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Exercise Nutrition and Fat Reduction

A P Anishchenko, A N Arkhangel'skaya, D A Pustovalov, E V Rogoznaya, A L Urakov, K G Gurevich
AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between the physical inactivity and other behavioural risk factors of the development of chronic non- communicable diseases among the young persons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 216 1-2 grade students at the mean age of 18.8±1.3 years including 136 women and 80 men educated at A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State Medical Stomatological University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, were recruited for the examination...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Catalina Molina, Gabriela Cifuentes, Cristian Martínez, Rodrigo Mancilla, Erik Díaz
BACKGROUND: The search of efficient exercise alternatives to treat obesity is worthwhile. AIM: To demonstrate the effect of high intensity intermittent exercise on body fat reduction in overweight and obese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 65 overweight and obese adult subjects (25 men), aged 18-65 years, participated during 12 sessions in a high intensity physical exercise program, 3 days/week. Weight, height and body fat was measured before and after the intervention by bioimpedance...
October 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Elieke Demmer, Christopher J Cifelli, Jenny A Houchins, Victor L Fulgoni
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of increasing plant-based foods v. dairy foods on energy and nutrients of concern in adolescent females via diet modelling exercises. DESIGN: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to compare nutrient intakes from usual diet with those from three dietary scenarios that increased current intakes by 100 % of the following: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods; and (iii) milk, cheese and yoghurt...
November 10, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Tae-Young Kim, Min-Jeong Kim, Ik-Rae Cho, Yu-Mi Won, Mi-Kyung Han, Kon-Nym Jung, Sang-Ho Lee, Jae-Hee Lee, Ji-Hyoung Chin, Jae-Hun Roh, Seung-Hi Min, Taek-Kyun Lee, Hyo-Joo Park, Kwon Jang, Se-Jeong Kwon, Suh-Jung Kang, Mi-Ae Shin, Hu-Nyun Kim, Jae-Seung Hong, Eun-Hi Choi, Nam-Il An, Ji-Hyuk Kim, Mi-Suk Kim
[Purpose] This study was conducted to determine whether acute aerobic exercise (climbing) is associated with changes in the dietary intake pattern. [Subjects and Methods] Food intake and physical activity data for 15 female college students were sampled for 3 days and categorized according to routine activity or high-intensity activity such as hiking. Nutrient intake based on the data was analyzed using a nutrition program. [Results] Carbohydrate and protein intake was significantly decreased after exercise compared to before acute aerobic exercise, but lipid intake showed no significant difference...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
F Maillard, S Rousset, B Pereira, A Traore, P de Pradel Del Amaze, Y Boirie, M Duclos, N Boisseau
AIM: This study compared the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for 16 weeks on whole-body and abdominal fat mass (FM) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Seventeen women (69±1 years; BMI: 31±1kg.m(-2)) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT [60×(8s at 77-85% HRmax, 12s of active recovery)] or MICT (40min at 55-60% of their individual HRR) cycling program for 16 weeks, 2 days/week...
December 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
Hunkyung Kim, Miji Kim, Narumi Kojima, Ken Fujino, Erika Hosoi, Hisamine Kobayashi, Shinji Somekawa, Yoshifumi Niki, Yukari Yamashiro, Hideyo Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of exercise and/or nutritional supplementation on body composition, blood components, and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with sarcopenic obesity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Urban community in Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Among 1213 community-dwelling elderly women over 70 years of age, 307 were defined with sarcopenic obesity, and 139 women participated in the study...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Sergio Harari, Davide Elia, Olga Torre, Elisabetta Bulgheroni, Elena Provasi, Joel Moss
A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13...
August 2016: Chest
L Dos Santos, E S Cyrino, M Antunes, D A Santos, L B Sardinha
BACKGROUND: Resistance training (RT) has selective effects on body composition that may counteract the deleterious effects of aging. Changes in phase angle (PhA) may serve to monitor the influence of RT in older people. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of RT in training, detraining and retraining on body composition, including PhA in older women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-three older women (⩾60 years old) participated. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks for each stage (training, detraining and retraining)...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel A Baur, Fernanda de C S Vargas, Christopher W Bach, Jordan A Garvey, Michael J Ormsbee
While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS) before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1) a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G) 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h(-1)); (2) HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS); and (3) HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h(-1); Low HMS)...
June 25, 2016: Nutrients
Milena Morano, Irene Rutigliano, Alfonso Rago, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Angelo Campanozzi
OBJECTIVES: In the context of a 6-mo obesity program, incorporating school- and family-based components, nutritional education, fun-type skill-learning physical activities, and exercise training, this study examined relationships among changes in nutritional status, physical fitness, and some psychosocial and behavioral treatment-related outcomes, using a before and after comparison. METHODS: Eighteen obese and overweight children ages 10 to 12 y were assessed with respect to body weight, height, circumferences, skinfold thickness, and fat mass...
October 2016: Nutrition
Michelle Miller, Stephanie Zrim, Sharon Lawn, Richard Woodman, Stephanie Leggett, Lynnette Jones, Christos Karapetis, Ganessan Kichenadasse, Shawgi Sukumaran, Amitesh C Roy, Bogda Koczwara
Exercise and a healthy diet are beneficial after cancer, but are not uniformly adopted by cancer survivors. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a self-management-based nutrition and exercise intervention for Australian cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n  =  25) during curative chemotherapy (stratum 1[S1]; n  =  11) or post-treatment (stratum 2 [S2]; n  =  14) were recruited prospectively from a single center. The Flinders Living Well Self-Management Program™ (FLW Program) was utilized to establish patient-led nutrition and exercise goals and develop a tailored 12-wk intervention plan...
July 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Antonella LoMauro, Ambra Cesareo, Fiorenza Agosti, Gabriella Tringali, Desy Salvadego, Bruno Grassi, Alessandro Sartorio, Andrea Aliverti
The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Stuart M Phillips, Stéphanie Chevalier, Heather J Leidy
Substantial evidence supports the increased consumption of high-quality protein to achieve optimal health outcomes. A growing body of research indicates that protein intakes well above the current Recommended Dietary Allowance help to promote healthy aging, appetite regulation, weight management, and goals aligned with athletic performance. Higher protein intakes may help prevent age-related sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass, and strength that predisposes older adults to frailty, disability, and loss of autonomy...
May 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Maria Luisa Fonte, Mara De Amici, Matteo Vandoni, Michela Albanesi, Gloria Pelizzo
Weight loss surgery (WLS) is efficacious for long-term weight reduction and decreases overall mortality in severely obese patients. The mechanisms implicated in long-term weight loss are not fully understood. Proposed mechanisms include changes in gut hormones and brain regulation of appetite and satiety. We aimed to investigate the long-term ghrelin and leptin profiles and changes in food preference and eating behavior after WLS in adolescent patients. Two obese females aged 15 years and 14 4/12 years, who did not respond to lifestyle changes, including dietary intervention and physical exercise in combination with medical therapy, underwent robotic-assisted gastroplication...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Vivian L Carter, Norma L Dawkins, Barbara Howard
OBJECTIVES: African-Americans consume a diet high in fat, salt and sugar; such dietary habits increase the risks of cancer and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to engage rural communities in a nutrition and physical activity behavior modification program to promote cancer awareness and risk reduction. METHODS: Focus group discussions were conducted to generate information for the development of a nutrition and physical activity program. African Americans (N=62) from two rural counties (Bullock and Macon) in Alabama participated in a year-long intervention program in 2012 and 2013...
2015: Preventive Medicine Reports
Toshio Moritani, Yasunori Akamatsu
Bray has proposed the "MONA LISA" hypothesis, an acronym for Most Obesities kNown Are Low In Sympathetic Activity indicating that obesity is associated with a relative or absolute reduction in the activity of the thermogenic component of the sympathetic nervous system. Our series of studies have suggested a potential reversibility in ANS activity regulating fat metabolism and appetite control by regular exercise training in middle aged individuals and obese children with depressed ANS activity. In other words habitual exercise plays a vital role in enhancing not only fat and glucose metabolism, but also ANS activities in the prevention of obesity and appetite control...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Paulina Bustos, Jorge Orias, Katia Sáez, Marcela Maldonado, Liliana Cuadra, Sylvia Asenjo
BACKGROUND: Yale University's Bright Bodies Program consists on a lifestyle intervention, in areas such as nutrition and exercise, while focusing on behavior modification and family support. AIM: To evaluate the impact of the Program in Chilean children and adolescents with obesity who participated in the Program during 8 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The weight management Program was carried out during 8 months and consisted in weekly sessions directed by dietitians or psychologists and exercise sessions twice per week in charge of physical education teachers...
September 2015: Revista Médica de Chile
Wei Feng, Yan-Yan Jia, Dong-Ya Zhang, Hui-Rong Shi
In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safe usage of the oral contraceptive, Diane-35, in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) when combined with the drug metformin. Eighty-two patients with PCOS were randomly divided into two equal groups: Diane-35 treatment group and Diane-35 plus metformin group. Three treatment cycles were administered. Patients' biomedical data such as height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat percentage, acne score, hirsutism score and serum hormone levels were selected, which were tested between the second and the fifth day of the menstrual cycle and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin levels(IR) were analyzed...
2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
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