physiological and pathological processes, the role of NO in pituitary adenomas (PA) progres-sion is not determined. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between NO and PA as well as the effect of tumor resection on NO metabolites level in serum. METHODS: The study group consisted of 21 patients with PA, 18 patients with macroade-nomas and 3 with microadenomas...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940638/does-l-citrulline-supplementation-improve-exercise-blood-flow-in-older-adults
#20
Joaquin U Gonzales, Andrea Raymond, John Ashley, Youngdeok Kim
What is the central question of this study? Does short-term supplementation with l-citrulline in order to increase l-arginine improve exercise blood flow and peripheral dilatation responses to exercise in older adults? What is the main finding and its importance? l-Citrulline increased femoral blood flow by 11% and vascular conductance by 14% during lower-limb exercise in older men, whereas no changes were observed in older women. This modest improvement in bulk muscle blood flow in older men has implications for altering muscle metabolism that may result in enhanced exercise tolerance in older adults...
September 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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